LEARNING OBJECTIVES Know types of X-Ray Technologies related to aviation safety and security. Explain how x-ray machine work. Identify equipments used to ensure aviation safety. Explain how the equipments function and work.
X-RAY TECHNOLOGY X-ray based technology Do not detect explosives Detect materials that have explosives-like characteristics. (Base on picture) High density is the characteristic for explosives-like materials.
EQUIPMENTS X-ray a) Single Energy b) Dual Energy c) Computed Tomography (CT Scan) d) Backscatter e) Fluoroscopy Metal Detector a) Hand held metal detector b) Pulse Induction (PI) System
Single Energy x-ray Description An x-ray beam of one energy is used. The image indicates the degree of absorption of the X-rays Advantage & Weakness Useful for bomb detection. Looking for wiring, fusing, and metal parts. Not provide enough information for explosives materials detection.
Dual Energy x-ray Description Use x-ray technology. Function likes an electromagnetic waves. More energetic than electromagnetic waves. Penetrate more than electromagnetic. Usually use for baggage and luggage checking Advantage & Weakness We can see the unseen image inside the luggage. Provide image of suspicious item. Only can be seen in 2-dimensional Image
The left image is of a commercially available dual-energy system. Right image is of a briefcase that has alarmed; the area of concern is marked with a red box.
Computed Tomography (CT Scan) Description An x-ray technique that produces 2-dimensional images. Provide 2-D images from every edges and angles of a bag. This data create 3-Dimensional image when we combine with the other 2-D images. Advantages Able to calculate the mass and density of individual objects in your bag based on this tomogram. If mass/density falls within the range of a dangerous material, the CT scanner warns the operator of a potential hazardous object.
Backscatter X-ray Description One of the latest technology implement to ensure safety. Alternative to personal searches at airport. Perform a security scan for passengers. Detects radiation comes back from the target. Only one side is available for examination
Backscatter X-ray Advantages & Weaknesses Produce 3-D image of people body. Can see any hiding object inside clothes or body. High energy and scatter instead of penetrate materials. Raises privacy concern. (Nude picture) Image of private part being blurred. Allow passenger to carry weapons by attaching them to private parts. Dangerous level of radiation.
Figure : Image from Backscatter x-ray
Fluroscopy X-ray imaging technique where transmitted radiation through an object is detected. A monitor can view a dynamic image or still images of the object. Fluoroscopic equipment is used typically as portable scanners for screening mail and small packages for explosive devices
Handheld Metal Detector Description Electronic gadgets used to distinguish any occurrence of metals. Use electromagnetic induction to detect metals. Main part of metal detector: a) Control Box (Speaker, batteries, microprocessor) b) Shaft c) Search coil Advantage & Disadvantage Light and not heavy. Efficient to use: a) Can be transported anywhere b) Simple to use. Consume lots of battery power.
Airport Metal Detector Description Use Pulse Induction (PI) System. Tall and boxy metal detectors are meant to be walked through. Use a coil of wire on one side of the arch as the transmitter and receiver. Process works something like echoes.
Advantage & Disadvantage Capable of identifying: Explosive materials Very sensitive to metal Can’t distinguish between a gun and metal buckle. Alarm signals for all types of metal. Airport Metal Detector