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World War I: The US Homefront IB History Americas Marusak.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I: The US Homefront IB History Americas Marusak."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I: The US Homefront IB History Americas Marusak

2 America at the Outbreak of War Isolationist Isolationist Woodrow Wilson elected in 1912 & 1916 Woodrow Wilson elected in 1912 & 1916 Americans thanked God for the ocean moats…and congratulated themselves having had ancestors wise enough to have abandoned the hell pits of Europe.

3 A Precarious Neutrality Wilson issues neutrality proclamation Wilson issues neutrality proclamation His wife, Ellen, had just died on Aug 6 th, 1914 His wife, Ellen, had just died on Aug 6 th, 1914 Wilson calls on Americans to be neutral in thought and deed Wilson calls on Americans to be neutral in thought and deed

4 America Wooed Britain Stronger cultural & linguistic ties Stronger economic ties Controlled most transatlantic cables Censors deleted negative stories of Allies but passed on all tales of German atrocities Germany US huge population of transplanted Germans & Austro-Hungarians Kaiser had a poor image Mustache like a villain Ruthless autocrat Germany seen as aggressor Helpless, innocent for Belgium German spy left documents on a NY elevated train Documents detailed industrial sabotage

5 US Population Statistics Central Powers/Allies CountryTotal Foreign Born or 2 nd generation in US (in millions) Central PowersGermany8.3 Central PowersAustria-Hungary2.7 Allied PowersGreat Britain (including Ireland)7.7 Allied PowersRussia2.8 Allied PowersItaly2.1 Allied PowersFrance & Others?

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7 The Business of War British & French war orders pull US out of recession British & French war orders pull US out of recession US bankers loan Allies money to purchase US goods US bankers loan Allies money to purchase US goods $2.3 billion $2.3 billion Germany complained but the trade was legal Germany complained but the trade was legal Germany could not trade because of British blockade Germany could not trade because of British blockade Britain controlled sea lanes Britain controlled sea lanes Britain blocked German ports Britain blocked German ports Britain forced US ships to go to British ports Britain forced US ships to go to British ports

8 Trade Between US & War Powers Belligerent1914191519161916 as % of 1914 Britain$594,271,863$911,794,954$1,526,685,102257% Germany$344,794,276$ 28,863,354$ 288,899 0.08% While trade with Britain > doubles from 1914 to 1916, trade with Germany becomes negligible

9 War on the Seas Germany announces submarine war area around Britain in Feb 1915 in response to blockade Germany announces submarine war area around Britain in Feb 1915 in response to blockade Unterseeboat, or U-Boat Unterseeboat, or U-Boat Under international law a warship is required to stop & board a commercial vessel to search Under international law a warship is required to stop & board a commercial vessel to search But subs could easily be sunk if they surfaced (shot or rammed) But subs could easily be sunk if they surfaced (shot or rammed) Few options except to sink or leave alone or leave alone US warns Germany US warns Germany it will be held accountable for attacks on US ships or citizens

10 German Submarine War Zone Declared February 1915

11 German U-boats go to Work 1st months sank ~90 ships in war zone World War I era U-9 U-boat

12 German Warning Printed in NY Newspapers

13 German U-Boat Damages May 7, 1915 Lusitania British ship 1200 drowned 128 Americans Ship carried war supplies manufactured in US 4,200 cases of small- arms bullets US swept by wave of shock at act of mass murder & piracy

14 US Response Wilson remains committed to neutrality Wilson remains committed to neutrality But sent a series of stern notes to Germany But sent a series of stern notes to Germany Strongly criticized Strongly criticized Deep division in US feelings towards war Deep division in US feelings towards war Sec of State Bryan resigned Sec of State Bryan resigned Felt Wilson was encouraging war Felt Wilson was encouraging war Ex-President Teddy Roosevelt said the pacifistic professor used weasel words Ex-President Teddy Roosevelt said the pacifistic professor used weasel words Strongly desired US to go to war Strongly desired US to go to war East Coast in favor (closer to Europe) East Coast in favor (closer to Europe) Rest of US against war Rest of US against war

15 US Response August 1915 Germans sink British ship Arabic August 1915 Germans sink British ship Arabic 2 US deaths 2 US deaths Wilson gets Germanys promise to not fire without warning first Wilson gets Germanys promise to not fire without warning first March 1916 French passenger ship Sussex torpedoed March 1916 French passenger ship Sussex torpedoed Wilson ultimatum: no passenger ships or US will sever relations Wilson ultimatum: no passenger ships or US will sever relations Germany agreed & unsteady neutrality remained for another year (until unconditional sub warfare declared) Germany agreed & unsteady neutrality remained for another year (until unconditional sub warfare declared) HMS Sussex 1916

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17 Election of 1916 Wilson is re-elected in November 1916 in close race (277 to 254) Defeats war hawk Charles Evans Hughes TR supported Evans Hughes Evans Hughes ran an ineffective campaign Wilson campaigned little on the theory: One should not try to murder a man who is committing suicide Slogan, he kept us out of war

18 Wilson Attempts Peace Peace without victory Speech given January 22, 1917 Beginning of 14 Points Germany announces they will begin unlimited submarine warfare Sink all ships, including US, in the war zone Wilson calls for arming US merchant ships Isolationists in Senate blocked measure US still not completely ready for war

19 Zimmerman Note Telegram From German Foreign Affairs Secretary Arthur Zimmerman To German ambassador to Mexico Intercepted by British Delivered to US government Printed in US newspapers If Mexico joins Germany in fighting the US Then, Mexico receives: TX, NM, & AZ Brings US closer to war

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21 Germany Ups the Ante Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare to resume February 1, 1917 Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare to resume February 1, 1917 Germany knew US would very likely now declare war Germany knew US would very likely now declare war Militarists believed it would take US 1 year to mobilize (correct) Militarists believed it would take US 1 year to mobilize (correct) Militarists believed they could defeat Britain / France in 6 months (incorrect) Militarists believed they could defeat Britain / France in 6 months (incorrect)

22 Germany Ups the Ante Germany sinks several more ships (military & commercial) Germany sinks several more ships (military & commercial) Feb 1917: Germans sank 540,000 tons of shipping Feb 1917: Germans sank 540,000 tons of shipping March 1917: 578,000 tons March 1917: 578,000 tons April 1917: 874,000 tons April 1917: 874,000 tons Many ships are US -- Many ships are US -- chipping away at American neutrality Philadelphia newspaper: Philadelphia newspaper: the difference between war and what we have now is that now we arent fighting back.

23 US Declares War News from Russia of revolution News from Russia of revolution Cruel regime of the tsars ended Cruel regime of the tsars ended US now fighting on side of democracy against despotism US now fighting on side of democracy against despotism Sub warfare + Zimmerman + Russian revolution = US entry into WWI Sub warfare + Zimmerman + Russian revolution = US entry into WWI April 6, 1917 April 6, 1917 US declares war US declares war

24 Wilson Selling the War Wilson had to sell the war to many who remained isolationist Wilson had to sell the war to many who remained isolationist He used idealism He used idealism Crusade Crusade to make the world safe for democracy to make the world safe for democracy a war to end war a war to end war peace without victory peace without victory US quickly converted to war mentality US quickly converted to war mentality Hang the Kaiser Hang the Kaiser

25 Wilson Issues 14 Points January 8, 1918 At this point Congress enthusiastic Inspired allies to make a greater effort Demoralized Central Powers by inspiring their dissatisfied minorities

26 Wilson Issues 14 Points Abolish secret treaties Freedom of seas Remove trade barriers Reduce arms Adjust colonial claims Self-determination League of Nations

27 US Psychological Effects of Declaring War for Allies Germans believe US will take 12 months to mobilize Basically correct Allies must hold out until help arrives British & French must continue to hold the line I am waiting for the Americans and the tanks - -French Marshall Philippe Petain

28 U-Boat Countermeasures Allies respond with U- Boat countermeasures Allies respond with U- Boat countermeasures Sonar, mine barges, depth charges, airplane recon, & convoy Sonar, mine barges, depth charges, airplane recon, & convoy Convoy--100 or more commercial ships escorted by military ships Convoy--100 or more commercial ships escorted by military ships End of 1917 U-boats lose effectiveness End of 1917 U-boats lose effectiveness

29 Manipulating Minds CPI formed Committee on Public Information Led by George Creel Basically large-scale propaganda 150,000 employees Including 75,000 4-minute men: patriotic speech- givers Posters, leaflets, pamphlets, movies, songs Lyrics to Over There Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there, That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming The drums rum-tumming evrywhere

30 Stifling Dissent German-Americans 8 million (8%) of Americans Overwhelmingly loyal Rumors Spying, sabotage, etc No: Beethoven or Wagner German language in schools Sauerkraut became liberty cabbage Hamburger became liberty steak

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35 Stifling Dissent Espionage Act 1917 Spying Sedition Act of 1918 Inciting rebellion 1,900 prosecutions Socialists Labor unions Eugene V. Debs Received ~1,000,000 votes for president in 1920 from prison Censorship

36 US Preps for War US army slowly grew to 100,000 men 15th in the world About the size of Persias US had resources but did not know how to tap them War Industries Board (WIB), 1917 Headed by Bernard Baruch Encouraged: Mass production, especially ships (from 1 to 10 million tons) Elimination of waste Standardization Established price controls

37 War & Industry Labor Will Win the War slogan Labor Will Win the War slogan work or fight work or fight Any unemployed male available for immediate draft Any unemployed male available for immediate draft National War Labor Board National War Labor Board Led by former President Taft Led by former President Taft Cooperation with unions Cooperation with unions 8 hour day 8 hour day Higher wages Higher wages

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39 War Production & Unions Most unions supported war Union membership doubled Some radical groups sabotaged industry Industrial Workers of the World, Wobblies or IWW Despite gains in wages, inflation ran high Strikes were numerous & often severe 1919, 250,000 workers went on strike in steel Steel companies replaced with African Americans Violence killed more than a dozen

40 War & African Americans Massive northern migration Ex-plantation slave descendants Extreme racial tensions Many northern cities were almost all-white Race riots Many deaths sparked by blacks at beaches or breaking strikes

41 The Great Migration From 1910 to 1930 ~4.1 million African-Americans moved out of the southern US 12 states largest net loss (red) and net gain (blue)

42 Women in Factories 1,000s enter factories to replace men who went to war Contribution convinced Wilson to support woman suffrage 19th amendment right to vote for women Passed in 1920 In reality after WWI most women went back to housewife role But Constitution allowed the vote & precedent had been set

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45 Forging the Economy Govt encouraged voluntary: Meatless Tuesdays Wheatless Wednesdays Heatless Mondays Lightless nights Victory Gardens Some items also rationed Canned meat, milk, vegetables Chocolate Alcohol production limited Many German owned Led to prohibition amendment in 1919

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50 Victory Loan Campaign Government promoted purchase of war bonds Netted $21 billion Citizens also pressured others, especially German-Americans to contribute House painted in yellow if no bonds One man signed for bond with a rope around his neck

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52 Canadian German

53 Selective Service Act Conscription or draft Conscription or draft Males 18-45 must register Males 18-45 must register 24 million men registered 24 million men registered Draft went smoothly Draft went smoothly No violence No violence Few dodgers Few dodgers Army #s: Army #s: 1916 130,000 1916 130,000 1918 4,000,000 1918 4,000,000 2 million to Europe 2 million to Europe Many with little training due to necessity Many with little training due to necessity

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55 Famous British Join the War Campaign Poster w/Lord Kitchener

56 Uncle Sam recruiting poster modeled after Lord Kitcheners poster Created 1917

57 Germany Irish France Encouraging US pilots to come to France to fight Germany (Flyboys)

58 US Troops to Europe Bolsheviks surrender to Germans German focuses on western front Massive assault reaches ~40 miles from Paris in spring 1918 American doughboys begin pouring in an inexhaustible flood of fresh and gleaming youth Late summer 1918 Germany on the defensive Germany never recovered

59 Leadership Allies accept Marshall Foch as supreme commander to make war is to attack US allowed separate army Attacking 85 mile front near Switzerland Led by General John J. Blackjack Pershing

60 Sergeant Alvin York US infantry Originally from anti- war sect Single-handedly killed 20 Germans & captured 132 more Made a movie (of course)

61 Victory It was the US reserves moreso than actual US military men fighting that discouraged Germany i.e., they knew what was coming Germans running out of supplies German allies fell apart Propaganda rained down Extolling Wilsonian peace Surrendered November 11, 1918

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