2 Landscape Architecture Landscape architecture combines environment and design, art and science. It is about everything outside the front door, both urban and rural, at the interface between people and natural systems. The range of ways in which landscape architects work is staggering.From master planning Olympic sites to planning and managing landscapes like national parks and areas of outstanding natural beauty to designing the public squares and parks that we all use, landscape architecture nurtures communities and homes and makes their environment human and livable.
16 Lessons covers the subject from soft landscape - plants and planting design, classification of gardens, hard landscape to its application to a private residence or small park .Lesson 5- Landscape DesignLesson 6-Lesson 7-Lesson8-Lesson 9-Lesson10
17 Lesson 8 General Features of Landscape Work Enclosures Paths and steps Water Supply , Fountain, Pools, swimming PoolsGarden StructuresRoof GardensStreet FurniturePlantingInternal PlantingSoil preparationLandscape Engineering Works
19 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design is an extension of site planning and, as we have seen, is involved in the site planning process. It is a very complicated process with many alternatives.( Show the Beato landscaping works of LA 2008 students)
20 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design is the solution of a series of problems defined in site planning:the circulation or movementthe surfacingthe location, andform of seating, the form and space for any purpose or multiple purposes.
21 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design is the solution of a series of problems defined in site planning:the circulation or movementthe surfacingthe location, andform of seating, the form and space for any purpose or multiple purposes.
22 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design is the giving of form to water and land and selection of materials
23 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design is depends on an understanding of materials, their technology and their maintenance
24 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design is a rational procedure that depends on an experience of life and social behavior. Successful design will express sympathy for the people who will use it, and it will express a feeling and understanding of use.
25 Landscape DesignFrom Michael LaurieLandscape design demands an imaginative ability to devise new and creative form out of the analysis of the problem and the determinants of form.
26 Landscape Design art and science From Dewayne L. IngramLandscaping combines elements ofart and scienceto create a functional, aesthetically pleasing extension of indoor living to the outdoors. One initial purpose of landscape design is to blend man's technology (house or building) into the natural surroundings. To work toward a desirable landscape design, the landscape horticulturist must have a working knowledge of art elements and design principles.
28 The Five Elements of Landscape Design The five elements of landscape design include:• Color – All surfaces have some inherent color which is perception of different light wavelengths. It is important to use a complementing color scheme throughout the yard.• Line - Linear patterns are used to direct physical movement and to draw attention to areas in your garden.• Form - Form can be expressed through trees and shrubs of various shapes and sizes which create natural patterns.
29 The Five Elements of Landscape Design The five elements of landscape design include:Motion – When a a three-dimensional form is moved, motion is perceived, bringing in the fourth dimension, time as a design element. Motion here however shoulder be considered in relation to the observer.• Texture - Plants with varying textures can add to the atmosphere of your outdoor area.• Scale - Your outdoor design should balance the size of the buildings it surrounds, while maintaining a comfortable environment for the individuals who will use the area.
30 Color variation can best be explained by use of a color wheel Color variation can best be explained by use of a color wheel . Primary colors are red, blue and yellow. Orange, green and violet are called secondary colors because they are combinations of two primary colors. For example, yellow and red are combined to yield orange. Tertiary colors are the fusion of one primary and one secondary color. These colors would be between primary and secondary colors.Complimentary, Analogous, Contrasting….
32 You can use color in a number of ways, including: • Attracting attention to prominent areas of your yard• Affecting the perception of distance. Colors that blend into the landscape, deep hues like black, green, and cool shades of blue, can make a home appear further away, while bright, warm colors make objects appear to be closer.• Creating mood and atmosphere throughout your outdoor space. Vibrant reds, oranges, and yellows convey excitement and are most appropriate in active areas of your landscape design. Cool shades, like blues and greens, are tranquil colors that work well in areas designed for relaxation.The colors incorporated into a landscape design can contrast for a striking statement or can blend softly into the environment to create a more relaxed atmosphere.Colorful patterns that gradually move through the color spectrum can make stunning displays for areas that should be accented.Color usage is an integral part of designing an enjoyable and attractive outdoor living area, just like the use of color affects the personality and style of your home’s interior.Considering the huge influence color has on mood and atmosphere, as well as the many different aspects involved in creating the right color scheme, this element of landscape design is often best managed by a professional landscape designer.
33 LineLine is related to eye movement or flow. The concept and creation of line depends upon the purpose of the design and existing patterns. In the overall landscape, line is inferred by bed arrangement and the way these beds fit or flow together Line is also created vertically by changes in plant height and the height of tree and shrub canopies. Line in a small area such as an entrance or privacy garden is created by branching habits of plants, arrangement of leaves and/or sequence of plant materials.
35 Line and linear flow can be created many different ways: • Straight lines, like paved edges or hedge rows, encourages movement and directs attention to a focal point. • Curves and natural linear patterns invite lingering and free movement. • Arrangements and design of planting beds and natural areas defines the overall linear style of the landscape. • Vertical lines of your outdoor design can be enhanced by altering the height of plants and trees. • Within small, enclosed spaces, like entryways, line is created by the patterns of leaves and branches on the surrounding plants.
36 FormForm and line are closely related. Line is considered usually in terms of the outline or edge of objects, whereas form is more encompassing. The concept of form is related also to the size of an object or area. Form can be discussed in terms of individual plant growth habits or as the planting arrangement in a landscape.Plant forms include upright, oval, columnar, spreading, broad spreading, weeping, etc. Form is basically the shape and structure of a plant or mass of plants. Structures also have form and should be considered as such when designing the area around them.
38 The shape and form of the trees and plants you select are also important elements of your landscape design. Trees may have an upright growth form that allows placement near structures.While spreading trees, like the magnificent pin oak, are best planted in an open location and are ideal shade providers. Weeping forms, like that of the weeping willow, are excellent accent shapes.Shrubbery forms are typically defined by the plant’s growth pattern. Oval or rounded shrubs are often planted in the front of the property to provide a uniform,, symmetrical appearance.
39 TextureTexture describes the surface quality of an object than can be seen or felt. Surfaces in the landscape includes buildings, walks, patios, groundcovers and plants. The texture of plants differs as the relationships between the leaves, twigs and branches differ. Coarse, medium or fine could be used to describe texture but so could smooth, rough, glossy or dull.
42 The look and feel of the plants and materials in your landscape design can be just as influential as the color schemes.Tree bark may be rough or smooth, grass may be thick or extremely fine, and plants may have smooth, glossy leaves or sharp, prickly leaves.The key to effective use of texture is creating a balance between various plant qualities in the yard.A large amount of smooth, fine materials should be used to balance coarse textured plants and trees.Remember to gradually move through similar textures in your design for a smooth transition into each new texture.
43 Scale refers to the size of an object or objects in relation to the surroundings. Size refers to definite measurements while scale describes the size relationship between adjacent objects. The size of plantings and buildings compared on the human scale must be considered
46 For a smooth, flowing appearance, materials and structures in your landscape design should be relative in size to the objects around them. Landscape designs typically use a universally known human scale to determine the appropriate size of plants and buildings.The elements of landscape design showcase the simplicity and artistic nature of beautifully landscaped yards.
47 Non Visual Elements of Design Sound-auditory perception. Having a profound effect on the way we experience space, sounds can loud or soft, natural or artificial, pleasant or noisy, and so on.Fragrance-olfactory perception. In landscape design the scent of flowers, leaves or needless most often stimulate our sense of smell, but a wide range of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions exist.Touch-Tactile and kinesthetic perception Through skin contact we receive a variety of sensations-hot and cold, smooth and rough, sharp and blunt, soft an hard, wet and dry, sticky, malleable and so on.
48 Form DevelopmentLogic / Geometric Forms as guiding themes The components , connections and relationships follow strict laws of order inherent within the mathematics of the various geometric shapes.
55 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNColor, line, form, texture and scale are tools which are used in combinations to adjust design principles. Design principles includeunity, balance, transition, focalization, proportion, rhythm, repetition and simplicity.All these principles interact to yield the intended design.
56 The science of landscaping can be found in the principles of design. Here, the elements of landscaping come together to develop a garden design that is not only attractive and inviting.It is also balanced, providing a unified appearance between the house and the outdoors.
57 The seven principles of landscape design include: • Unity - One of the basics of landscape design is creating a central theme to build your outdoor plan upon. A unified look is important to a beautiful landscape design.• Balance - The plants, walkways, and other features of your outdoor plan should be laid out in an asymmetrical design that complements the entire yard.• Transition - Changes in colors, plant styles, and accessories will blend better with planned transitions to slowly move into the new look.• Proportion - Plan a design that incorporates trees and shrubs that are relative to the size of the people and things around them.• Rhythm - The patterns created with colors and lines give the landscape design a natural rhythm that is relaxing and enjoyable.• Focalization - With the use of lines, form, and balance, you can develop a landscape design with specific focal points to draw interest and turn heads.• Repetition - Repetition of these patterns and rhythms, in just the right amount, gives your outdoor design the perfect look without being overpowering.
58 UnityUnity is obtained by the effective use of components in a design to express a main idea through consistent style. Unity is emphasized by consistency of character between units in the landscape. Use of elements to express a specific theme within units creates harmony. Unity can be achieved by using mass planting and repetition.Unity means that all parts of the composition or landscape go together; they fit. A natural feeling evolves when each activity area belongs to and blends with the entire landscape. Everything selected for a landscape must complement the central scheme and must, above all, serve some functional purpose.
59 Unity Unity, or a central, unified theme, is an important part of an outdoor design that blends with the entire property. Plan every part of your landscape design carefully to ensure consistency. Choose materials, plants, and accessories that complement the theme you have selected and avoid any items that do not add to the harmony of the design.
60 Balance in design refers to the equilibrium or equality of visual attraction. Symmetrical balance is achieved when one side of the design is a mirror image of the other side. There is a distinct dividing line between the two sides. Equal lines, forms, textures or colors are on each side of a symmetrical design.
62 Balance: Balance is the design principle that creates a layout that is visually pleasing. Your landscape plans should be built around a single center point and each side of this should balance the other side.
63 Asymmetrical balance uses different forms, colors and textures to obtain balance of visual attraction. These opposing compositions on either side of the central axis create equal attraction. For example, mass may be opposed by color or linear dimension by height.The landscape designer must skillfully manipulate the design elements to create asymmetrical balance. The central axis must be predetermined and then developed by the elements of art and other principles of design discussed in this publication.
64 There are three different ways to achieve balance: •Symmetrical balance duplicates the garden design on one side of a clearly defined central axis and repeats the exact same design on the opposite side. Each side of the design is a mirror image of the other with no variation in color, texture, or other elements.•Asymmetrical balance is less rigid with natural curves and more variety in the design. The center point may not be obvious and balance is achieved through mass and weight rather than color, texture, and plant types.•Radial balance works in a circular pattern from a center point to produce a balanced appearance. Sunflowers, wheels, and other round elements can produce radial balance.
65 Transition is gradual change Transition is gradual change. Transition in color can be illustrated by the radial sequence on the color wheel (monochromatic color scheme) previously discussed. Transition can be obtained by the arrangement of objects with varying textures, forms, or sizes in a logical sequential order. For example, coarse to medium to fine textures, round to oval to linear structural forms, or cylindrical to globular to prostrate plants. An unlimited number of schemes exist by combining elements of various size, form, texture and color to create transition . Remember, transition refers to the 3- dimensional perspective of composition, not just the flat or facial view.
68 Transition: One of the most important principles of landscape design to remember if you want to create a natural looking outdoor area is transition. Transition, or sequence, gradually changes patterns in the elements to assist in easy visual movement across the landscape. Transition is a logical sequence that introduces a change in style slowly rather than all at once. For example, use medium sized shrubs to transition tall trees to sprawling shrubs.
69 Proportion refers to the size of parts of the design in relation to each other and to the design as a whole. One large towering oak may compliment an office building but would probably dwarf a single story residence. A three-foot pool would be lost in a large open lawn but would fit beautifully into a small private area. And of course, a colossal fountain would dominate a private garden but could enhance a large city plaza.
71 Proportion: A well planned outdoor space is designed with function in mind. Closely related to the element of scale, proportion means carefully selecting materials that are appropriately sized for the landscape and its purpose. A small fish pond, for instance, would appear out of place and insignificant in a large, estate style landscape with grandiose structures but it would be ideal for a private landscape design in an average backyard.
72 Rhythm is achieved when the elements of a design create a feeling of motion which leads the viewer's eye through or even beyond the designed area. Tools like color schemes, line and form can be repeated to attain rhythm in landscape design. Rhythm reduces confusion in the design.
73 Rhythm: Rhythm gives a landscape design a feeling of natural movement through the use of natural elements and careful repetition. Groups of plants, as well as individual materials, can create rhythm within the environment by patterns of color, form, and other elements.
74 Focalization involves the leading of visual observation toward a feature by placement of this feature at the vanishing point between radial or approaching lines. Straight radial lines create a strong focalization when compared to curved lines. The viewer's eye is quickly forced along straight lines to a focal point. Generally, weaker or flowing lines of focalization are desirable in the residential landscape. Transition of plants or other objects along these lines can strengthen or weaken the focalization. Curved lines are stronger when curved toward each other than when curved outward. Indirect focalization is created by lines curved in the same direction. Focalization can be adjusted by plant materials along the lines to create symmetrical or asymmetrical focalization. Asymmetrical focalization is indirect while symmetrical focalization is more direct, creating stronger focalization.
76 Focalization: Perhaps the most important aspect of landscape design, creating and emphasizing a point of focalization sets the tone and arrangement for the rest of your outdoor area. A decorative fountain. magnificent sculpture, or even a simple garden with a relaxing sitting area could become the focal point of your yard design. All elements of the landscape should work to emphasize this area.
77 Repetition refers to the repeated use of features like plants with identical shape, line, form, texture and/or color. Too much repetition creates monotony but when used effectively can lead to rhythm, focalization or emphasis. Unity can be achieved better by no other means than repetition. Think of repetition as not having too much variety in the design which creates a cluttered or busy appearance.
78 Repetition: Careful repetition is an essential principle of landscape design. Too much repetition can destroy the atmosphere of an outdoor area by creating a dull appearance, but appropriate repetition of similar plants, colors, and textures bring a uniform, blended look to your landscape. Repetition can complete a garden design, tying all the parts and pieces of the plan together into a unified design that blends with your home.
79 Simplicity goes hand-in-hand with repetition and can be achieved by elimination of unnecessary detail. Too much variety or detail creates confusion of perception. Simplicity is the reduction of a design to its simplest, functional form, which avoids unnecessary cost and maintenance.
82 Project 1 Main Objectives To provide a comfortable environment for employees to relax outside during breaksTo allow space for occasional formal outdoor meetings and celebrationsTo provide an interesting aerial view from adjacent high-rise balconies and windowsTo Utilize the existing Tree of the old users
83 Structuring Themes Circular forms as the primary theme The organic edge as a secondary theme
84 Principles of Design-Dominance: Re circulating stream and pond as the major focal element-Scale: Human scale but large enough to accommodate larger groups of 20 and 30 people-Contrast: Circles contrast with the existing rectilinear wall-Interest: Variety of circle size and diversity of plant material- Unity: Simple repetition of circular forms for an overall cohesive image.-Harmony Planted buffer space to ease the visual transition between contrasting internal circular forms and external rectilinear walls. All paving meets walls and edges at 90 degree connection-Spatial characteristics A hierarchy of small, medium and large spaces for different uses. Mounded grassy circle for amphitheater effect. Sunken stepped area next to pond for maximum enclosure.
85 8.00To Building Interior20.006.003.0010.00Open SpaceNorth22.00
88 2 Basic Principles of Landscape Design1 Dewayne L. Ingram2 References2 Basic Principles of Landscape Design Dewayne L. Ingram2Footnotes1. This document is CIR536, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date June Reviewed October Visit the EDIS Web Site at2. Dewayne L. Ingram, former professor and extension horticulturalist, Environmental Horticulture Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FLThe Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension service. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean.Copyright InformationThis document is copyrighted by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) for the people of the State of Florida. UF/IFAS retains all rights under all conventions, but permits free reproduction by all agents and offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and the people of the State of Florida. Permission is granted to others to use these materials in part or in full for educational purposes, provided that full credit is given to the UF/IFAS, citing the publication, its source, and date of publication.
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