Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ENG 626 CORPUS APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE STUDIES language teaching (1) Bambang Kaswanti Purwo

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ENG 626 CORPUS APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE STUDIES language teaching (1) Bambang Kaswanti Purwo"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENG 626 CORPUS APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE STUDIES language teaching (1) Bambang Kaswanti Purwo

2 Hunston Ch. 5 application of corpora in language teaching ▪ production of dictionaries and grammars ▪ use of corpora in critical linguistics (the study of ideologies) ▪ in translation ▪ contribution of corpora to literary studies n stylistics ▪ use of corpora in forensic linguistics ▪ use of corpora in designing writer support packages dictionaries and grammars new emphases on ▪ frequency ▪ collocation and phraseology ▪ variation ▪ lexis in grammar ▪ authenticity

3 emphasis on frequency ▪ speaker intuition very little use ▪ important for dictionary users: which sense of a word to show first ▪ [corpus can show the diversity of use] – more detailed information about the words comparison of senses between ▪ Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 2 nd 1987 ▪ Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 3 rd 1995 ▪ Collins COBUILD English Dictionary 1995 » KNOW » MATTER » MAY » PLACE  dictionaries not divide info between senses in consistent ways

4 the increases number of senses – more info about the very frequent ones L 1987 matter ‘something wrong’ What’s the matter? L four more senses: asking about illness or state of being broken feelings statement there’s something that the matter with NEG statement there’s nothing the matter with L 1987 I know ‘uttered when someone gets a sudden idea’ What can we get her for her birthday? Oh I know, we’ll get her some flowers L two ‘given agreement’: I’m so worn out. Yeah, I know. ‘forestalling disagreement’ It sounds silly I know, but try it anyway. ‘prefacing a disagreement’ ‘showing sympathy n understanding’

5 frequency and grammar reference books Mindt (2000) four meanings of the present perfect (a) indefinite past (b) past continuing into present (c) recent past (d) a use indicating that an action is completed, though at an unspecified time (a) 80% of occurrence (b) second in rank (c) and (d) are rare in many course books: (b) and (c) prototypical

6 frequency can be linked to discourse ▪ the most frequent use of the in academic prose : at the beginning of complex noun phrases the disorientating effect of zero gravity ▪ the most frequent use of this and these in academic prose to refer back to ideas previously mentioned TELL and PROMISE most frequently used in: ▪ TELL “verb + indirect object + complement clause” You can’t tell her to get off. ▪ PROMISE “verb + complement clause” They promised to write. ▪ PROMISE frequent V intr. (I promise) ▪ TELL rarely (Time will tell)

7 ▪ very infrequent uses can legitimately be ignored Mindt (2000) reports 98% of verbs in the past tense refer to past time hypothetical future very rare  Hypothetical meaning unimportant to teach? It is important for learners to learn to express the hypothetical in some context (e.g. what if ___) ▪ students learning the past tense can safely ignore hypothetical future ▪ students learning to express hypotheticality cannot ignore hypothetical future

8

9 corpora  a new description of language  the content of what the lang T is teaching is changing what is language like? words tend to occur in preferred sequences ▪ not randomly or ▪ in accordance with grammatical rules only » collocation utterly different, not: utterly similar utterly ridiculous, not: utterly sensible » phrases n variation ▪ open to considerable creativity and exploitation where there’s smoke there’s fire no smoke without fire sometimes there is smoke without fire [Hunston Ch. 6] language as phraseology

10 » tendency for certain verbs to occur ▪ in passive rather than in active Manchester is hemmed in by industrial areas cf. industrial areas hem Manchester in ▪ in the negative rather than in the positive It never entered my head to be sacred cf. it entered my head to be sacred » occurrence of complementation patterns suggestion that, decision as to whether, obligation to do three important consequences – challenge to current views about language ▪ no distinction between pattern and meaning ▪ language: two principles of organization ▫ idiom principle ▫ open-choice principle

11 ▪ can phraseology indeed be taken to be the basis of what a learner needs to know? ▪ is phraseology simply an important adjunct to grammar? pattern and meaning ▪ a word [+ several senses], each sense diffrent set of patterns mobile [used of things] ‘can be moved’: mobile unit/library [used of people] ‘not prevented from moving by dis- ability or lack of resources’: I’m still very mobile MAINTAIN (verb) see Hunston p. 139 ▪ relation between meaning n pattern is not one-to-one ▫ not to treat MAINTAIN as a single word w/ three meanings (cf. traditional dictionaries) ▫ but to propose three phraseologies (each has its own meaning) ‘maintain something’ ‘maintain that something is true’ ‘maintain something at a level’

12  phraseologies replace the word as the unit of vocabulary teaching L’s task more difficult: three instead of one lexical item to learn L’s task simplified: each lexical item + info about its use other aspect of pattern/meaning association words with the same pattern tend to share aspects of meaning


Download ppt "ENG 626 CORPUS APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE STUDIES language teaching (1) Bambang Kaswanti Purwo"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google