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Pertemuan ke-5 Computer and Information Processing.

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1 Pertemuan ke-5 Computer and Information Processing

2 Learning Objectives Untuk memahami bagaimana data dan program direpresentasikan ke dalam komputer  Apakah Sistem Komputer itu? The CPU & Storage Input Output Devices Trend IT Menjelaskan tentang konsep komunikasi data dan sistem jaringan komputer

3 Digital Data Representation Computers today are mostly digital computers— devices that can only understand two states. The two states of a digital computer are typically represented by 0s and 1s. Natural-language messages are translated to the computer into binary form.


5 The Binary Numbering System The binary numbering system represents all numbers using just two symbols (0 and 1).

6 Coding Systems for Text-Based Data ASCII and EBCDIC Fixed-length codes that can represent any single character of data as a string of eight bits Unicode A 16-bit code that can be used to represent text- based data in virtually any written language

7 Byte Terminology Byte - a string of eight bits kilobytes (KB) thousands of bytes megabytes (MB) millions of bytes gigabytes (GB) billions of bytes terabytes (TB) trillions of bytes petabyte (PB) about 1 quadrillion bytes exabyte (EB) about 1 quintillion bytes

8 Parity Bit In fixed-length coding systems a parity bit is often automatically added at the end of each character to enable computer systems to check for transmission errors. In odd-parity systems, the parity bit makes the number of 1-bits in a byte to be an odd number; using even parity, the number of 1-bits is an even number.


10 Coding Systems for Other Types of Data Graphics data Audio data Video data

11 Machine Language Machine language is the binary-based code used to represent program instructions. The basic set of machine-language instructions that a CPU can understand is that CPU’s instruction set. Most programmers rely on language translators to translate their programs into machine language for them.

12 Inside the System Unit The system unit of a PC is the case that houses processing hardware and other hardware. All of the hardware contained within the system unit is connected to the system board or motherboard.


14 CPU The microprocessor (CPU chip) contains a variety of circuitry and components and is connected to the motherboard.

15 CPU, cont’d. Processing speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). A computer word is a group of bits or bytes that may be manipulated and stored as a unit. Other factors that affect the speed of the computer include RAM, cache memory, bus width, and bus speed.

16 Memori : ROM (Read Only Memory) Jenis memori yang hanya bisa dibaca (read only) oleh komputer. Keperluan utama ROM adalah untuk menempatkan program yang disebut BIOS (Basic Input Output System). BIOS adalah program yang mengendalikan komputer pertama kali sebelum dikendalikan oleh sisrem operasi. ROM ini ditulis oleh perusahaan yang memproduksi sebuah komputer.

17 Memori : RAM (Random Access Memory) RAM dapat ditulis, dibaca dan mudah menguap (volatile). Sifat penulisan dan pembacaan datanya adalah secara random. Data yang ditulis dalam RAM dapat dihapus atau diganti dengan yang lain. Disebut juga Read-Write Memory

18 Memori : RAM (Random Access Memory) Jenis-jenis RAM DRAM (Dynamic RAM) SRAM (Static RAM) NVRAM FRAM (Ferroelectric RAM)

19 Memory: RAM RAM is volatile Types of RAM DRAM SRAM SDRAM DDR SDRAM RDRAM PC133 SRAM

20 Memory Cache memory Registers ROM Flash memory

21 Buses Buses are electronic paths that data travels around on a computer system. Internal buses move data around within the CPU. Expansion buses establish links with peripheral devices.

22 Kuliah Tambahan Senin Tgl 14 dan 21 April 2008 Jam 17.30


24 System Expansion Expansion cards for desktop PCs Video-graphics board, fax/modem board, or sound card PC cards: expansion for notebook & other portables Expansion for handhelds and mobile devices USB port, SD cards, MM cards, and Springboard modules

25 Ports Common ports: Serial Parallel SCSI USB Firewire Network MIDI IrDA



28 Typical CPU Components Arithmetic/logic unit Control unit Registers Decode unit Prefetch unit Internal cache Bus interface unit


30 Storage

31 Magnetic Disk Systems Magnetic disks are the most important storage medium in computers today. Two popular types: floppy disks hard disks tape disk flash disk Data is written by magnetizing particles on the disks in a certain way to represent 1s and 0s.



34 Floppy Disks, cont’d. Tracks, sectors, and clusters The disk’s file directory keeps track of the contents of the disk.


36 Hard Disks, cont’d. Hard disk systems for notebooks Can use either internal or removable hard drives

37 Hard Disks, cont’d. Hard disk systems for large computer systems May use a system consisting of multiple hard drives; RAID is a recent trend

38 Optical Discs Laser beams write and read data packed at very tight storage densities, several times finer than that of a typical magnetic disk.

39 CDs CDs are permanently etched when data is stored on the disc. Recordable (CD-R) discs can be written to, but not erased and rewritten. Rewritable (CD-RW) CDs can be used in the same way as magnetic disks—data can be stored and erased as needed.

40 DVDs DVDs are read-only and may replace VHS as the movie media of choice. Rewritable DVDs (DVD-RAM or DVD+RW) allow users to record on DVD discs.

41 Magneto-Optical Discs M-O discs use a combination of magnetic and optical technologies. Can store up to 5.2 GB per disc.

42 Smart Cards Smart card: credit-card-sized piece of plastic that contains some type of computer circuitry. Holds less than a few megabytes Commonly used to store prepaid amounts of digital cash, or personal information Smart card readers are attached to a PC or built into a cell phone, keyboard, or other device.

43 Flash Memory Devices Flash memory sticks Size of a stick of gum; hold from 4 to 64 MB each Flash memory cards Standards include CompactFlash, SmartMedia, Secure Digital (SD), and MultiMedia Card (MMC) Flash memory drives Have no moving parts—are more shock-proof and portable than conventional drives

44 Input and Output Devices

45 Input and Output Input devices convert data and programs that people can understand into a form comprehensible to the CPU. Output devices convert the strings of bits used by the computer back into a form that people can understand.


47 Pointing Devices: Mouse

48 Pointing Devices: Electronic Pens Electronic pen: an alternative to the mouse to select objects or to write or draw on the screen Devices that use pen input: Graphics tablets Signature capture devices Pen-based computers

49 Pointing Devices: Touch Screens Touch screens are used: When other input devices are impractical When consumer input is required, as in consumer kiosks

50 Other Pointing Devices Joystick Trackball Pointing stick Touch pad

51 Scanners and Related Devices Source data automation involves collecting data in machine-readable form as soon as it is generated. Source data automation is used to convert source documents into digital form and commonly utilizes some type of scanner.

52 Optical Scanners Optical scanner: converts hard-copy images of text pages, photographs, and drawings into digital form Types of image scanners: Flatbed Sheet-fed Hand-held Drum Three-dimensional


54 Optical Readers Optical marks Optical characters Optical codes

55 Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Reader Magnetic ink character recognition is used primarily with processing checks. Readers can read the special magnetic characters, as well as sort documents by their codes.

56 Multimedia Output Devices Speakers Data and multimedia projectors Voice-output systems

57 Multifunction Devices A multifunction device offers some combination of: Printing Copying Scanning Faxing

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