31G Cellular Networks1st generation cellular networks are purely analog cellular systems.The transmission of data is sent via a continuously variable signal
42G Cellular Networks2nd generation cellular networks refer to digital cellular and PC wireless systems.voice and low speed data services.They consist of digital traffic channels, perform encryption, error detection & correctionUsers share channels dynamically
53G Cellular Networks3rd generation refers to the next generation of wireless systems.This is digital with high speed data transferIt is voice quality comparable with a switched telephone network.Data transmission rates can be asymmetric or symmetricalIt provides support for circuit switched and packet switched data services
6Cellular Operation Three basic devices A mobile station A base transceiverA Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office (MTSO)
8Cellular Network Organization Base Station (BS)includes an antenna, a controller, and a number of receiversMobile Telecommunications Switching Office (MTSO)connects calls between mobile unitsTwo types of channels available between mobile unit and BSControl channelsused to exchange information having to do with setting up and maintaining calls (out-band or in-band through stealing bits)Traffic channelscarry voice or data connection between users
9Cellular OperationPublic Land Mobile Network (PLMN) refers to a cellular network that has land and radio based sections.This network consists of:Mobile station (MS): A device used for communication over the network.Base station transceiver (BST): A transmitter/receiver used to transmit/receive signals over the network.
10Cellular OperationMobile switching center (MSC): Sets up and maintains calls made over the network.Base station controller (BSC): Communication between a group of BSTs and a single MSC is controlled by the BSCPublic switched telephone network (PSTN): Section of the network that is land based
11Cellular Operation Outgoing from mobile input phone number and press sendmobile links to base transceiver via control channelbase to MTSO to PSTNMTSO routes connection back to mobile via voice channelmobile shifts from control to voice
12Cellular Operation Incoming to mobile call goes from PSTN to MTSO on control channel, MTSO searches for mobile by PAGING every active mobileIf found, MTSO rings it and establishes voice channel connectionuses transceiver with strongest signal from mobile
14Cellular Network Organization (Cells) Cells use low powered transmitters.Each cell is allocated a band of frequencies, and is served by its own antenna as well as a base station consisting of a transmitter, receiver and control unit.
24Factors limiting frequency reuse Co-channel interferenceAdjacent channel interference
25Adjacent Channel Interference Picture: xanthippi.ceid.upatras.gr/courses/ mobi_net/Lecture1.pptAdjacent channel interference can be controlled with transmit and receive filters
26Coping with increasing capacity Adding new channelsFrequency borrowingfrequencies are taken from adjacent cells by congested cellsPicture: ch10_Cellular_wireless_netw.pdf
27Coping with increasing capacity Cell splittingcells in areas of high usage can be split into smaller cellsCell sectoringcells are divided into a number of wedge-shaped sectors, each with their own set of channelsMicrocellsantennas move to buildings, hills, and lamp posts
30HandoffsNetwork protocols must refresh and renew paths as a mobile station host moves between cells.Handoffs are the function of one cell handing over the communication link between itself and a mobile station as the mobile station moves out of the boundary of its region into the boundary of an adjacent cell.
31HandoffsThis practice must preserve end-to-end connectivity in a dynamically reconfigured network topology.
34Encoding: Modulation(1) Amplitude ModulationFrequency ModulationPhase Modulationare the three different methods of encoding binary information on a regular wave.
35Encoding: Modulation(2) When using digital signals the methods are known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), and Phase Shift Keying (PSK).
36Encoding: Multiplexing(1) Multiplexing allows many mobile users to use cellular radio transmission schemes at the same time. The different schemes are:Frequency Division MultiplexingTime Division MultiplexingCode Division Multiplexing
37Encoding: Multiplexing(2) Frequency Division Multiplexing involves a different frequency channel given to each user
38Encoding: Multiplexing(3) Time Division Multiplexing involves a channel with a given number of time slots (per millisecond) where each user is assigned certain time interval.Code Division Multiplexing gives each user a “code” for differentiation purposes. The receiver picks out each channel from the “noise” using the code. Wide frequency band is used. Does not contain single frequencies or time slots.
40Advantages of Code Division Multiplexing better protection against interferencegood securitysignal difficult to jam
41Disadvantages of Code Division Multiplexing pseudo-random code sequences generated by the transmitters and receivers are not always randomfast power control system needed so that strong signals don’t overpower weaker signals.
42Analogy: Multiplexing Lectures at a learning institute:Frequency Division: takes place in different roomsTime Division: taking turns in a single roomCode Division: lectures on different subjects.
44Wired vs. Wireless (1)A problem with wireless networks is that anyone with a wireless network card is able to access this network and is potentially harmful since they are able to corrupt and steal important files.These networks transmit data over an area such that the network signals may penetrate physical areas such as walls.
45Wired vs. Wireless (1)Although this problem is relevant to a wired network also, it exists to a greater degree in a wireless network.With regard to wired networks, the electromagnetic waves that are given off from the current traveling through the network cables.
46Advantages of wireless networks FlexibleCost is less (long term)Mobile user choiceAccesses areas that wired networks cannot reach
47Disadvantages of wireless networks Compared to wired networks the data rates are slowerUser location determines performanceDevices such as microwaves, cordless phones, etc may cause interferenceCan be accessed by hackers from the outside
48Wired Equivalent Privacy Algorithm (WEP) (1) Wireless networks may include additional security elements, which are not supported in wired networks.For eg. The use of security algorithms such as WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy Algorithm), that uses an encryption algorithm which deals with unauthorized access to the network (eavesdropping).
49WEP (2)WEP is a implemented such that a block of plaintext (input text) is bitwise XORed with an equal length random key sequence. A random number generator is used on the initialization vector and the secret key and outputs a key sequence of random of octets.An integrity check value is produced to protect against data modification.The key sequence combined with plaintext combined with the integrity check value gives the enciphered message. The integrity check value and the ciphertext is the combination of the output.
50Block CiphersAnother security algorithm is Block Ciphers which is the most common of the encryption techniques. The Block Cipher consists of:Data Encryption Standard (DES)Triple Data Encryption (TDEA)Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
51The GSM NetworkThe Global System for Mobile communications.-most widely used digital cellular communications system
53Mobile Station Mobile equipment or terminal 3 types: fixed, portable, handheldSubscriber Identity Module (SIM).
54The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) The Base Station Subsystem connects the Mobile Station and the Network and Switching Subsystem. It is responsible for transmission and reception and can be divided into two parts:The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station.The Base Station Controller (BSC).
55The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. It is usually placed in the center of a cell. The size of a cell defines the transmitting power. A BTS can have up to 16 transceivers. It all depends on the density of users in the cell.
56The Base Station Controller (BSC) The BSC controls a group of BTS.A BSC is primarily responsible for handovers, frequency hopping, exchange functions and control of the frequency power levels of the BTSs.
57The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) Its main role is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users, such as mobile users, ISDN users, landline users, etc.It also has databases that store information about the subscribers and to manage their mobility.The different components of the NSS are described below.
58The Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) Central component of the NSS.It performs switching functions and also provides connection to other networks.
59The Gateway Mobile services Switching Center (GMSC) A gateway is a node that interconnects two networks.The GMSC is the interface between the mobile cellular network and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).It is responsible for routing calls from the fixed network towards a GSM user.
60Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is an important database as it stores information about the subscribers belonging to the covering area of a MSC.It stores the current location of these subscribers and the services to which they have access.The location of the subscriber corresponds to the SS7 address of the Visitor Location Register (VLR) associated to the terminal.
61Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR contains information from a subscriber's HLR.It is necessary for the provision of subscribed services to visiting users.When a subscriber enters the covering area of a new MSC, the VLR associated to this MSC will request information about the new subscriber to its corresponding HLR.The VLR will then have enough information to assure the subscribed services without needing to confirm with the HLR each time a communication is established.
62The Authentication Center (AuC) The AuC register provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions.These parameters help verify the user's identity.
63The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is also used for security purposes. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipment.It particularly contains a list of all valid terminals.A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).The EIR uses this to forbid calls from stolen or unauthorized terminals.
64The GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) The GIWU corresponds to an interface to various networks for data communications.During these communications, the transmission of speech and data can be alternated.
65The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and BSC in order to control and monitor the GSM system.It also takes care of controlling the traffic load of the BSS.
66In GSM, there are five main functions: Transmission.Radio Resources management (RR).Mobility Management (MM).Communication Management (CM).Operation, Administration and Maintenance
67GSMGSM uses an intriguing method to send data. By simply sending computer data as it would send voice data, GSM allows every phone to be "data enabled."Since the GSM network is already a packet network of sorts because of its frequency hopping, it requires no additional hardware to support data.GSM allows data rates in multiples of 300 bits per second, up to 64 kilobits per second.
68Advantages of Cellular Networks Cellular networks use "small" cells with low powered transceivers instead of one large area with a high powered transceiver.Using cellular networks increases overall call handling capacity.Avoids central point of failure.Allows dynamic distribution of capacity based on demand.Less interference with other wireless communications
69Conclusion (1)Mobile phone contracts provide a useful and relatively cheap service.Cellular radio network infrastructures are growing at a tremendous rate.Cellular networks are becoming high speed data networks.
70Conclusion (2)Speeding up the development of mobile communication technologies is the focus of the industry. The ideal communication system where both voice and data services can be delivered regardless of location, network, or terminal.