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Surface Irrigation. Water flows across the soil surface to the point of infiltration Oldest irrigation method and most widely used world-wide (90%) and.

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Presentation on theme: "Surface Irrigation. Water flows across the soil surface to the point of infiltration Oldest irrigation method and most widely used world-wide (90%) and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Surface Irrigation

2 Water flows across the soil surface to the point of infiltration Oldest irrigation method and most widely used world-wide (90%) and in U.S. (60%) Used primarily on agricultural or orchard crops

3 Types of Systems Water Spreading or Wild FloodingWater Spreading or Wild Flooding –Relatively flat fields -- allow water to find its own way across the surface –Minimal preparation and investment –Rather inefficient BasinBasin –Dikes used to surround an area and allow for water ponding (no runoff) –Basins are usually level

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5 Types of Systems, Contd… BorderBorder –Strips of land with dikes on the sides –Usually graded but with no cross slope –Downstream end may be diked FurrowFurrow –Small channels carry the water (entire surface is not wet) –Commonly used on row crops –Lateral as well as vertical infiltration –Furrows are usually graded

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9 Water Supply Methods of water supplyMethods of water supply –Head ditch with siphon tubes or side-opening gates –Gated pipe (aluminum or plastic pipe with small gates that can be opened and closed) –Buried pipeline with periodically spaced valves at the surface

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13 Water Management Runoff recovery systemsRunoff recovery systems –Drainage ditches for collecting and conveying runoff to the reservoir –Reservoir for storing the runoff water –Inlet facilities to the reservoir (including desilting basin) –Pump and power unit –Conveyance system for transporting water (to same or different field)

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15 Surface Irrigation Hydraulics AdvanceAdvance –Movement of water from the inlet end to the downstream end –Curve of Time vs. Distance is NOT linear –Rule-of-Thumb: 1/3 of the total advance time is needed to reach midpoint of the furrow length

16 Surface Irrigation Hydraulics, Cont’d RecessionRecession –Process of water leaving the surface (through infiltration and/or runoff) after the inflow has been cut off –Usually begins to recede at the upstream end –Can also be plotted as Time vs. Distance –“Flatter" curve than the Advance Curve

17 Surface Irrigation Hydraulics, Cont’d InfiltrationInfiltration –Opportunity Time: difference between Recession and Advance curves –Infiltration Depth: a function of the opportunity time and the infiltration class (rate) of the soil

18 Curve of Time Vs. Distance Distance from inlet end (ft)

19 Opportunity Time

20 Infiltration vs. Opportunity Time

21 Infiltration Profile

22 Uniformity Inherent non-uniformity because recession and advance curves are not parallelInherent non-uniformity because recession and advance curves are not parallel Factors affectingFactors affecting –Inflow rate –Slope –Soil infiltration –Roughness –Channel shape –Inflow time –Length of run

23 Efficiency Volume balanceVolume balance –V g = V z + V s + V r –g  gross –z  infiltration –s  surface storage –r  runoff (or depth basis): d g = d z + d s + d r(or depth basis): d g = d z + d s + d r Part of infiltration may go to deep percolationPart of infiltration may go to deep percolation

24 Equations for Calculating d g (Gross Application Depth) Single furrow:Single furrow: Furrow set:Furrow set: Basin/border:Basin/border:

25 Example Problem

26 Example Problem Contd…

27 Other Design and Management Considerations Maximum non-erosive stream size:Maximum non-erosive stream size: –q max = maximum non-erosive stream size (gpm) –S = field slope (%) Set time and cutoff ratio:Set time and cutoff ratio: –CR = cutoff ratio –t L = advance time to the end of the field –t co = set time –Low CR's: rapid advance, good uniformity, high runoff –High CR's: slow advance, poor uniformity, low runoff

28 Improving Irrigation Efficiency Alternate furrow irrigationAlternate furrow irrigation –Increases advance time, but reduces average infiltration depth (twice the width) Cutback irrigationCutback irrigation –Use large inflow rate during advance, and then reduce the inflow to match the soil's steady-state infiltration rate –Intensive management is required

29 Improving Irrigation Efficiency Cont’d Land smoothing and laser gradingLand smoothing and laser grading –Helps to improve uniformity Surge irrigationSurge irrigation –Alternate on-off periods for applying water –Achieve higher efficiencies and uniformities in some soils –Lends itself to semi-automation

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