Presentation on theme: "1 2 Gambaran Umum Perkuliahan HR - MIS 3 Struktur Perkuliahan Mata Kuliah : Human Resource–Management Information System (HR-MIS) Bobot : 3 SKS Frekuensi."— Presentation transcript:
2 Gambaran Umum Perkuliahan HR - MIS
3 Struktur Perkuliahan Mata Kuliah : Human Resource–Management Information System (HR-MIS) Bobot : 3 SKS Frekuensi : (14 sesi kuliah tatap muka X 1 pekan sekali) + UTS + UAS Penilaian : Tugas/Kuis 30% UTS 30% UAS 30% Kehadiran 10% Buku Teks : 1. Haag. S., Cummings, M.(2008). Management Information Systems for the Information Age.7. McGraw-Hill International. New York. 2. Turban, E,;Leidner, D.; Mc Lean, E.; & Wetherbe, J. (2007). Information Technology for Management: Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy.7. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 3. Laudon, K. C.; Laudon, J. P.(2007). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm.10. Pearson Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 4. McLeod, R. Jr.;Schell, G. P. (2007). Management Information Systems.10. Pearson Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 5. Baltzan, P.; Phillips, A. (2009). Business Driven Information Systems.2. McGraw-Hill International. New York.
4 Struktur Perkuliahan ( Lanjutan ) Buku Teks : 6. Rainer Jr., R. K.; Turban, E. (2009). Introduction to Information Systems: Enabling and Transforming Business.2. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 7. Martin, E. W. (2005). Managing Information Technology.5. Pearson Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 8. Turban, E.; Aronson, J. E.; Liang, T. P. (2005). Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems. 7. Pearson Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 9.Meade, James G. (2003). The Human Resources Software Hanbook: Evaluating Technology Solutions for Your Organization. Pfeiffer. A Willey Imprint. SF. 10.Noe, R. A.; Hollenbeck, J. R.; Gerhart, B.; Wright, P. M. (2008). Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage.6. McGraw-Hill International. New York. 11.Dessler, G. (2008). Human Resource Management. 11. Pearson Prentice Hall. New Jersey. * Hand-outs. *Proquest * Internet.
5 Topik Bahasan SesiTopik Bahasan 1. -Pemahaman MSDM, Aktivitas, tanggung jawab, peran, dan fungsi HRD, kompetensi, tantangan, perencanaan strategis, dan formulasi strategi untuk meraih Competitive Advantage. -Contoh, Diskusi, Tugas 1. -Penjelasan tugas presentasi kelompok (dijelaskan berulang pada setiap kesempatan perkuliahan tatap muka) 2. -Konsep Sistem, Informasi, knowledge, SI, Teknologi Informasi, Organisasi, Manajemen,SIM,Permodelan SIM,dan Sistem Pengolahan Transaksi pada divisi HRD -Contoh, Diskusi, Tugas Investasi TI, Metode Perolehan Software, SDLC, RAD,Prototyping, Metode Implementasi Sistem. -Contoh, Diskusi, Review Decision Making, Systems Approach, Jenis Keputusan, Peran TI, BPM dan aplikasinya pada Divisi HRD. - Contoh, Diskusi, Tugas 3
6 Topik Bahasan (lanjutan) SesiTopik Bahasan 5. -Business Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, Office Automation, Decision Support Systems (DSS), Executive Information Systems (EIS), Expert Systems, dan Enterprice Resource Planning (ERP). -Contoh, Diskusi, Review Database Management Systems (DBMS) -Knowledge Management (KM) - Contoh, Diskusi, Tugas Sistem Informasi SDM -Competitive Advantage (Keunggulan Daya Saing) - Contoh, Diskusi, KUIS U T S 9. -Peran SDM dalam pelaksanaan E-Business, E-Commerce, E-Government, dan E-CRM (Electronic-Customer Relationship Management). -Contoh, Diskusi, Tugas 5.
7 Topik Bahasan (lanjutan) SesiTopik Bahasan Peran SDM dalam pelaksanaan proses bisnis E-SCM ( Supply Chain Management / Manajemen Rantai Pasokan). - Contoh, Diskusi Pengenalan beberapa penyedia utama HR-Software: SAP, Oracle, Peoplesoft, J.D. Edwards, Lawson Software, SAS, BAAN, dsb. - Konsultansi. - Contoh, Diskusi, Tugas Pengenalan beberapa produk HR-Software: !Track-It HR, People Track, Employease, iVantage, Genesys Enterprise Series, dsb. - Contoh, Diskusi, Review Implikasi Etika dalam Teknologi Informasi dan Pengamanan Sistem Informasi. - Contoh, Diskusi, kuis Presentasi Tugas Akhir Kelompok (Bagian I)
8 Topik Bahasan (lanjutan) SesiTopik Bahasan Presentasi Tugas Akhir Kelompok (Bagian 2) - Review U A S
9 Kesepakatan Aturan Perkuliahan Jam Kuliah Kuliah Sabtu : – Kuliah Minggu : Toleransi keterlambatan bagi dosen dan mahasiswa: maksimum 15 menit. Tata tertib mhs dalam ruang kuliah: - Mengikuti perkuliahan dengan tertib - Tidak mengaktifkan Laptop - Bertanya dan berdiskusi - Mengejakan tugas dan presentasi sesuai instruksi. Maksimum ketidakhadiran dalam 1 semester: 4 kali perkuliahan dengan nilai minimal kehadiran hanya 65.
Human Resource Management Gaining a Competitive Advantage Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage
Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss the roles and activities of a company’s human resource management function Discuss the implications of the economy, the makeup of the labor force, and ethics for company sustainability Discuss how human resource management affects a company’s balanced scorecard Discuss what companies should do to compete in the global marketplace Identify the characteristics of the workforce and how they influence human resource management Discuss human resource management practices that support high- performance work systems Provide a brief description of human resource management practices
Introduction Competitiveness – a company’s ability to maintain and gain market share Human resource management – the policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance
Responsibilities of HR Departments Company Performance (P, O)Employment Analysis, Design, and Planning (St)Recruiting & Selecting (St)Training and development (St)Compensation (St)Benefits (St)Employee services (St)Employee and community relations (St, Ld,Ctr)Personnel records / Performance Management (St)Health and safety (P)Strategic planning
More Explanations: (1.Phys) Compensation: wage, salary, incentive pay, executive compensation, rewards. (2.Safe&Secr)Benefits: insurance, vacation leave, retirement plans, profit sharing. (2.Safe&Secr)Employee services: Employee assistance programs / counseling, relocation services, outplacement services. (3.Love&Belonging)Employee & community relations: attitude surveys, labor relations, publications, labor law compliance, discipline. (4.Esteem&Recog)Personnel records: HR- Information systems & Records. (2.Safe&Secr)Health and safety: safety inspection,drug testing,etc (5.Self Act)Strategic planning: forecasting, long- term planning, mergers and acquisitions, international human resources.
What Roles Do HR Departments Perform? Administrative Services and Transactions: Business Partner Services Strategic Partner: Human Resources *Hiring *Staffing *Compensation, etc * Contributing to business strategy (Developing HR Practices) *Emphasizing HR Knowledge *Helping implement business plan *Designing effective system to ensure competencies
What Competencies Do HR Professionals Need?
How is the HRM Function Changing? Time spent on administrative tasks is decreasing and its roles as a strategic business partner, change agent, and employee advocate are increasing This shift presents two important challenges: Self-service – giving employees online access to information about HR issues Outsourcing – the practice of having another company provide services
How is the HRM Function Changing? As part of its strategic role, one of the key contributions that HR can make is to engage in evidence-based HR. Evidence-based HR – demonstrating that human resource practices have a positive influence on the company’s bottom line or key stakeholders.
The HRM Profession HR salaries vary depending on education and experience as well as the type of industry The primary professional organization for HRM is the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
Competitive Challenges Influencing HRM Three competitive challenges that companies now face will increase the importance of HRM practices: The Global Challenges: economic and societal/social The Challenge of Sustainability The Technology Challenge
The Sustainability Challenge Sustainability refers to the ability of a company to survive and succeed in a dynamic competitive environment Stakeholders refers to shareholders, the community, customers, and all other parties that have an interest in seeing that the company succeeds
The Sustainability Challenge Sustainability includes the ability to: provide a return to shareholders provide high-quality products, services, and work experiences for employees increase value placed on intangible assets and human capital social responsibility Adapting to changing characteristics and expectations of the labor force Legal and ethical issues Effectively use new work arrangements
The Sustainability Challenge The changing structure of the economy Skill demands for jobs are changing Knowledge is becoming more valuable Intangible assets -- human capital, customer capital, social capital, and intellectual capital Knowledge workers – employees who contribute to the company through a specialized body of knowledge Empowerment – giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service Learning organization
The Sustainability Challenge Changes in Employment Expectations: Psychological contract : what the company will provide in return. Alternative work arrangements: Independent contractors, on-call workers, temporary workers, part-time workers.
The Balanced Scorecard The balanced scorecard gives managers the opportunity to look at the company from the perspective of internal and external customers, employees and shareholders. The balanced scorecard should be used to: Link human resource management activities to the company’s business strategy. Evaluate the extent to which the human resource function is helping the company meet it’s strategic objectives.
The Balanced Scorecard How do customers see us? What must we excel at? Can we continue to improve and create value? How do we look to shareholders?
The 10-Step HR Scorecards Process 1.Define the business strategies. 2.Outline the company’s value chain activities. 3.Outline a strategy map. 4.Identify the strategically required organizational outcomes. 5.Identify the required workforce behaviors. 6.Identify the strategically relevant HR System policies and activities, such as training and grievance systems. 7.Create HR Scorecard. 8.Design the HR Scorecard measurement system. 9.Summarize the Scorecard measures in digital dashboard. 10.Periodically re-evaluate the measurement system.
The HR Scorecard 29 PERSPECTIVEQUESTIONS ANSWERED EXAMPLES OF CRITICAL EXAMPLES OF CRITICAL BUSINESS INDICATOR HR INDICATORS Customer How do customers see us? Time, quality, performance, *Employee satisfaction with service, cost HR department services *Employee perceptions of the company as an employer Internal What must we excel at? *Processes that influence *Training cost per employee customer satisfaction *Turnover rates *Availability of information *Time to fill open positions on service and/or manufacturing processes Innovation Can we continue to *Improve operating efficiency *Employee/skills and to improve and create *Launch new products competency levels learning value? *Continuous improvement *Engagement survey results *Empowering of workforce *Change management *Employee satisfaction capability Financial How do we look to *Profitability *Compensation & benefits shareholders? *Growth per employee *Shareholder value *turnover costs *Profits per employee *Revenues per employee
Example of The Value Chain for a hotel Marketing & Sales Advertising Salesclerk training Market research Guest Reservation Take calls by 3 rd ring Professional handling of questions *3-min faxed reservation Inbound Guest Services Airport pickup Front door welcome & Unloading *Quik front-desk service In-Room Services Clean rooms 24-hour room Servive *200-channel TV Amenities *5-star food & Service Expert personal Trainer 24-hour pool Outbound Guest Services *In-room TV Checkout *Fast front-desk Checkout *Airport Vans Every 10 min *Bellboy service Human Resource Management Recruitment, Selection, Training, Appraisal, and compensation. General Administration General Management, Accounting, Safety, and Maintenance Technology Computer Systems, Phone and Internet Systems, and TV Services Support Activities:
Example of a Strategy Map for X Airlines Shareholder value Profit & return On assets Attract & keep customers Fast plane turnarounds Committed Ground & Flight crews Grow revenues On-time flights Fewer planes Low prices Customer aims Internal operations Employee Considerations Financial aims
Customer Service and Quality Emphasis Total Quality Management (TQM): a cooperative form between labor and management to improve quality and productivity. Core values of TQM include: designing methods and processes to meet the needs of customers all employees receive training in quality promotion of cooperation with vendors, suppliers, and customers management gives feedback on progress
Customer Service and Quality Emphasis Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award: An award established in 1987to promote quality awareness and achievements: hour exam, Leadership 120, KM 90, Strat Plan 85, Workforce focus 85, Process Managt 85, Bus result 450, Custmr&Market Focus 85 = total of 1000 points. ISO 9000:2000 : Certificate of Quality standards adopted worldwide. ISO: International Organization for Standardization. ISO: International Organization for Standardization. Six Sigma process: System of measuring, analyzing, improving, and controlling processes to meet quality standards.
Changing Demographics Diversity of the Workforce Internal labor force is the labor force of current employees External labor market includes persons actively seeking employment The U.S. workforce is aging rapidly
Managing a Diverse Workforce To successfully manage a diverse workforce, managers must develop a new set of skills, including: Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of cultural backgrounds Coaching and developing employees of different ages, educational backgrounds, ethnicity, physical ability, and race Providing performance feedback that is based on objective outcomes Creating a work environment that makes it comfortable for employees of all backgrounds to be creative and innovative
Legal and Ethical Issues Five main areas of the legal environment have influenced HRM over the past 25 years Equal employment opportunity legislation Employee safety and health Employee pay and benefits Employee privacy Job security Women and minorities still face the “glass ceiling” Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: a congressional act passed in response to illegal and unethical behavior by managers and executives.
Legal and Ethical Issues Ethical HR practices: HRM practices must result in the greatest good for the largest number of people Employment practices must respect basic human rights of privacy, due process, consent, and free speech Managers must treat employees and customers equitably and fairly
The Global Challenge To survive companies must compete in international markets Be prepared to deal with the global economy. Offshoring – exporting of jobs from developed countries to less developed countries Onshoring – exporting jobs to rural parts of the United States
The Technology Challenge The overall impact of the Internet The Internet has created a new business model – e- commerce – in which business transactions and relationships can be conducted electronically
The Technology Challenge Advances in technology have: changed how and where we work resulted in high-performance work systems increased the use of teams to improve customer service and product quality changed skill requirements increased working partnerships led to changes in company structure and reporting relationships
The Technology Challenge Advances in technology have: increased the use and availability of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) increased the use and availability of e- HRM: *audio/video learning program *online job application,training, *online job application,training, compensation and benefits. compensation and benefits. increased the competitiveness in high performance work systems: * peer interview * peer interview *team-based performance pay *team-based performance pay
Meeting Competitive Challenges Through HRM Practices HRM practices that help companies deal with the three competitive challenges (sustainability, global, and technology) can be grouped into four dimensions: The human resource environment : linking HRM practices to the company’s business objectives, complying with laws, motivating & satisfying the employees, maximizing customer service, quality, and productivity. Acquiring and preparing human resources: Employment analysis, design, and planning, recruiting,selecting. Educating, and training. Assessment and development of human resources: measuring employees’ performance, preparing for future work roles, and promoting. measuring employees’ performance, preparing for future work roles, and promoting. Compensating human resources: Creating pay systems, Rewarding contributions, giving benefits,etc.
Meeting Competitive Challenges Through HRM Practices Managing internal and external environmental factors allows employees to make the greatest possible contribution to company productivity and competitiveness Customer needs for new products or services influence the number and type of employees businesses need to be successful
Meeting Competitive Challenges Through HRM Practices Managers need to ensure that employees have the necessary skills to perform current and future jobs. Besides interesting work, pay and benefits are the most important incentives that companies can offer employees in exchange for contributing to productivity, quality, and customer service
Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the differences between strategy formulation and strategy implementation. List the components of the strategic management process. Discuss the role of the HRM function in strategy formulation. Describe the linkages between HRM and strategy formulation. Discuss the more popular typologies of generic strategies and the various HRM practices associated with each. Describe the different HR issues and practices associated with various directional strategies.
Introduction Goal of strategic management – To deploy and allocate resources in a way that gives organization a competitive advantage. HRM function must be integrally involved in the company’s strategic management process.
What is Strategic Management? Strategic Management is a process, an approach to addressing the competitive challenges an organization faces. Strategic human resource management is the pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals.
Components of the Strategic Management Process Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation
Model of the Strategic Management Process Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation HR Practices Recruiting, Training, Performance management, Labor relations, Employee relations, Job analysis Job design, Selection, Development, Pay structure, Incentives, Benefits Firm Performance Productivity, Quality, Profitability Human Resource Actions Behaviors, Results Human Resource Capability Skills, Abilities, Knowledge Human Resource Needs Skills Behavior Culture Strategic Choice Goals Mission External Analysis Opportunities Threats Internal Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Forecasts of Labor Demand
Strategy Formulation Five components of the strategic management process: A mission is a statement of the organization's reasons for being. Goals are what the organization hopes to achieve in the medium-to long-term future External analysis consists of examining the organization's operating environment to identify strategic opportunities and threats. Internal analysis attempts to identify the organization's strengths and weaknesses. Strategic choice is the organization's strategy, which describes the ways the organization will attempt to fulfill its mission and achieve its long term goals.
Strategy Implementation Product market strategy Reward systems Selection, training, and development of people Types of Information Organizational structure Task Design Performance
HRM Practices Job Analysis - the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Recruitment - the process through which the organization seeks applicants. Training - a planned effort to facilitate learning of job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior. Job design - making decisions about what tasks should be grouped into a particular job. Selection - identifying the applicants with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and ability. Development - the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and behavior that improves employees' ability to meet the challenges of future jobs. Performance management - helps ensure that employees’ activities and outcomes are congruent with the organization’s objectives. Pay structure, incentives, and benefits. Labor and employee relations.
HRM Needs in Strategic Types Different strategies require different types of employees. Role Behaviors: Cost strategy firms seek efficiency and therefore carefully define the skills they need in employees and use worker participation to seek cost-saving ideas. Differentiation firms need creative risk takers.
Directional Strategies Downsizing External Growth Strategy Concentration Strategy Internal Growth Strategy: new market, differentiation, International Expansion. Mergers and Acquisitions
The Role of HR in Providing a Competitive Advantage Emergent Strategies - Those that evolve from the grass roots of the organization: the company facilitates communication throughout the organization. Enhancing Firm Competitiveness : Continually learning organizations.