Presentation on theme: "Hip ultrasound: Why, When, and How?"— Presentation transcript:
2DisclosureI have no relevant financial relationships with the manufacturers of any commercial products and/or provider of commercial services discussed in this CME activityI do not intend to discuss an unapproved use of a commercial product/device in my presentation
3ObjectivesReview the risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)Understand the appropriate work up and follow up of DDH
4Changes in practiceUse appropriateness criteria to assess for developmental dysplasia.Selective screening by ultrasound after 2 weeks of age
5IntroductionDevelopmental dysplasia of the hip is the preferred term to describe the condition inwhich the femoral head has an abnormal relationship to the acetabulum.DDH is a spectrum of abnormalitiesfrank dislocation (luxation)partial dislocation (subluxation)unstable - femoral head comes in & out of socketinadequate formation of the acetabulum.
6DDH Many of these findings may not be present at birth SO - the term developmental more accurately reflects the biologic features than the term congenital.
7Early DiagnosisThe earlier a dislocated hip is detected, the simpler and more effective is the treatment.
8Late DiagnosisLate dx in children may lead to increased surgical intervention and complications.Late dx in adults can result in debilitating end-stage degenerative hip joint disease.
9Why Screen?Screening decreases the incidence of late diagnosis of DDH.Despite screening programs, DDH continues to be diagnosed later in infancy /childhood, delaying appropriate therapySubstantial number of malpractice claims
10Incidence F:M 6:1 (?hormonal) 1.5 : 1,000 Caucasian Americans less frequent African Americans.F:M 6:1 (?hormonal)The reported incidence influenced by FH,race,diagnostic criteria,experience /training of examiner,age.
11Incidence Family History Left hip 3 :1 6% risk - healthy parents & affected child12% risk - affected parent36% risk- affected parent & 1 affected child.Left hip 3 :1(?related to left occiput anterior positioning of most nonbreech newborns. the left hip resides posteriorly against mother's spine, limiting abduction.)
12EmbryologyFemoral head / acetabulum develop from the same block of primitive mesenchymal cells.A cleft develops at 7- 8 wks' gestation.By 11 wks' gestation, development complete.Acetabulum continues to develop. Fibrocartilaginous labrum surrounds the bony acetabulum deepens the socket.
13EmbryologyDevelopment of femoral head /acetabulum related, normal adult hip joints depend on growth of these structures.
14Embryology Hip dysplasia may occur in utero, perinatally during infancychildhood
15EmbryologyDislocations divided into 2 types: teratologic/ typical.Teratologic dislocations occur in utero and often associated with neuromuscular disorders - arthrogryposis/myelodysplasia, or syndromes.Typical dislocation occurs in otherwise healthy infant - prenatally or postnatally.
16Embryology Newborn period- laxity of hip capsule femoral head may spontaneously dislocate and relocate.If hip spontaneously relocates /stabilizes, hip development is normal.If subluxation/ dislocation persists structural anatomic changes develop.
17EmbryologyNeed deep concentric position of femoral head in acetabulum.If not, labrum flattens, acetabulum doesn’t grow/remodel and becomes shallow.If dislocates, inferior capsule pulled up over empty socket.Adductors contract, limiting hip abduction.Hip capsule constricts; hip cannot be reduced manuallyoperative reduction necessary.
18Embryology At risk 4 periods: 1) 12th gest week- fetal lower limb rotates medially. Teratologic.2) 18th gest week – hip muscles dev. Myelodysplasia/arthrogryposis lead to Teratologic dislocations3) Final 4 weeks of gestation Oligohydramnios/breech. Breech 3% of births, DDH up to 23%. Frank breech hip flexion /knee extension at highest risk.4) Postnatal period -swaddling, combined with ligamentous laxity Typical
19Risk Factors Family history Breech Oligohydramnios Foot deformities Torticollis
20Clinical evaluation Evolves - clinical exam changes. Should be performed at each well-baby visit until 12 months.Newborn relaxed, examined on firm surface.
21Physical Exam No signs are pathognomonic for a dislocated hip. Asymmetrical gluteal folds (best observed prone)Apparent limb length discrepancyRestricted motion
22Ortolani Sign- elicits sensation of dislocated hip reducing supine, index / middle fingers placed at greater trochanter , thumb along inner thigh.The hip is flexed to 90°Gently abducted while lifting the leg anteriorly."clunk" felt as dislocated head reduces into acetabulum.
23Barlow Sign- detects unstable hip dislocating from acetabulum Supine hips flexed to 90°.Leg adducted while posterior pressure on knee.Palpable clunk as head exits acetabulum.Forceful /repeated exam can break the seal b/w labrum /femoral head.
24Physical Exam after 3 months By weeks, capsule laxity decreases, muscle tightness increasesBarlow /Ortolani maneuvers no longer positive.After 3 mos, limitation of abduction most reliable sign.Discrepancy of leg lengths.
25Physical ExamFalse negative exam - Acetabular dysplasia may have no subluxation/ dislocation.False Positive exam - <1 mos NORMALLY increased capsular laxity - subluxation due to maternal estrogensEquivocal examinationasymmetric thigh or buttock creasesApparent or true short leg,Limited abduction.
27Radiographs Radiographs readily available, low cost. In neonate- femoral heads cartilage, limitedDisplacement and instability undetectable4 - 6 months, radiographs more reliable, when ossification center develops.
28Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Radiologic Findings Acetabular indexslope of acetabular roof > 30 0Line of Hilgenreinertriradiate cartilagePerkins line (vertical)Femoral epiphysis in inner lower quadrantShenton’s curve
33Sonographic Evaluation No sedation, no radiationRapidNoninvasiveInexpensiveCartilage visualized can assess the stability of the hip and the morphologic features of the acetabulum.
34Methods Graf method – single coronal plane Dynamic or real-time method- Harcke- assesses the hip for stability of femoral head in socket, as well as static anatomy.With both techniques, considerable interobserver variability, especially during the first 3 weeks of life.
35Sonographic Evaluation AssessAcetabular depthPosition of limbusStability of hip
70Peterlein et al BMC Pediatr. 2010 24;10:98 Peterlein et al BMC Pediatr ;10:98. Reproducibility of different screening classifications in US of the newborn hip.Concordance of 2 classifications of hip morphology and subjective parameters by 3 investigators w/different levels of experience.METHODS: 207 newborns: α-angle and β-angle,"femoral head coverage" (FHC) shape of bony roof and position of cartilaginous roof.RESULTS: shape of bony roof (0.97) and position of cartilaginous roof (1.0) demonstrated high intra-observer reproducibility.Best results were achieved for α-angle, followed by β-angle then FHC.CONCLUSIONS: Higher measurement differences in objective scorings. Variations by every investigator irrespective of level of experience
71Follow up Can perform exam in Pavlik Harness Perform out of harness only if requested and/or hip appears stableOnce femoral head ossifies difficult to assess position.
81Should we Screen? There is no consensus on imaging screening for DDH. Screening balanced between the benefits of early detection of DDH and the increased treatment and cost factors.
82Who? Universal Newborn Screening pro- treat early con-over treat minor abnormalities that resolveConsiderable resourcesLate cases missedHigher rate of therapy?Higher rate of avscular necrosis?
83Universal ScreeningRandomized trials evaluating primary US screening did not find significant decrease in late diagnosis of DDH.This practice is yet to be validated by clinical trial.
84Who? Selective screening AAP US recommended as adjunct to clinical evaluation. technique of choice to clarify physical finding, assess high-risk infant, and monitor DDH as is observed or treated.Can guide treatment and may prevent overtreatment
85Who? In the United States, hip US is selectively performed Club foot TorticollisFemales in breech positionOptional males in breech positionOptional females with positive FHInconclusive PE
86Studies – Selective Screening British 10 yr prospective of 34,7232,578 clinical instability or risk factor77 unstable - 31% risk factorIrish 52,893 infantsUS – 5,484 with FH, breech, click.18 dislocatable,153 (2.73%) dysplastic /1000 required Rx33 center United Kingdom Hip Trialfound reduces splinting, and no increase in surgical Rx
87Preterm infants DDH may be unrecognized. When the infant has cardiorespiratory problems, the diagnosis and management are focused on providing appropriate ventilatory and cardiovascular support, careful examination may be deferred until a later date.The most complete examination the infant receives may occur at the time of discharge from the hospital, and this single exam may not detect subluxation or dislocation.critical to examine the entire child.
91When?PRO - US can detect abnormal position, instability, and dysplasia not evident on clinical examination.CON - during the first month minor degrees of instability and acetabular immaturity.nearly all mild early findings not be apparent on PE, resolve spontaneously without treatment.Newborn screening - high frequency of reexamination and hips being unnecessarily treated.screening with higher false-pos results yields increased prevention of late cases.
92When? pro con Screen those at risk at 4-6 wks (9%) less expense,simpler processfewer false positivesconmiss late cases
94What are the AAP recommendations? All newborns screened by PE by a properly trained health care provider (Evidence strong.)US of all newborns is not recommended. (Evidence fair; consensus is strong.)Although indirect evidence supports US screening of all newborns, not advocated –operator-dependent,availability is questionable,increases treatment,interobserver variability is high,increased costs.
95 3. If positive Ortolani or Barlow sign found in the newborn, refer to an orthopaedist. 4. If results of the PE at birth are "equivocally" positive (ie, soft click, mild asymmetry,), FU hip exam by the pediatrician in 2 weeks is recommended. (Evidence is good; consensus is strong.)
96The hips must be examined at every well-baby visit (2–4 days for newborns discharged in less than 48 hours after delivery, 1 mos, 2 mos, 4 mos, 6 mos, 9 mos, 12 mos).If DDH is suspected confirmation made by a focused PE, by consultation with another pediatrician, orthopaedist, by US if the infant is < 5 months of age, or by radiography if the infant > 4 months of age.
97ConclusionsUS has become the standard of care in the evaluation of the neonate with possible developmental dysplasia of the hip.Availability widespread, however, accurate results require training and experience.
98Changes in practiceUse appropriateness criteria to assess for developmental dysplasia.Selective screening by ultrasound after 2 weeks of age
99AAP Clinical Practice Guideline: Early Detection of DDH Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip