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Prof. Sujata Rao Session 2. 19 July 2006 2 CPU, Gen & Current trends  Grid Computer  Super Computer  Mainframes  Mini Computer  Microcomputer  Terminal.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Sujata Rao Session 2. 19 July 2006 2 CPU, Gen & Current trends  Grid Computer  Super Computer  Mainframes  Mini Computer  Microcomputer  Terminal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Sujata Rao Session 2

2 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Grid Computer  Super Computer  Mainframes  Mini Computer  Microcomputer  Terminal Embedded Computer

3 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends ◦ Made by universities and the military  Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors  other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.

4 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends CDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray (First commercially successful supercomputer- speed of 9 megaflops)

5 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends Cray (courtesy Cray Inc.) Cray Research- CRAY I vector architecture (designed by Seymour Cray, shaped the computer industry for years to come),

6 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends The Connection Machine, as this model is called, contains 64,000 CPUs

7 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Few players in the supercomputing arena: ◦ Cray ◦ Dell ◦ HP ◦ IBM ◦ NEC ◦ SGI ◦ Sun

8 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  IBM 3090 VPF.Evans  Sutherland ES-1,  Fujitsu VP-400E,  NSFnet established Apollo, Ardent, and Stellar Graphics Supercomputers,  Hitachi S-820/80, Hypercube simulation on a LAN at ORNL,CRAY Y-MP,  Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web project at CERN  Seymour Cray: Founds Cray Computer Corp.- Begins CRAY 3 using gallium arsenide chips  Bell Labs - Optical Processors  Intell - Paralell Processors

9 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Mainframe is an industry term for a large computer.  The name comes from the way the machine is build up  All units (processing, communication etc.) were hung into a frame. Thus the main computer is build into a frame, therefore: Mainframe

10 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends Mark I mainframe (1950's) Eniac (1946)BINAC(1960's)

11 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends MainframeYear ENIAC 1942 MarkI 1944 BINAC 1949 Whirlwind 1960 UNIVAC 1952 IBM IBM

12 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends Colossus - The British vacuum tube computer

13 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends Eniac (electronic numerical integrator and calculator )  thirty separate units,  plus power supply and forced-air cooling,  weighed over thirty tons.  It had 19,000 vacuum tubes,  1,500 relays,  hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors which consumed almost 200 kilowatts of electrical power.

14 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends 1st stored- program digital computer.

15 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends Harvard Mark II (Magnetic Drum Storage )

16 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

17 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

18 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  processed each digit serially.  But its much higher design speed permitted it to add two ten-digit numbers at a rate of almost 100,000 additions per second Internally.  It was the first mass-produced computer.  The central complex of the UNIVAC was about the size of a one-car garage: 14 feet by 8 feet by 8.5 feet high.

19 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  The vacuum tubes generated an enormous amount of heat, so a high capacity chilled water and blower air conditioning system was required to cool the unit.  The complete system had ◦ 5200 vacuum tubes, ◦ weighed 29,000 pounds, ◦ and consumed 125 kilowatts of electrical power.

20 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  It was the first large-scale commercially available computer system to employ fully automatic floating point arithmetic commands.  It was a large-scale, electronic digital computer used for solving ◦ complex scientific, engineering and business problems ◦ was the first IBM machine to use FORTRAN. The 704 and the 705 were the first commercial machines with core memories.

21 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Developed primarily to handle business data,  it could multiply numbers as large as one billion at a rate of over 400 per second.  The 705 was credited with "Forty thousand or twenty thousand characters of high-speed magnetic core storage;”  Any one of the characters in magnetic core storage can be located or transferred in 17 millionths of a second;  Any one of these characters was individually addressable.

22 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

23 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine was IBM's first commercially available scientific computer and the first IBM machine in which ◦ programs were stored in an internal- addressable electronic memory. ◦ It was the first of the pioneering line of IBM 700 series mainframe computers, including the 702, 704, 705 and 709.

24 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends ◦ two tape units (each with two tape drives), ◦ a magnetic drum memory unit, ◦ a cathode-ray tube storage unit, ◦ an L-shaped arithmetic and control unit with an operator's panel, ◦ a card reader, ◦ a printer, ◦ a card punch and three power units. ◦ The 701 could perform more than 16,000 addition or subtraction operations a second, ◦ read 12,500 digits a second from tape, print 180 letters or numbers a second, and output 400 digits a second from punched-cards.

25 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

26 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  The IBM 1401 is called the Model T of the computer business, because it is the first mass-produced digital, all-transistorized, business computer that was afforded by many businesses worldwide.  The basic 1401 was about 5 feet high and 3 feet across.  It comes with 4,096 characters of memory( 4KB)  The memory is 6-bit (plus 1 parity bit) CORE memory,

27 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

28 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  made out of little metal donuts strung on a wire mesh at IBM factories.  The 1401 has an optional Storage Expansion Unit which expanded the core storage to an amazing 16K.  The 1401 processing unit can perform 193,300 additions of eight-digit numbers in one minute.  The monthly rental for a 1401 is $2,500 and up, depending on the configuration.  In the mid-1960s, more than 10,000 system were in the market and by 1971 IBM started withdrawing these system.

29 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  operating system which occupied about 8K of the 1107's 32K of memory.  The machine was intended to support true multiprogramming:  sharing CPU time among several batch runs.

30 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Amdahl,  Burroughs,  CDC  Cray,  Fujitsu,  Hitachi,  Hewlett Packard,  IBM,  Intel,  NEC,  SGI,  Sun,  Texas Instruments,  Thinking Machines  Univac

31 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  A mainframe has 1 to 16 CPU's (modern machines more)  Memory ranges from 128 Mb over 8 Gigabyte on line RAM  Its processing power ranges from 80 over 550 Mips  It has often different cabinets for ◦ Storage ◦ I/O ◦ RAM

32 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Separate processes (program) for ◦ task management ◦ program management ◦ job management ◦ serialization ◦ catalogs ◦ inter address space ◦ communication

33 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  centralized computing opposite from distributed computing. Meaning all computing takes (physically) place on the mainframe itself: the processor section.  main purpose is to run commercial applications of Fortune 1000 businesses and other large-scale computing purposes.

34 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

35 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

36 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  IBM 360, Burroughs B5000, HP, CDC, GE  It used a hardware-managed stack for calculation  Extensive use of descriptors for data access.  First computer to include virtual memory  Supported multiprogramming and multiprocessing.  First GE Time-sharing operation  Virtual memory capabilities - increased speed 3 times

37 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

38 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends

39 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends   Operating Speed - very slow  No O/s  Limited Programming Capabilities  Very Large in Size – difficult to maintain :  Used Vaccum tubes : generated lot of heat  Not very economical :Short life span

40 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends   Transistors replaced vacuum tubes  Reduced heat since transistors very small in size and required little power  Increased reliability & speed  Cost reduced

41 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends   Advancement in semiconductor technology resulted in Integrated circuits.  Less human labour at assembly stage  Reliability increased  Processing speed increased,  Arithmetic capability increased  Improved means of instruction  Ability to perform parallel operations

42 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  1971 onwards  Usage of Large-Scale_Integrated Circuits  Very small in size, portability was easy  User Interface increased  Network Technology introduced – LAN  Commercial computing & online application introduced  Hardware cost and Maintenance was affordable

43 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Processor used VLIW- Very Long Instruction Word  Graphic Interface  Wireless Technology introduced  MAN, WAN technology  Size reduced drastically  Supported Two & three tier architecture  COST reduced  Reliability increased with storage & communication technology advancement

44 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  System Software ◦ System Management Program  Ex: O/s, Telecommunication Routines ◦ System Support Program  Ex: System Utilities, Security Softwares ◦ System Development program  Programming Languages, Editor Programs, Compilers  Application Software ◦ Software which facilitates business operations & Management decision making ◦ Ex: Payroll, Inventory, Sales/Marketing, Production Planning

45 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Application Software ◦ General Purpose  WORD, EXCELL, POWERPOINT, ORACLE, MSSQL, ACCESS, ◦ Application Specific  FOXPRO, VB, ABAP, ASP  Network Software ◦ Software Synchronizing communication between computers linked in a network  LAN software  Internet Software

46 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Stored Program Concept - John Von Neumann  EDVAC - First digital computer to have internal programming capacity.  Programs stored in the memory enabled the computer to perform wide range of task.  Sequential & intermittently.  First Generation - No O/s  Program Instructions were done using Machine Language o Assembly Language which was machine dependent.

47 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Mnemonic Codes: Assembly level Language  FORTRAN : Formula Translation  Pascal : Named after Blaise Pascal  COBOL : Common Business Oriented Language  BASIC : Beginers All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code  C : 1972 Dennis Ritchie

48 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  APT ( Automatically Programmed Tool) used for developing numerical controls of Industrial machine tools  GPSS ( General Purpose Simulation System) used for constructing Simulation Models  LISP ( List processing ) used to manipulate Symbols & List in artificial Intelligence.  4GLs - FOCUS, SQL, dBase, Foxbase  C++ & Small Talk - OOL

49 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends  Source Program  Object Program  Executable program  Compiler  Translator  ISAM  Line Editors  Page Editors

50 19 July CPU, Gen & Current trends End of Lesson 4


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