19 July 2006 2 CPU, Gen & Current trends Grid Computer Super Computer Mainframes Mini Computer Microcomputer Terminal Embedded Computer
19 July 2006 3 CPU, Gen & Current trends ◦ Made by universities and the military Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.
19 July 2006 4 CPU, Gen & Current trends CDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray (First commercially successful supercomputer- speed of 9 megaflops)
19 July 2006 5 CPU, Gen & Current trends Cray 1 - 1976 (courtesy Cray Inc.) Cray Research- CRAY I vector architecture (designed by Seymour Cray, shaped the computer industry for years to come),
19 July 2006 6 CPU, Gen & Current trends The Connection Machine, as this model is called, contains 64,000 CPUs
19 July 2006 7 CPU, Gen & Current trends Few players in the supercomputing arena: ◦ Cray ◦ Dell ◦ HP ◦ IBM ◦ NEC ◦ SGI ◦ Sun
19 July 2006 8 CPU, Gen & Current trends IBM 3090 VPF.Evans Sutherland ES-1, Fujitsu VP-400E, NSFnet established Apollo, Ardent, and Stellar Graphics Supercomputers, Hitachi S-820/80, Hypercube simulation on a LAN at ORNL,CRAY Y-MP, Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web project at CERN Seymour Cray: Founds Cray Computer Corp.- Begins CRAY 3 using gallium arsenide chips Bell Labs - Optical Processors Intell - Paralell Processors
19 July 2006 9 CPU, Gen & Current trends Mainframe is an industry term for a large computer. The name comes from the way the machine is build up All units (processing, communication etc.) were hung into a frame. Thus the main computer is build into a frame, therefore: Mainframe
19 July 2006 10 CPU, Gen & Current trends Mark I mainframe (1950's) Eniac (1946)BINAC(1960's)
19 July 2006 11 CPU, Gen & Current trends MainframeYear ENIAC 1942 MarkI 1944 BINAC 1949 Whirlwind 1960 UNIVAC 1952 IBM 701 1953 IBM 360 1963
19 July 2006 12 CPU, Gen & Current trends Colossus - The British vacuum tube computer
19 July 2006 13 CPU, Gen & Current trends Eniac (electronic numerical integrator and calculator ) thirty separate units, plus power supply and forced-air cooling, weighed over thirty tons. It had 19,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays, hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors which consumed almost 200 kilowatts of electrical power.
19 July 2006 14 CPU, Gen & Current trends 1st stored- program digital computer.
19 July 2006 15 CPU, Gen & Current trends Harvard Mark II (Magnetic Drum Storage )
19 July 2006 18 CPU, Gen & Current trends processed each digit serially. But its much higher design speed permitted it to add two ten-digit numbers at a rate of almost 100,000 additions per second Internally. It was the first mass-produced computer. The central complex of the UNIVAC was about the size of a one-car garage: 14 feet by 8 feet by 8.5 feet high.
19 July 2006 19 CPU, Gen & Current trends The vacuum tubes generated an enormous amount of heat, so a high capacity chilled water and blower air conditioning system was required to cool the unit. The complete system had ◦ 5200 vacuum tubes, ◦ weighed 29,000 pounds, ◦ and consumed 125 kilowatts of electrical power.
19 July 2006 20 CPU, Gen & Current trends It was the first large-scale commercially available computer system to employ fully automatic floating point arithmetic commands. It was a large-scale, electronic digital computer used for solving ◦ complex scientific, engineering and business problems ◦ was the first IBM machine to use FORTRAN. The 704 and the 705 were the first commercial machines with core memories.
19 July 2006 21 CPU, Gen & Current trends Developed primarily to handle business data, it could multiply numbers as large as one billion at a rate of over 400 per second. The 705 was credited with "Forty thousand or twenty thousand characters of high-speed magnetic core storage;” Any one of the characters in magnetic core storage can be located or transferred in 17 millionths of a second; Any one of these characters was individually addressable.
19 July 2006 23 CPU, Gen & Current trends The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine was IBM's first commercially available scientific computer and the first IBM machine in which ◦ programs were stored in an internal- addressable electronic memory. ◦ It was the first of the pioneering line of IBM 700 series mainframe computers, including the 702, 704, 705 and 709.
19 July 2006 24 CPU, Gen & Current trends ◦ two tape units (each with two tape drives), ◦ a magnetic drum memory unit, ◦ a cathode-ray tube storage unit, ◦ an L-shaped arithmetic and control unit with an operator's panel, ◦ a card reader, ◦ a printer, ◦ a card punch and three power units. ◦ The 701 could perform more than 16,000 addition or subtraction operations a second, ◦ read 12,500 digits a second from tape, print 180 letters or numbers a second, and output 400 digits a second from punched-cards.
19 July 2006 26 CPU, Gen & Current trends The IBM 1401 is called the Model T of the computer business, because it is the first mass-produced digital, all-transistorized, business computer that was afforded by many businesses worldwide. The basic 1401 was about 5 feet high and 3 feet across. It comes with 4,096 characters of memory( 4KB) The memory is 6-bit (plus 1 parity bit) CORE memory,
19 July 2006 28 CPU, Gen & Current trends made out of little metal donuts strung on a wire mesh at IBM factories. The 1401 has an optional Storage Expansion Unit which expanded the core storage to an amazing 16K. The 1401 processing unit can perform 193,300 additions of eight-digit numbers in one minute. The monthly rental for a 1401 is $2,500 and up, depending on the configuration. In the mid-1960s, more than 10,000 system were in the market and by 1971 IBM started withdrawing these system.
19 July 2006 29 CPU, Gen & Current trends operating system which occupied about 8K of the 1107's 32K of memory. The machine was intended to support true multiprogramming: sharing CPU time among several batch runs.
19 July 2006 31 CPU, Gen & Current trends A mainframe has 1 to 16 CPU's (modern machines more) Memory ranges from 128 Mb over 8 Gigabyte on line RAM Its processing power ranges from 80 over 550 Mips It has often different cabinets for ◦ Storage ◦ I/O ◦ RAM
19 July 2006 32 CPU, Gen & Current trends Separate processes (program) for ◦ task management ◦ program management ◦ job management ◦ serialization ◦ catalogs ◦ inter address space ◦ communication
19 July 2006 33 CPU, Gen & Current trends centralized computing opposite from distributed computing. Meaning all computing takes (physically) place on the mainframe itself: the processor section. main purpose is to run commercial applications of Fortune 1000 businesses and other large-scale computing purposes.
19 July 2006 36 CPU, Gen & Current trends IBM 360, Burroughs B5000, HP, CDC, GE It used a hardware-managed stack for calculation Extensive use of descriptors for data access. First computer to include virtual memory Supported multiprogramming and multiprocessing. First GE Time-sharing operation Virtual memory capabilities - increased speed 3 times
19 July 2006 39 CPU, Gen & Current trends 1940 - 1952 Operating Speed - very slow No O/s Limited Programming Capabilities Very Large in Size – difficult to maintain : Used Vaccum tubes : generated lot of heat Not very economical :Short life span
19 July 2006 40 CPU, Gen & Current trends 1952 - 1964 Transistors replaced vacuum tubes Reduced heat since transistors very small in size and required little power Increased reliability & speed Cost reduced
19 July 2006 41 CPU, Gen & Current trends 1964 - 1971 Advancement in semiconductor technology resulted in Integrated circuits. Less human labour at assembly stage Reliability increased Processing speed increased, Arithmetic capability increased Improved means of instruction Ability to perform parallel operations
19 July 2006 42 CPU, Gen & Current trends 1971 onwards Usage of Large-Scale_Integrated Circuits Very small in size, portability was easy User Interface increased Network Technology introduced – LAN Commercial computing & online application introduced Hardware cost and Maintenance was affordable
19 July 2006 43 CPU, Gen & Current trends Processor used VLIW- Very Long Instruction Word Graphic Interface Wireless Technology introduced MAN, WAN technology Size reduced drastically Supported Two & three tier architecture COST reduced Reliability increased with storage & communication technology advancement
19 July 2006 44 CPU, Gen & Current trends System Software ◦ System Management Program Ex: O/s, Telecommunication Routines ◦ System Support Program Ex: System Utilities, Security Softwares ◦ System Development program Programming Languages, Editor Programs, Compilers Application Software ◦ Software which facilitates business operations & Management decision making ◦ Ex: Payroll, Inventory, Sales/Marketing, Production Planning
19 July 2006 45 CPU, Gen & Current trends Application Software ◦ General Purpose WORD, EXCELL, POWERPOINT, ORACLE, MSSQL, ACCESS, ◦ Application Specific FOXPRO, VB, ABAP, ASP Network Software ◦ Software Synchronizing communication between computers linked in a network LAN software Internet Software
19 July 2006 46 CPU, Gen & Current trends Stored Program Concept - John Von Neumann EDVAC - First digital computer to have internal programming capacity. Programs stored in the memory enabled the computer to perform wide range of task. Sequential & intermittently. First Generation - No O/s Program Instructions were done using Machine Language o Assembly Language which was machine dependent.
19 July 2006 47 CPU, Gen & Current trends Mnemonic Codes: Assembly level Language FORTRAN : Formula Translation - 1956 Pascal : Named after Blaise Pascal COBOL : Common Business Oriented Language - 1960 BASIC : Beginers All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code C : 1972 Dennis Ritchie
19 July 2006 48 CPU, Gen & Current trends APT ( Automatically Programmed Tool) used for developing numerical controls of Industrial machine tools GPSS ( General Purpose Simulation System) used for constructing Simulation Models LISP ( List processing ) used to manipulate Symbols & List in artificial Intelligence. 4GLs - FOCUS, SQL, dBase, Foxbase C++ & Small Talk - OOL
19 July 2006 49 CPU, Gen & Current trends Source Program Object Program Executable program Compiler Translator ISAM Line Editors Page Editors
19 July 2006 50 CPU, Gen & Current trends End of Lesson 4