Presentation on theme: "GREEK DECLENSIONS IN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY GM 12. Introductory information. Greek paradigms in the 3 rd declension. Greek paradigms in the 1 st and 2 nd."— Presentation transcript:
GREEK DECLENSIONS IN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY GM 12
Introductory information. Greek paradigms in the 3 rd declension. Greek paradigms in the 1 st and 2 nd declension. Examples of use. Content
Greek influence in Latin medical terminology Since its beginnings the medical terminology was greatly influenced by Greek for several reasons: Greek was in ancient Rome language of intellectuals; many physicians were Greeks; principal authorities of ancient medicine were Hippocrates and Galenos of Pergamon - both of Greek origin.
The physicians were able to use both languages: Andreas Laurentius, Opera anatomica in quinque libros divisa..., Lugduni 1593, p. 372.
Introduction As result of this long-term coexistence there are generally three types of Greek words in medical terminology: Words of Greek origin that adopted completely Latin paradigms ( iris, trachea, trochanter,... ). Words which preserved partially original Greek grammar and have therefore exceptions in paradigms ( diabetes, basis, systole,... ). Words assimilated in form of Greek stems. Technically they have no paradigms of own. Such stem is always followed by a Latin suffix.
Group 1 Greek words following the Latin paradigms
Group 1 Those words do not differ from ordinary Latin paradigms. They are part of your vocabulary since the beginning of the course. There is chapter “Greek declensions” that extends your vocabulary using this group of terms. See p. 136 - 139 of the textbook.
Group 1 Three paradigms on the page 138 ( masseter, trauma, iris ) belong to this group. They have ordinary endings according the 3 rd declension imparisyllabics ( dolor, caput ). Beware: the paradigm basis (p. 138) has a set of different endings. For our purpose it is sufficient to memorise vocabulary (starting from masseter up to ending - itis on p. 139) as an additional set of nouns belonging to 3 rd declension. Vocabulary that belongs to masseter, trauma, iris is in file vocabulary.pdf mixed with other imparisyllabics from the 3 rd declension.
Group 2 Words which partially preserve Greek endings
Group 2 Terms in this group use both Latin and Greek endings. Therefore they have a paradigm of their own, based on Latin with several exceptions. They can be divided into two groups: 3 rd declension paradigm basis (including small group of archaic Latin nouns with similar endings). 1 st declension paradigms systole and diabetes.
Paradigm basis Type basis is a derivation of parisyllabic 3 rd declension. A hallmark of words belonging to type basis is Nom. Sg. and Gen. Sg. ending...sis, -sis. (Example: diagnosis, -is ; hepatoptosis, -is ; dosis, -is ). They are all feminines. For vocabulary see p. 140 in the textbook.
Paradigm basis Sg.Pl. Nom. bas- isbas- es Gen. bas- isbas- ium Acc. bas- imbas- es Abl. bas- ibas- ibus Red-marked cases are different from an ordinary 3 rd declension stuff.
Paradigm systole Type systole is a derivation of nouns from the 1 st declension. The paradigm applies to a small group of feminines. Only singular has different endings. Plural cases have ordinary suffixes according vena. Some of these words can have both ordinary vena - like endings or Greek systole -type in singular. Others must follow systole. The vocabulary on the pages 156-157 is a bit confusing, hence for required set of words see file vocabulary.pdf.
Paradigm systole Sg. Pl. (follows vena ) Nom. systol- esystol- ae Gen. systol- essystol- arum Acc. systol- ensystol- as Abl. systol- esystol- is
Paradigm diabetes Master very small group of masculines according to the 1 st declension. In the vocabulary that is required during this course only words diabetes and ascites follow this pattern. Plural is a copy of vena. Beware: those are masculines. For grammar see p. 155, vocabulary p. 157.
Paradigm diabetes Sg. Pl. (follows vena ) Nom. diabet- esdiabet- ae Gen. diabet- aediabet- arum Acc. diabet- endiabet- as Abl. diabet- ediabet- is
Group 3 Words preserved in form of Greek stems
Greek stems This subject was explained in the previous lesson concerning “Clinical terminology”.
Examples basis simplex basis simplicis basim simplicem basi simplici bases simplices basium simplicium bases simplices basibus simplicibus prognosis dubiosa prognosis dubiosae prognosim dubiosam prognosi dubiosa prognoses dubiosae prognosium dubiosarum prognoses dubiosas prognosibus dubiosis acne chronica acnes chronicae acnen chronicam acne chronica acnae chronicae acnarum chronicarum acnas chronicas acnis chronicis dyspnoe imminens dyspnoes imminentis dyspnoen imminentem dyspnoe imminenti dyspnoae imminentes dyspnoarum imminentium dyspnoas imminentes dyspnois imminentibus diabetes mellitus diabetae melliti diabeten mellitum diabete mellito diabetae melliti diabetarum mellitorum diabetas mellitos diabetis mellitis Explanation: Basis simplex is combination of type basis and adjective from 3 rd declension. Prognosis dubiosa : type basis + adj. from 1 st and 2 nd decl. Acne chronica : Greek type acne and adj. from 1 st and 2 nd decl. Dyspnoe imminens : Greek type acne and adj. from 3 rd decl. Diabetes mellitus : Greek type diabetes and adj. from 1 st and 2 nd decl.