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18.000 km de costa continental; mais de cinco mil ilhas, das quais Taiwan e Hainan são as maiores.

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Presentation on theme: "18.000 km de costa continental; mais de cinco mil ilhas, das quais Taiwan e Hainan são as maiores."— Presentation transcript:

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2 km de costa continental; mais de cinco mil ilhas, das quais Taiwan e Hainan são as maiores

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4 Durante séculos a China foi uma civilização líder, ultrapassando o resto do mundo nas artes e nas ciências; Durante o século 19 e o inicio do século, o pais foi palco de revoltas internas, grandes fomes, derrotas militares e ocupação estrangeira. Após a segunda guerra mundial MAO assume o poder, estabelecendo um sistema socialista autocrático; Após 1978, seu sucessor DENG Xiaoping, junto com outros, estabelece um programa de desenvolvimento econômico orientado pelo mercado.

5 Area total: km 2 (de terra: km 2 ; de água : km 2 População: habitantes Composição etária: 0-14 anos: 20.1% (H: /M: ) anos: 71.9% (H: /M: ) 65 anos e acima: 8% (H: /M: ) Idade média da população: 33,6 anos Taxa de crescimento da população: 0.629% Taxa de nascimento: 13,71 nascimentos/1.000 população

6 Taxa de mortalidade infantil: 21,16 mortes/ nascimentos Expectativa de vida ao nascimento: 73,18 anos Taxa de fertilidade: 1.77 crianças nascidas / mulher

7 GDP (purchasing power parity): $6.991 trillion (2007 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $3.251 trillion (2007 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 11.4% (2007 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,300 (2007 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.3% industry: 48.6% services: 40.1% (2007 est.) Labor force: million (2007 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 43% industry: 25% services: 32% (2006 est.) Unemployment rate: 4% unemployment in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2007 est.) Population below poverty line: 8% note: 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); and an additional 35.5 million rural population above that but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year) (2006 est.)

8 1World$ 65,610,000,000, est.World$ 65,610,000,000, est. 2European Union$ 14,380,000,000, est.European Union$ 14,380,000,000, est. 3United States$ 13,840,000,000, est.United States$ 13,840,000,000, est. 4China$ 6,991,000,000, est.China$ 6,991,000,000, est. 5Japan$ 4,290,000,000, est.Japan$ 4,290,000,000, est. 6India$ 2,989,000,000, est.India$ 2,989,000,000, est. 7Germany$ 2,810,000,000, est.Germany$ 2,810,000,000, est. 8United Kingdom$ 2,137,000,000, est.United Kingdom$ 2,137,000,000, est. 9Russia$ 2,088,000,000, est.Russia$ 2,088,000,000, est. 10France$ 2,047,000,000, est.France$ 2,047,000,000, est. 11Brazil$ 1,836,000,000, estBrazil$ 1,836,000,000, est GDP RANKING

9 Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) Land use: arable land: 14.86% permanent crops: 1.27% other: 83.87% (2005)

10 A China é o país mais densamente povoado do mundo. Mais de 1,33 bilhões de habitantes, dos quais mais de 40% nas cidades. Estritos controles populacionais estão em vigor há várias décadas, e o governo pretende limitar a população para 1,37 bilhões até No entanto, a população da grande Pequim, por exemplo, aproxima-se dos 15 milhões de habitantes.

11 Environment - current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

12 Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census) Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2% note: officially atheist (2002 est.) Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien- Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.9% male: 95.1% female: 86.5% (2000 census) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years female: 11 years (2006)

13 Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural) provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan) autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet) municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 October 1949 (People's Republic established) National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949) Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

14 Executive branch: chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003); Vice President XI Jinping (since 15 March 2008) head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Executive Vice Premier LI Keqiang (17 March 2008), Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003), Vice Premier ZHANG Deijiang (since 17 March 2008), and Vice Premier WANG Qishan (since 17 March 2008) cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress (NPC) elections: president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held March 2008 (next to be held in mid-March 2013); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress election results: HU Jintao elected president by National People's Congress with a total of 2,963 votes; XI Jinping elected vice president with a total of 2,919 votes

15 Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms) elections: last held December February 2008; date of next election - NA election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987 Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts) Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

16 Economy - overview: China's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion, including the sale of minority shares in four of China's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets in After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar since the end of the dollar peg reached 15% in January The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2007 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment in 2007 rose to $75 billion. By the end of 2007, more than 5,000 domestic Chinese enterprises had established direct investments in 172 countries and regions around the world.

17 The Chinese government faces several economic development challenges: (a) to sustain adequate job growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) to reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) to contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the north - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. In 2007 China intensified government efforts to improve environmental conditions, tying the evaluation of local officials to environmental targets, publishing a national climate change policy, and establishing a high level leading group on climate change, headed by Premier WEN Jiabao. The Chinese government seeks to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil as its double-digit economic growth increases demand. Chinese energy officials in 2007 agreed to purchase five third generation nuclear reactors from Western companies. More power generating capacity came on line in 2006 as large scale investments - including the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River - were completed.

18 Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47 (2007) Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish Industries: mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites Industrial production growth rate: 13.4% (2007 est.)

19 Exports - commodities: machinery, electrical products, data processing equipment, apparel, textile, steel, mobile phones Exports - partners: US 19.4%, Hong Kong 15.2%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany 4.1% (2006) Imports: $901.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, LED screens, data processing equipment, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, steel, copper

20 Ranking dos países 1. Mundo Mundo China União Europeia União Europeia Estados Unidos Estados Unidos India India Russia Russia Brasil Brasil Japão Japão

21 Television broadcast stations: 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997) Internet country code:.cn Internet hosts: million (2007) Internet users: 253 million (2008)

22 1World1,018,057, World1,018,057, China253,000, China253,000, European Union247,000, European Union247,000, United States223,000, United States223,000, Japan87,540, Japan87,540, India60,000, India60,000, Brazil42,600, Brazil42,600,

23 Chinese MoneyThe official currency in China is the Renminbi (RMB or CNY) or in Chinese "Ren-min-bi". which translates as" the people's money", and is generally used in the same way we use the word' currency'- the Renmibi exchange rate, for instance. The basic unit is the yuan (also known as "kuai"), which is used to express all quantities including prices in shops etc. The yuan comes in paper notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 yuan notes, and 1 yuan coins. 1 yuan equals 10 jiao(or mao). Always check your change to be sure that you have not confused jiao and yuan. Jiao notes and coins can be useful is you want to drop small change into a beggar's bowl.

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26 Chinese FoodExperience Peking Duck in Beijing or eat the food of the Ming emperors, explore the world of Chinese cuisine with China Highlights to get the real tastes of China.Join us to experience the real Chinese cuisine!"Food" has a special meaning to the Chinese people. The ‘waste not, want not's ethos means that a surprising range and variety of plants and animals, and every part of a plant or animal is used. This has given rise to a remarkable diversity in the regional cuisine, but to Westerners it can be overwhelming - surprising, fantastic, delicious, horrifying or disgusting-and above all, different. Travelers are often surprised that it is not like the Chinese take-away in their home town.However, China is also a gourmet's paradise, and the food can be outstanding, if you know what to order. It includes a lot of fresh vegetables, meat, noodles, rice, fish, dumplings and regional specialties, with an amazing number of ways to prepare, spice, serve, pickle or preserve the food. Chinese FoodMost restaurants provide tea free of charge. This is normally green tea, or similar.Cutlery can be ordered if wished.Tipping is not expected, although service charges may be included in the more expensive restaurants.Street food can be excellent – and cooked as you wait. However, you should be aware that sometimes that noodle broth may include horse meat or other creatures that are not usually eaten where you come from.Join us to experience the real Chinese cuisine!"Food" has a special meaning to the Chinese people. The ‘waste not, want not's ethos means that a surprising range and variety of plants and animals, and every part of a plant or animal is used. This has given rise to a remarkable diversity in the regional cuisine, but to Westerners it can be overwhelming - surprising, fantastic, delicious, horrifying or disgusting-and above all, different. Travelers are often surprised that it is not like the Chinese take-away in their home town.However, China is also a gourmet's paradise, and the food can be outstanding, if you know what to order. It includes a lot of fresh vegetables, meat, noodles, rice, fish, dumplings and regional specialties, with an amazing number of ways to prepare, spice, serve, pickle or preserve the food. Chinese FoodMost restaurants provide tea free of charge. This is normally green tea, or similar.Cutlery can be ordered if wished.Tipping is not expected, although service charges may be included in the more expensive restaurants.Street food can be excellent – and cooked as you wait. However, you should be aware that sometimes that noodle broth may include horse meat or other creatures that are not usually eaten where you come from.

27 China National FlagThe National Flag of China has bright red bases with five golden stars adorning it on the upper left side corner. The star on the left is larger than the other four, and it represents the Communist Party of China. The other four represents millions of Chinese people. The bright red color represents the great and sacred communist revolution led by Communist Party of China. The whole flag means Chinese people can overcome all the difficulties, defeat all the enemies and invaders and succeed in all the revolutions and constructions under the leadership of Communist Party of China. On October 1st, 1949, the present Chinese flag was first hoisted in the Tiananmen Square on the occasion of the foundation of the People's Republic of China.The designer of National flag is Zeng liansong ( ) he was an economist in Shanghai, also a member of the standing committee of the CPPCC Shanghai committee. When he was young he joined the Liberation War against Japan. In 1999, he died of illness. Shanghai, also a member of the standing committee of the CPPCC Shanghai committee. When he was young he joined the Liberation War against Japan. In 1999, he died of illness. CHINESE NATIONAL FLAG

28 Ancient Times (from Antiquity to A.D. 1840)China, has a recorded history of nearly 4,000.Anthropologists have uncovered the remains of China's earliest discovered hominid, "Yuanmou Man," who lived approximately 1.7 million years ago. "Peking Man," who lived to the southwest of modern Beijing 400,000 to 500,000 years ago, had the basic characteristics of Homosapiens. Man in China passed from primitive society to slave society in the 21st century B.C., with the founding of China's first dynasty, that of the Xia. The subsequent dynasties, the Shang (16th-11th century B.C.) and the Western Zhou (11th century-770 B.C.) saw further development of slave society. This era was followed by the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods ( B.C.), marking the transition from the slave society to feudal society.Anthropologists have uncovered the remains of China's earliest discovered hominid, "Yuanmou Man," who lived approximately 1.7 million years ago. "Peking Man," who lived to the southwest of modern Beijing 400,000 to 500,000 years ago, had the basic characteristics of Homosapiens. Man in China passed from primitive society to slave society in the 21st century B.C., with the founding of China's first dynasty, that of the Xia. The subsequent dynasties, the Shang (16th-11th century B.C.) and the Western Zhou (11th century-770 B.C.) saw further development of slave society. This era was followed by the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods ( B.C.), marking the transition from the slave society to feudal society.

29 In 221 B.C., Ying Zheng, a man of great talent and bold vision, ended the rivalry among the independent principalities in the Warring States Period and established the first centralized, unified, multi-ethnic state in Chinese history under the Qin Dynasty ( B.C.), and called himself Shi Huang Di (First Emperor), historically known as Qin Shi Huang, or First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. During his reign, Qin Shi Huang standardized the script, currencies, and weights and measures, established the system of prefectures and counties, and constructed the world-renowned Great Wall as well as a large palace, mausoleum and temporary regal lodges respectively in Xianyang, Lishan and other places. At the end of the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang, a peasant leader, overthrew the Qin regime in cooperation with Xiang Yu, an aristocratic general. A few years later, Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and established the strong Han Dynasty in 206 B.C.

30 In the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), agriculture, handicrafts and commerce were well developed. During the reign of Emperor Wudi (Liu Che, B.C.), the Han regime reached the period of its greatest prosperity: The emperor conquered the Xiongnu nomads, and sent Zhang Qian as envoy to the Western Regions (Central Asia), and in the process pioneered the route known as the “Silk Road” from the Han capital Chang' an through Xinjiang and to Europe. In 33 B.C., Wang Zhaojun, a palace maiden, was married to Huhanxie, chieftain of the Xiongnu, leaving a moving story about marriage ties between the Han and the Xiongnu. The multi-ethnic country became more consolidated. The Han regime existed for a total of 426 years. It was followed by the Three Kingdoms Period ( ) of Wei, Shu and Wu.Silk Road” from the Han capital Chang' an through Xinjiang and to Europe. In 33 B.C., Wang Zhaojun, a palace maiden, was married to Huhanxie, chieftain of the Xiongnu, leaving a moving story about marriage ties between the Han and the Xiongnu. The multi-ethnic country became more consolidated. The Han regime existed for a total of 426 years. It was followed by the Three Kingdoms Period ( ) of Wei, Shu and Wu.

31 The Three Kingdoms Period was followed by the Jin ( ), the Southern and Northern Dynasties ( ), and the Sui Dynasty ( ). In 618, Li Yuan founded the Tang Dynasty ( ). Later, Li Shimin (r ), son of Li Yuan, ascended the throne as Emperor Taizong, who was one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history. After the Tang Dynasty, there came the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ( ). In 960, General Zhao Kuangyin of the Later Zhou Dynasty rose in mutiny, and founded the Song Dynasty ( ). In 1206, Genghis Khan unified all the tribes in Mongolia and founded the Mongol Khanate. In 1271, his grandson, Kublai Khan, conquered the Central Plain, founded the Yuan Dynasty ( ) and made Dadu (today' s Beijing) the capital. During the Song and Yuan dynasties, handicraft industry and domestic and foreign trade boomed. Many merchants and travelers came from abroad. Marco Polo came from Venice and traveled extensively in China, later describing the country' s prosperity in his Travels. The "four great inventions" of the Chinese people in ancient times—paper making, printing, the compass and gunpowder—were further developed in the Song and Yuan dynasties, and introduced to foreign countries during this time.Beijing) the capital. During the Song and Yuan dynasties, handicraft industry and domestic and foreign trade boomed. Many merchants and travelers came from abroad. Marco Polo came from Venice and traveled extensively in China, later describing the country' s prosperity in his Travels. The "four great inventions" of the Chinese people in ancient times—paper making, printing, the compass and gunpowder—were further developed in the Song and Yuan dynasties, and introduced to foreign countries during this time.

32 In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming Dynasty ( ) in Nanjing, and reigned as Emperor Taizu. When his son, and successor, Zhu Di, ascended the throne, he started to build the palace, temples, city walls and moat in Beijing. In 1421, he officially made Beijing his capital.In the late Ming Dynasty, the Manchus in northeast China grew in strength. Under the leadership of Nurhachi, the Manchus invaded the Central Plain for three generations in succession, and finally founded the Qing Dynasty ( ). The two most famous emperors of the Qing Dynasty were Emperor Kangxi (r ) and Emperor Qianlong (r ). The Kangxi and Qianlong reign periods were known as the "times of prosperity."

33 Modern PeriodThe Opium War of 1840 marked a turning point in Chinese history. From early in the 19th century, Britain smuggled large quantities of opium into China, causing a great outflow of Chinese silver and grave economic disruption in China. In 1839, the Qing government sent Commissioner Lin Zexu to Guangdong to put into effect the prohibition on opium trafficking. When, in an effort to protect its opium trade, Britain initiated the First Opium War in 1840, the Chinese people rose in armed struggle against the invaders under the leadership of Lin Zexu and other patriotic generals. But the corrupt and incompetent Qing government capitulated to the foreign invaders time and again, and finally signed the Treaty of Nanjing with Britain, a treaty of national betrayal and humiliation. From then on, China was reduced to a semi- colonial and semi-feudal country.

34 After the Opium War, Britain, the United States, France, Russia and Japan forced the Qing government to sign various unequal treaties, seized "concessions" and divided China into "spheres of influence." To oppose the twin evils of feudal oppression and foreign aggression, the Chinese people waged heroic struggles, with many national heroes coming to the fore. The Revolution of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851, led by Hong Xiuquan, was the largest peasant uprising in modern Chinese history. The Revolution of 1911, a bourgeois- democratic revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, ended the rule of the Qing Dynasty. The monarchical system was discarded with the founding of the provisional government of the Republic of China. The Revolution of 1911 is of great significance in modern Chinese history. But the fruits of victory were soon compromised by concessions on the part of the Chinese bourgeoisie, and the country entered a period of domination by the Northern Warlords headed by Yuan Shikai. The people lived in an abyss of misery in this period.

35 New Democratic Revolution PeriodUnder the influence of the October Revolution in Russia, China's May 4th Movement arose. During this great anti- imperialist, anti-feudal revolutionary movement led by patriotic students, the Chinese proletariat for the first time mounted the political stage. The May 4th Movement marked the change of the old democratic revolution to the new democratic revolution. It enabled Marxism-Leninism to further spread and link up with the Chinese people’s revolutionary practice, and prepared the ideology as well as the cadres necessary for the founding of the Communist Party of China. In 1921, Mao Zedong, Dong Biwu, Chen Tanqiu, He Shuheng, Wang Jinmei, Deng Enming and Li Da, representing the communist groups in different places throughout the nation, held the First National Congress in Shanghai, founding the Communist Party of China (CPC). In 1924, Sun Yat-sen, pioneer of China’s democratic revolution and the founder of the Kuomintang (KMT), worked together with the Communist Party of China to organize workers and peasants for the Northern Expedition (historically known as the Great Revolution). After Sun Yat-sen passed away, the right-wing clique of the KMT headed by Chiang Kai- shek staged a counter-revolutionary coup d'etat in 1927, murdering Communists and revolutionary people, and founded the Kuomintang regime in Nanjing. Thus the Great Revolution ended in failure. After that, the CPC led the Chinese people to wage the 10-year Agrarian Revolution War against the reactionary rule of the Kuomintang, which is also known as the "10-Year Civil War".

36 In July 1937, Japan launched all-out aggression against China. The Kuomintang armies started a series of battles, which gave relentless blows at the Japanese invaders. In the enemy’s rear area, the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army, under the leadership of the CPC, fought against most of the Japanese forces, and almost all the puppet armies under extremely difficult conditions, thus playing a decisive role in the victory of the War of Resistance against Japan.From June 1946, the Kuomintang armies launched an all-round attack on the Liberated Areas led by the CPC, and an unprecedented large- scale civil war started. To thoroughly emancipate the Chinese people, the CPC led the army and people in the Liberated Areas to start the nationwide War of Liberation.Through the Liaoxi- Shenyang, Huai-Hai and Beiping-Tianjin campaigns, the CPC overthrew the rule of the Kuomintang and won a great victory in the new democratic revolution in 1949.

37 Contemporary Period (1949- )From September 21 to 30, 1949, the First Plenum of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) was held in Beijing, with the participation of various political parties, popular organizations, non-Party democrats and representatives from all walks of life. The CPPCC drew up a Common Program, which served as a provisional constitution. It elected a Central People's Government Council, with Mao Zedong as Chairman, and appointed Zhou Enlai Premier of the Government Administration Council and concurrently Minister of Foreign Affairs. On October , Chairman Mao Zedong solemnly proclaimed the formal establishment of the People's Republic of China.The early days of New China were a period of economic recovery and China established and expanded basic industries necessary for full industrialization. The 10 years from 1957 to the beginning of the "cultural revolution" in 1966 was the period in which China started large-scale socialist construction. The nation's total industrial fixed assets quadrupled between 1956 and 1966, and the national income increased by 58 percent in terms of constant prices.

38 Chinese ChronologyDynasties Period Xia 2205 B.C B.C. Shang 1766 B.C B.C. ZhouWestern Zhou 1122 B.C.-770 B.C. Eastern Zhou 770 B.C.-256 B.C. Spring & Autumn Annals770 B.C.-476 B.C. Warring States Period 475 B.C.-221 B.C. Qin 221 B.C.-207 B.C. HanWestern Han 206 B.C.- 24 Eastern Han Three Kingdoms Period Wei Shu Wu

39 JinWestern Jin Eastern Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties Southern Dynasty Song Qi Liang Chen Northern Dynasty Northern Wei Eastern Wei Northern Qi Western Wei Northern Zhou Sui

40 Tang Five DynastiesLater Liang Later Tang Later Jin Later Han Later Zhou SongNorthern Song Southern Song Liao Jin Yuan Ming Qing Republic of China People's Republic of China1949-


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