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Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Defining the Project.

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Presentation on theme: "Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Defining the Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Defining the Project

2 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-1 Project Management Trade-Offs Performance Quality CostTime

3 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-2 Project Priority Matrix Constrain Enhance Accept TimePerformanceCost

4 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-3 Hierarchical Breakdown of the WBS Project Deliverable Subdeliverable Lowest subdeliverable Cost account* Work package 5 Complete project Major deliverables Supporting deliverables Lowest management responsibility level Grouping of work packages for monitoring progress and responsibility Identifiable work activities LevelHierarchical breakdownDescription *This breakdown groups work packages by type of work within a deliverable and allows assignment of responsibility to an organizational unit. This extra step facilities a system for monitoring project progress (discussed in Chapter 12).

5 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-4 Work Breakdown Structure Personal computer prototype Vendor, software, applications Mouse, keyboard, voice Disk storage units Microprocessor unit More items FloppyHardOptical Internal memory unit BIOS (basic input/output system) ROM RAM I/OFileUtilities MotorCircuit board Chassis frame Read/write head WP-1MWP-1 CBWP-1 CFWP-1 RWH WP-2 CBWP-2 CFWP-2 RWH WP-3 CBWP-3 CFWP-3 RWH WP-4 CBWP-4 RWH WP-5 CBWP-5 RWH WP-6 CB WP-7 CB ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Work packages Lowest manageable subdeliverables Level

6 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-5 Integration of WBS and OBS Time

7 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-8 Read/Write Head Design Work package cost estimate

8 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 3-9 Three Views of Cost Project Duration Committed Actual cost Scheduled budget Costs $6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

9 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Developing a Network Plan

10 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-1 Rollup of Network Plans WP-2 A B C D E F WP-1 WP-4 WP-3 Level 1 - Milestone Plan Level 2 - Plans Level 3 - Plans

11 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-2 WBS/Work Packages to Network Circuit board Design cost account Production cost account Test cost account Software cost account Lowest element OrganizatioUnitsOrganizatioUnits Design WP D-1-1 Specifications WP D-1-2 Documentation Production WP P-10-1 Proto 1 WP P-10-2 Final Proto 2 Test systems WP T-13-1 Test Software WP S-22-1 Software preliminary WP S-22-1 Software final version B Proto 1 5 D Final proto 2 4 A Specifications and documentation 2 C Preliminary software 3 F Final software 2 K Test 3 A D-1-1 D-1-2 B P-10-1 D P-10-2 F S-22-2 K T-13-1 C S-22-1

12 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-3 Activity-on-Node Network Fundamentals X Y Z Y and Z are preceded by X Y and Z can begin at the same time, if you wish (B) ABC A is preceded by nothing B is preceded by A C is preceded by B (A) J K L M J, K, & L can all begin at the same time, if you wish (they need not occur simultaneously) All (J, K, L) must be completed before M can begin but XZ AA Y (C) (D) Z is preceded by X and Y AA is preceded by X and Y

13 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-6 Activity-on-Node Network Fundamentals KOLL BUSINESS CENTER County Engineers Design Department EF

14 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-7 Activity-on-Node Network Forward Pass EF KOLL BUSINESS CENTER County Engineers Design Department

15 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-8 Activity-on-Node Network Backward Pass LS KOLL BUSINESS CENTER County Engineers Design Department

16 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-9 Activity-on-Node Network with Slack LS EF KOLL BUSINESS CENTER County Engineers Design Department

17 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-10 Software Conversion Project Responsibility Matrix Activities Organization Unit/Individual Legend R = Responsibility C = Contributes A = Advises

18 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-12 Air Control Inc., Custom Order Project—Network Diagram 1 Order review Software development Order standard parts Produce standard parts Design custom parts Manufacture custom hardware Assemble Test Activity 8 # Legend Duration ES EF LS LF

19 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-13 Air Control Inc., Custom Order Project—Gantt Chart Order review Design custom parts Order standard parts Produce standard parts Software development Manufacture custom hardware Assemble Test

20 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-14 Air Control Inc., Custom Order Project—Network with Dates 1 Order review 2 1-Jan 2-Jan 1-Jan 2-Jan Software development Order standard parts Produce standard parts Design custom parts 18 2-Jan 20-Jan 22-Jan 9-Jan 15 2-Jan 17-Jan 15-Jan 30-Jan 10 2-Jan 12-Jan 5-Jan 15-Jan 13 2-Jan 15-Jan 2-Jan 15-Jan 6 78 Manufacture custom hardware Assemble Test Activity 8 # Legend Jan 30-Jan 15-Jan 30-Jan Jan 9-Jan 30-Jan 9-Jan 5 9-Jan 14-Jan 9-Jan 14-Jan Duration ES date EF date LS date LF date

21 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-15 Example of Laddering Using Finish-to-Start Relationship Trench 1/3 Lay pipe 1/3 Refill 1/3 AON network

22 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-16 Finish-to-Start Relationship XY Lag 2

23 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-17 Start-to-Start Relationship Activity M Activity N Activity P Activity Q Lag 5 A B

24 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-18 Use of Lags to Reduce Detail Trench 1 mile Lay pipe 1 mile Lag 3 Refill 1 mile Lag 3

25 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-19 Finish-to-Finish Relationship Lag 4 Prototype Testing

26 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-20 Start-to-Start Relationship Lag 3 System documentation Testing

27 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-21 Combination Relationships Lag 2 Code Debug Lag 4

28 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-22 Network Using Lags Legend Lag 5 Lag 10 Lag 5 Lag 10

29 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 4-23 Hammock Activity Example Legend

30 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Managing Risk

31 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 5-1 Risk Event Graph Risk High Cost Low Project life cycle Chances of risks occurring Cost to fix risk event

32 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 5-2 Risk Assessment Matrix Risk event Chance- LMH Severity- LMH Detection difficulty- LMH When

33 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 5-3 Risk Schedules Best-case schedule Baseline schedule Worst-case schedule Actual schedule Forecast completion schedule 10% 50% 90% 470 days 500 days 590 days 550 days 300 days Actual tracking schedule

34 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 5-4 Responses to Risk Matrix Risk event Accept, reduce, share, transfer Contingency plan Trigger

35 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 5-5 Change Request Project _________________ Originator ________________ Description of change Install Y2K compatible chip in six computer controlled milling machines Date _________________ Phone ________________ Y2K-Machine Dept. CEG 3/29/ Ext Impact AreasBaseline Impact Deliverable # __________ Work Package # __________ Cost Account # __________ Organization Unit __________ 1.3M 1.313M 1.31M IS-M Dept. Scope Budget Schedule Contingency Staff Equipment X X X X Justification (include impact if not implemented) Reprogramming cost is higher than estimated, and risk of old chips failing is higher than estimated. (Eliminating reprogramming cost is -$10,000. Cost of Y2K chips installed is +$15,000) Disposition Approve Approve as amended Disapprove Deferred X Priority Emergency Urgent Routine X Funding Source Mgmt. Reserve $ _____________ Budget. Reserve $ _____________ Other $ _____________ 5,000. Authorized _________________ Date ______________________ Scheduled start _________________ Scheduled finish ________________ S.P 4/3/ 4/7/ 5/10/

36 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Chapter 6 Reducing Project Time

37 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 6-1 Project Cost-Time Graph Total costs Optimum cost-time point Direct costs Indirect costs Low-cost plan duration point Project duration Costs

38 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 6-2 Activity Graph $ Activity duration (units) Activity cost Crash cost Normal cost Crash point Normal point

39 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 6-3 Cost-Time Trade-Off Example Total direct cost$450 A 3 B 6 C 10 D 11 E 8 F 5 G 6 (a) Time 25 A 2x B 6 C 10 D 11 E 8 F 5 G 6 (b) Time 24 Legend ACT DUR Initial total direct cost $ 450 Total direct cost $ 470 Activities changed A $20

40 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 6-4 Cost-Time Trade-Off Example (continued) A 2x B 6 C 9x D 9 E 7 F 4x G 6 (c) Time 21 A 2x B 6 C 10 D E 8 F 5 G 6 (a) Time 23 A 2x B 6 C 10 D E 6 F 4x G 6 (b) Time 22 Total direct cost $ 495 Activities changed D $25 Total direct cost $ 525 Activities changed F $30 Total direct cost $ 610 Activities changed F D E $30 $25 $30

41 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 6-5 Summary Costs by Duration

42 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 6-6 Project Cost-Time Graph $ $775 Duration (units) Total indirect cost Total direct cost Total project cost Optimum cost-time point Cost

43 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Chapter 7 Resource Scheduling

44 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-1 Constraint Examples PourFrameRoof DesignCodeTest Technical constraints (A) Plan Purchase refreshments Reception Decorate hall Hire band (B) Resource constraints Plan Hire band Decorate hall Purchase refreshments Reception (C)

45 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-2a Time Constrained Network Legend

46 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-2b Time Constrained Network IDRESDURESLFTS Total resource load Early start leveled resource profile ES resource load chart

47 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-3a Leveled Resource Schedule IDRESDURESLFTS Leveled resource profile Leveled resource schedule A

48 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-3b Leveled Resource Schedule IDRESDURESLFTS Leveled resource profile Leveled resource schedule B

49 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-4a Resource Constrained Schedule through Period 2-3 Legend

50 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-4b Resource Constrained Schedule through Period 2-3 Leveled resource profile IDRESDURESLFTS ES resource load chart IDRESDURESLFTS

51 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-5a Resource Constrained Schedule through Period 5-6 Resource constrained schedule through period 5-6 IDRESDURESLFTS Final resource constrained schedule IDRESDURESLFTS

52 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-5b Resource Constrained Schedule through Period 5-6 Legend

53 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-6b Original Network Plan Legend Resources available, 2 each of A, B, C

54 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-6b Original Network Plan A B C Resource loading chart Plan schedule New resource schedule

55 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-7 Splitting/Multitasking Activity duration without splitting Activity duration split into three segments—A, B, C Activity A Activity BActivity C Activity AActivity B Activity C StartupShutdown Activity duration split with shutdown and startup

56 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-8 Responsibility Matrix for a Market Research Project Project team R = Responsible S = Supports/assists

57 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 7-9 Responsibility Matrix for the Computer Controlled Conveyor Belt Project Organization Legend 1 Responsible2 Support 3 Consult4 Notification 5 Approval

58 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Chapter 8 Organization

59 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 8-1 Functional Organizations Delta Manufacturing, Inc. President Human resources Finance and administration MarketingEngineeringManufacturingProcurement Electronics engineering Software engineering Mechanical engineering Design Receiving & inspection Purchasing Customer service Domestic sales International sales FabricationAssemblyTesting Production scheduling Project coordination

60 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 8-2 Dedicated Project Team Zeus Electronics, Inc. President Human resources Finance and administration MarketingEngineeringManufacturingProcurement Project manager Project team

61 Figure 8-3 Project Organization Structure Central Engineering Systems, Inc. President Marketing Human resources EngineeringManufacturingProcurement Finance and administration Legal Alpha Project Project Manager Beta Project Project Manager EngineeringSubcontractors ManufacturingProcurement Other projects Electrical Mechanical Software Fabrication Assembly Test Systems Hardware Software Subcontractor X Subcontractor Y Subcontractor Z Assembly Test Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University

62 Kusdhianto Setiawan Gadjah Mada University Figure 8-4 Matrix Organization Structure

63 Kusdhianto Setiawan Table 8-1 Division of Project Manager and Functional Manager Responsibilities in a Matrix Structure Gadjah Mada University

64 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure 8-6 Key Dimensions Defining an Organization’s Culture Gadjah Mada University

65 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure 8-8 Cultural Dimensions of an Organization Supportive of Project Management Gadjah Mada University

66 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure 8-9 Organization of Product Development Projects at ORION Gadjah Mada University Project manager Deputy planning and control management Electronics system engineer Mechanics system engineer Team leader

67 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure 8-10 Traditional Master Plan at ORION Gadjah Mada University Activities/time4-7 Years1-4 Years Design reviews Design and development Production and delivery ILS SDRPDRCDRTRRPRR Laboratory testsEnvironmental tests Build production line and test equipment Documentation and training program Training Production and deliveries

68 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure 8-11 Proposed Project Organization for the Jaguar Project Gadjah Mada University Project manager Deputy production manager Electronics system engineer Mechanics system engineer Team leader Deputy planning and control management QA manager ILS manager

69 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure 8-12 Jaguar Master Plan Gadjah Mada University Activities/time3-4 Years1-4 Years Design reviews Design and development Production and delivery ILS SDRPDRCDRTRRPRR Laboratory testsEnvironmental tests Build production line and test equipment Documentation and training program Training Production and deliveries

70 Kusdhianto Setiawan Figure A8-1 Mechanisms for Sustaining Organizational Culture Gadjah Mada University Methods for maintaining organizational culture Formal statement of principles Top management behavior Reactions to organizational crisis Allocation of rewards and status Rituals, stories, and symbols Recruitment of employees who fit the culture Organizational culture Removal of employees who deviate from the culture


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