Presentation on theme: "Family planning PO Box 27121 – Riyadh 11417 Tel: 4912326 – Fax: 4970847 Introduction to Primary Care a course of the Center of Post Graduate Studies in."— Presentation transcript:
Family planning PO Box 27121 – Riyadh 11417 Tel: 4912326 – Fax: 4970847 Introduction to Primary Care a course of the Center of Post Graduate Studies in FM
Objectives of this session 1. Aim of family planning 2. Islamic view of family planning 3. Methods of family planning 4. Modern contraceptive methods indications, C.I., & side effects 5. Family planning counseling 6. Obstacles to family planning. 2
Aim of family planning 1. Essential intervention of safe motherhood 2. Pregnancy/ birth spacing 3. Promote women reproductive health. 4. Decreased maternal mortality rate 5. Promote women health. 6. Decrease neonatal death rate 7. Benefit couples, family & community. 3
Definition of family planning Use of contraceptive (CC) methods by a husband or wife with agreement between them to regulate their fertility. It compromises children spacing to allow breastfeeding (bf) & safeguard mother’s & child’s heath; timing pregnancies at a safe age & adjusting children no. to family’s need & to physical, financial, educational & child raising capabilities. 4
History of family planning Fertility control: thousands of years in different forms Withdrawal & bf oldest methods. Many CC recipes & instructions prescribed by Greeks, Egyptian & Islamic physicians. 5 The terms family planning, CC and birth control are used interchangeably
Islamic view Sterilization prohibited unless medical need Allow temporary CCs use. Prophet Mohammed “peace be upon him”: did not object to withdrawal use. The Qur'an : no prohibiting text Supports child spacing - bf for 2 years. 6 فتاوى ابن باز عند الضرورة لا بأس بأخذ الحبوب مؤقتا إذا كان هناك ضرر أو تعب للرحم بسبب الولادة أو إجراء عملية. س : ما الحكم في استئصال الرحم للتعقيم - أي منع الحمل - لأسباب طبية حاضرة ومستقبلية لما تتوقعها الجهات الطبية والعلمية؟ ج : إذا كان هناك ضرورة فلا بأس لكن إذا كان هناك ضرورة فلا بأس ، كما يجوز تعاطي أسباب منع الحمل مؤقتا للمصلحة الشرعية.
Contraceptive (CC) Methods – Modern (supply)/ natural traditional / (non-supply) – Permanent/Temporary 7 1.Hormonal: a.Combined oral CC b.Progestogen only c.Depot injections d.Implants e.Emergency oral f.Transdermal CC patch 2.IUD 3.Barrier methods a. Diaphragm b. Cap c. Condoms (♂,♀) d. Spermicides 4.Fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods 5.Lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) 6.Withdrawal 7.Sterilization a.Tubal ligation (♀) b.Vasectomy (♂)
Worldwide use: >100 million women last 4 decades: a dramatic increase in CC usage from 15% in 1960s to 54% in 2000. 8 Contains both estrogen & progestogen hormones. Mini-Pill/ Progestin-only pills (POP) The Mini-Pill Contains only progestogen.. The Pill Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs).. Mechanism of Action : stop ovulation. Come only in 28-day packs. All pills are active, so patient must take all of them. The Pill The Mini-Pill
9 1. Monophasic : active pills has same amount of estrogen & progestin, 2.Multiphasic / biphasic & triphasic- active pills : varied amounts of hormones -. Ways of taking combination pills— for 21 days, 28 days, 91 days or continuously. 28-day pills: take a pill at same time daily for 28 days. Usually, 1st 21 pills contain hormones & last 7 pills placebo (reminder) pills – withdrawal bleed. 21-day pills: pack contains 21 pills, take one pill daily & then wait 7 days to start a new pack- withdrawal bleed. Types of COC pills The Pill
10 Continuous use pills / extended-cycle / 91-day pills : contain both estrogen and progesterone 1 st 84 pills contain hormones, & last 7are placebo pills- withdrawal bleed. Only get period 4x/year. FDA approved Lybrel, 1 st continuous-use pill in 2007 - Lybrel contains only active pills. It is a 28-day pack taken continuously, with no break in between pill packets- i.e. taken 365 days a year, which completely eliminates periods They offer a choice for women who have painful periods or who just don't like the inconvenience of having a monthly period. Types of combination pills The Pill
Who can & cannot use the COC pill But usually cannot use the pill if: BP : ≥ 140/≥90 Smoke cigarettes & age ≥35 BF : ≤6 ms May be pregnant Gave birth in last 3 weeks Most women can safely use it. Serious health conditions No protection against STIs or HIV/AIDS The Pill Stroke, migraine, breast cancer. DM >20yrs 2 + risk factors for heart disease: HT,DM, smokes, or older age. Gallbladder disease, liver disease, surgery Takes pills for TB, fungal infections, or epilepsy.
Side Effects 1.Changes in bleeding patterns – Spotting The Pill 9. BP, risk with age (few mm Hg), return to normal quickly after stop (3 ms). 11.Thrombotic or ischemic stroke: low risk Current COCs: MI risk if have CV RF(DM, smoking, HT) 12. Risk of breast cancer: low. 2.Headache 3.Dizziness 4.Nausea 5.Breast tenderness 6.Wt gain - slight 7.Mood changes 8.Acne. 10.DVT: 3x risk if use <50 mcg estrogen – Contributing RF: obesity & age
13 Non-contraceptive health benefits The Pill Help protect against: Risks of pregnancy Endometrial cancer Ovarian cancer Symptomatic PID May help protect: Ovarian cysts Iron-def. anemia Reduce: Menstrual cramps, bleeding problems Ovulation pain Excess hair face/body Symptoms of polycystic ovarian Syndrome Symptoms of endometriosis They are 99% effective when taken every day. Typical failure rates: 3% to 8%.
Patient may be able to start today Client can start any day of the menstrual cycle if you can be sure she isn’t pregnant The Pill If switching from another method: If switching from the mini-pill or implants, now is the best time to start. If switching from injectable, should start pills at time she would have had repeat injection. If switching from IUD, and menstruated >5 days ago, can start pills now but leave IUD in place until the next period. After childbirth, if breastfeeding: Can start from 6 ms after childbirth. If baby is <6 ms old: use condoms in the meantime. After childbirth, if NOT breastfeeding: Can start from 3 weeks after childbirth. After miscarriage or abortion: Can start immediately after abortion. If in the first 7 days after abortion, no extra protection is needed. If menstruated in past 5 days: She can start NOW. No extra protection needed. If menstruated > 5 days ago or if amenorrhoeic : She can start NOW if reasonably certain she is not pregnant (No need to wait for next period to start pills. She should use condoms for 7 days after taking1st pill.
Once daily. How to take the pill If use the 28-pill pack: Once finish all pills in pack, start new pack on the next day If use the 21-pill pack: Once finish all pills in pack, wait 7 days before starting new pack If miss pills ALWAYS take a pill as soon as remember & continue If miss 3/+ pills or start pack 3/+ days late:use condoms If miss 3 or more pills in week 3: Skip the reminder pills (or pill-free week) and go straight to the next pack Throw away the missed pill(s) & continue taking pills, one each day Forgetting pills : can lead to pregnancy! If miss a reminder pill (28-day packs only):
Very effective when breastfeeding. Easy to stop: A woman who stops pills can soon become pregnant. Compared with the combined pill: Better if bf. Does not affect quality or amount of breast-milk. Taking pills on time is even more important. For women not bf, taking a pill > a few hours late can increase pregnancy risk. Fewer side-effects except for bleeding changes. The Mini-Pill Who can and cannot use the mini-pill But usually cannot use it if: Most women can safely use it. bf ≤ 6 wks May be pregnant Some other serious health conditions Ever had breast cancer. Liver disease. Has DVT/PE. Takes Rx for TB, fungal infections, or epilepsy (seizures/fits).
Possible side-effects Less common: headache, tender breasts, dizziness Common (when not breastfeeding): irregular bleeding, spotting, no monthly bleeding The Mini-Pill How to take the mini-pill Take one pill each day at the same time Once finished all pills in pack, start a new pack following day Late taking a pill? — Take it as soon as you remember — may need to follow special instructions if more than 3 hours late.
How to take the mini-pill Take one pill each day at the same time Once finished all pills in pack, start a new pack on following day Late taking a pill? — Take it as soon as you remember If miss a pill by more than 3 hours and are: Not bf OR bf but periods have returned: use condoms for next 2 days. Bf & periods NOT returned: No special instructions. No extra protection needed. May be able to start today If not bf : can start any day of menstrual cycle if you can be sure she isn’t pregnant Can start today if fully bf at least 6 weeks After miscarriage or abortion: If switching from another method: Iike the pill.
Injectable Very effective, safe. Takes longer to get pregnant after stopping. Changes monthly bleeding Long-acting Injectable Effective : 3, 2 or 1 month. it’s use is rising : WHO - reassuring cancer risk data & USFDA - approval of 3-monthly injectable depo medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA/ Depo-Provera). Types : 1.3-monthly injectable : progestogen only. DMPA & estradiol cypionate & norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) 2.Combined injectable CCs (CIC ): estrogen & progestin. Monthly injectables include Cyclofem and Mesigyna. No much information use existing information on use of COCs. Monthly Injectable
20 Safe & Suitable for Nearly All Women. Who can use CICs 20 Not bf &< 3 weeks post delivery Primarily bf 6 wks to 6 ms post delivery Smokes heavily & age 35 or older High BP (140 to 159 / 90 to 99) Gall bladder disease /Severe liver infection, or tumor Migraine headaches Had breast cancer >5 yrs ago it has not returned DM >20 yrs or have complication Multiple RFs for CVD - older age, smoke, DM, & HT Who can not use CICs
21 Continuously release 2 hormone: progestin & estrogen new, limited research on effectiveness, >COC ? Side Effects Skin irritation or rash at patch site Changes in monthly bleeding, Headaches vaginal discharge, Vaginitis Combined Vaginal Ring Contain progestogen but not estrogen hormones- so use with bf Provide long-term pregnancy protection. Very effective (>99%) for 3-7 yrs Side Effects Changes in monthly bleeding Headaches, Nausea, Abdominal pain Acne (can improve or worsen) Weight change Breast tenderness Dizziness Mood changes Norplant Implants Implants
22 Intrauterine Device (IUD) > 99% effectiveness. Side Effects Changes in bleeding patterns (esp. 1 st 3-6 ms) Acne,Headaches, Nausea Breast tenderness or pain, Ovarian cysts Weight gain,Dizziness Mood changes –Complications : Rare: Perforation of uterine wall. Miscarriage, preterm birth, or Infection if woman becomes pregnant with IUD. Copper IUD
23 Safe & Suitable for Nearly All Women: Who can use IUD Who can not use IUD Less than 4 weeks since giving birth Current DVT or PE Had breast cancer > 5 yrs ago, and not returned Severe liver disease, infection, or tumor Benign gestational trophoblast disease Current ovarian cancer A very high risk for gonorrhea or chlamydia at time of insertion Has AIDS not on antiretroviral therapy & clinically well Copper IUD
Natural methods FAB methods : attempt to determine days in a woman’s menstrual cycle when she is fertile,. Most useful when a woman has regular and predictable menstrual cycles. On days when fertility is greatest : a couple can use alternative barrier method - condoms or a diaphragm. Fertility Awareness-Based Methods (FAB) Fertility Awareness FAB advantages : safe & inexpensive. Religious convictions make FAB only acceptable method of birth control. Failure causes 1.Do not keep careful records, not trained 2.Women have irregular cycles 3.Couples may find intervals of abstinence during fertile days too long. FAB require both partners have a strong commitment to use the techniques correctly & consistently.
Methods: :- 1.Standard Days Method: (SDM) 2. Calendar Rhythm Method (CRM) 3. Cervical Mucus Testing: a woman observes changes in her cervical mucus to tell her when she may be fertile. Fertility Awareness-Based Methods (FAB) Fertility Awareness The SDM method: New - >95% effective if used correctly. A woman is considered fertile between days 8 through 19 counting day 1 as 1 st day of menstruation. Women can use SDM if have regular cycles never 32 days. The CRM method: At least 90% effective when used correctly a woman keeps track of length of her menstrual cycles for 6-12 months to figure out the days when she is likely to get pregnant. SDM & CRM Methods: involve counting days in menstrual cycle &woman must know which day of her menstrual cycle she is on.
Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM ) LAM It is based on physiologic effect of suckling to suppress ovulation. bf women can start to use LAM as a CC after birth if meet all 3 conditions 1.Fully or nearly fully bf, includes exclusive bf, almost exclusive bf, & nearly fully bf, day & night, on demand by infant. 2.baby must be <6 months old 3.mother's menses not have returned. 98%-99% effective (perfect use). Can support LAM with : Mini-pill, IUD, Condum/diapgragm. LAM can be taught during prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal periods.
This chart shows how effective methods are as usually used. The top four methods are most effective; user has nothing to do. The effectiveness of the other methods depends on the user’s behaviour. These other methods are more effective when used correctly. Comparing effectiveness of methods Least effective Generally 2 or fewer pregnancies per 100 women in one year About 15 pregnancies per 100 women in one year About 30 pregnancies per 100 women in one year IUD Implants Need repeat injections every 1 to 3 months Must take a pill each day Must follow LAM instructions How to make your method most effective One-time procedures. Nothing to do or remember. Injectables Pill s LAM (up to 6 months postpartum) Female Sterilization Most effective *This ranking is based on a simplified calendar method. Some other fertility awareness-based methods that more accurately identify the fertile period, including the Standard Days Method, are more effective. Vasectomy Must use every time you have sex; requires partner’s cooperation. Must abstain or use condoms on fertile days; requires partner’s cooperation. Must use every time you have sex Must use every time you have sex; requires partner’s cooperation. Male Condoms Female Condom Diaphragm Spermicides Fertility Awareness-Based Methods*
Emergency Contraception (EC) Emergency CC pills: Take pills as soon as possible. ideally : within 72 hrs (3 days). Can be up to 120 hrs (5 days) after - less effective each day passes. Consider EC if: — no method was used — a method was used incorrectly - missed pills, late for injection — method failed - broken condom, expelled IUD Emergency Contraception Levonorgestrel-only ECPs Less nausea &vomiting than combined ECPs. Dosage: 1.5 mg levonorgestrel in a single dose. Combined estrogen-progestogen ECPs Use if levonorgestrel-only pills are unavailable. Dosage: 2 doses of 100 mcg of ethinylestradiol + 0.5 mg of levonorgestrel, 12 hours apart. Emergency copper IUD: More effective than pills. Can also be used up to 5 days. Good choice for women who want to keep using an IUD.
The Medical eligibility criteria wheel for CC use - WHO, 2007 WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria for Starting Contraceptive Methods WHO Category With Clinical Judgement With Limited Clinical Judgement 1 Use method in any circumstances Use the method 2 Generally use the method Use the method 3 Use of method not usually recommended unless other, appropriate methods not available or acceptable Do not use the method 4 Method not to be used Do not use the method WHO Categories for Temporary Methods
CONDITIONCOCsPOCsDMPANPFSVasConIUDSpermDia/CCFAMBLAM PregnantN/A Delay—1411—— Age Less than 18 (< 20 for IUD) 1121Caution 3 3 —a—a 12111 b, c bc 1 18 to 391111Accept a a —a—a 111111 40 to 452111Accept a a —a—a 11111 b, c bc 1 over 452121Accept a a —a—a 11111 b, c bc 1 Smoking Less than age 35 2111Accept a a —a—a 111111 Age 35 and over High blood pressure (hypertension) Systolic 140- 159 or diastolic 90-99 3121Caution—111111f1f Systolic 160 and over or diastolic 100 and over 4232Refer—1f1f 11f1f 1f1f 1f1f 1 Adequately conntrolled hypertension where blood pressure can be monitored 3121Caution—111111f1f Past hypertension where blood pressure cannot be evaluated 3222Caution—111111 Diabetes Past elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy 1111Accept—111111 Diabetes without vascular disease Part of the table of WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria for Starting Contraceptive Methods
Family Planning Counseling As many as 50% of pregnancies are unplanned & 25% are unwanted. Millions use family planning but fail why? :- 1.Not e received clear use instructions\ 2.Could not get a method better suited them, 3.Not prepared for side effects. Moreover, family planning job will never finish Generation after generation, always needing family planning & other health care. 31
Family Planning Counseling Helps patients to make choices about their reproductive options & CC methods. Helps use chosen method safely &effectively Most important step: uncover patient fears Clarification of CC type wanted can help bridge gap between service availability & patient’ needs should provide correct & updated information It improve patient continuation & compliance. 32 “Choice” is key word in today’s family planning
Family Planning obstacles 1.Unmeet needs of women: Services & supplies not yet available everywhere Choices are limited. Fear of social or partner’s disapproval. Worries of side effects & health concerns lack knowledge about CC options & their use. 2.Poor compliance 3.Ineffective health education to women & family 4.Insufficient training of health providers 5.Counseling services not available. 33