2Functions: 1. Physical support and protection of the internal organs 2. Responsible for body movement together with muscles3. Serves as firm base for muscle attachment4. Storage of calcium5. Forms blood cells (by red bone marrow)
3Sponges – spicules or sponging fibers Invertebrate Skeleton:Sponges – spicules or sponging fibers
42. Mollusks – skeleton consists mainly of calcium carbonate
53. Arthropods – exoskeletons made up of organic materials containing chitin
7The skeletal system is made up of: a. Cartilage – provides skeletal system with connection, support, flexibility and protection.- covered by perichondriumCells – chondrocytes imbedded in matrix called chondrin
8BONE Composed of: 1. matrix of collagenous fibers 2. Calcium 3. cementing substance (composed of water and mucopolysaccharides; binds crystals to matrix)
94. Lacunae - one of the minute cavities in bone or cartilage occupied by the osteocytes 5. Canaliculi - a small channelfound in ossified boneOsteocytes – bone cellsOsteoblasts – bone-forming cellsPeriosteum – outer covering of the bone (connective tissue)Endosteum – covers the inner lining of the bone
10MARROW: occupies cavities between trabeculae ) consists of a reticulum ofconnective tissue fibers thatsupport blood vessels,nerve fibers, and adiposetissue (yellow marrow) red marrow in some bones produces red blood cells (hemopoietic tissue) and some types of white blood cells
11COMPACT BONE consists of lamellae of mineralized collagenous bundles arrangedconcentrically around ahaversian canalosteon or haversian system consists of:haversian canal (w/ arteriole, venule,lymph vessel, nerve fibers) andsurrounding lamellaevessels in the canals continuouswith those in bone marrowEx. Long bones
12SPONGY BONE chancellors bone consists of bony trabeculae and bone marrowTrabeculae: assemblage ofbeams, bars and rods thatform a rigid framework whichprovides maximum strengthat areas of stress composed of irregularly arrangedlamellae without haversian systems
13Kinds of Cartilage:1. Hyaline cartilage – larynx, trachea, bronchi
19Synarthroses – immovable joints; no joint cavity * Sutures – skull bones * teeth in jaw bones
20Diarthroses- has the joint cavity between the articulating surfaces of the 2 bones that forms the joint1. ball-and-socket joints - free rotary movement; in hip and shoulder (hip, shoulder)2.hinge joints- movement is limited to1 plane; in elbow and knee
213. Pivotal or rotatory (atlas, axis)- are joints where bones can rotate around each other and are found in the articulation of the skull with the spinal cord4. gliding joints - where bones can glide ; in wrist, ankles
26Thoracic cage: (25 bones) 1. Sternum – 1 bone2. Ribs – 24 bonesa. true ribs (14) – attach to the sternumb. false ribs (6) – not directly attach to sternum but through costal cartilage fused together and merged with rib # 7c. floating ribs (4) – not attach to sternum; no costal cartilage
34c. Girdles:1. Pectoral girdle (4 bones) * clavicle or collar bone * scapula or shoulder blade 2. Pelvic girdle (2)
35Kinds of Bones According to Shape: 1. long bones – in extremities2. short bones – wrist bones3. flat bones – shoulder blades4. irregular bones – vertebral column
36Factors that affect bone growth an maintenance: 1. Heredity 2. Nutrition - Calcium, phosphorous and protein – part of the bone matrix - Vit. D – needed for calcium and phosphorous ab sorption by the cell lining the s.i. - Vit. A and C – needed for ossification of bone matrix
373. Hormones – endocrine glands produce hormones that stimulate specific effects in certain cells. growth hormoneThyroxineParathyroid hormoneInsulinHelp regulate cell division, protein sysnthesis, calcium metabolism, and energy productionThe sex hormones estrogen or testosterone help bring about the cessation of bone growth.
38Calcitonin (thyroid gland) HormonesFunctionGrowth hormone (anterior pituitary gland)Increases the rate of mitosis of chondriocytes and osteoblastsThyroxine (thyroid gland)Increases the rate of protein synthesisIncreases energy production from all food typesInsulin (pancreas)Increases energy production from glucoseParathyroid hormone (parathyroid gland)Increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood (raises blood calcium level)Increase the absorption of calcium by the small intestine and kidneys (to the blood)Calcitonin (thyroid gland)Decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones (lowers blood calcium level)Estrogen (ovaries)Promotes closure of the epiphyses of the long bones (growth stops)Testosterone (testes)Helps retain calcium in bones to maintain a strong bone matrix
394. Exercise or stress Without this stress, bones will lose calcium faster than it is replaced.
42Skeleton of a frog: web-footed amphibian which lives near lakes and ponds. Moves by swimming and jumping. Maxillary: bony part of the jaw. Orbital cavity: skull cavity that contains the eye. Quadratojugal: cheek bone. Prootic: bones forming the auditory region. Phalange: each of the small bones forming the fingers. Occipital lateral: occipital lateral bone. Carpus: each of the bones forming the wrist. Metacarpus: each of the bones forming the part of the hand between the fingers and the wrist. Urostyle: adaptation of one or several vertebrae, stretching the hindquarters. Ilium: projecting hip bone. Ischium: one of three bones forming the ilium. Calcaneum: projecting heel bone. Talus: bone jointed with the leg bones. Phalanges: each of the bones forming the toes. Metatarsus: each of the bones forming the part of the foot between the toes and the heel. Tarsus: each of the bones forming the heel. Femur: thigh bone. Tibiofibula: leg bone. Sacral vertebra: vertebra of the sacrum. Vertebra: each of the bones forming the spinal column. Humerus: arm bone. Radio-ulna: forearm bone. Scapular: shoulder bone. Pterygoid: one of the bones of the palate, forming the root of the mouth. Skull: bony case of the brain.
55Composition of Bone Tissue 1. Inorganic matter – about 77 % * calcium phosphate * calcium carbonate * water * calcium fluoride * sodium chloride 2. Organic matter – cells, blood vessels, gelatinous substance – about 33 %
56B. According to composition: 1. Decalcified bone – contains more organic substances and less inorganic substances2. Calcified bone – contains more inorganic substances and less organic
57Disorders of the Skeletal System 1. Fractures – broken bones Types: a. Complete – broken bone is separated into 2 parts b. Incomplete – broken bone is not separated into 2 parts c. Simple – part of the broken bone does not pierce the skin d. Compound – part of the broken bone pierces and protrudes through the skin e. Greenstick – an incomplete break on one side of the bone with the other side bowed f. Comminuted – bone is broken into several fragments g. impacted fracture - one in which one fragment is firmly driven into the other.
582. Osteoporosis – weakening of the bones due to the removal of calcium salts. This is a common problem in older persons due to inactivity and a decrease in hormone production. It is more common in postmenopausal women because of the lack of estrogen. 3. Rickets – a disease of the children that is characterized by softening of bone due to deficiency of calcium salts in the bones and vitamin D. 4. Osteosarcoma – malignant tumor of the bones.
59Disorders of Joints1. Arthritis – general term for the different diseases of joints characterized by inflammation, swelling (edema), and pain.Types:Rheumatoid arthritis – most painful and crippling type. The synovial membrane thickens, synovial fluid accumulates causing swelling of the joints. The joint is invaded by fibrous connective tissue that ultimately ossifies making the joint immovable.
60b. Osteoarthritis – most common type – a degenerative disease that results from aging and wear. The articular cartilages gradually disintegrate which cause pain and restricts movement.
61c. Gouty arthritis – results from a metabolic disorder in which an abnormal amount of uric acid is retained in the blood and sodium urate crystals are deposited in the joints which causes swelling, tissue deterioration, and pain.
622. Bursitis – inflammation of the bursa due to excessive use and injury. 3. Dislocation – displacement of bones forming a joint. Pain, swelling, and reduced movement are associated with a dislocation.
644. Herniated disk – a condition in which an intervertebral disk protrudes beyond the edge of a vertebra. It is caused by excessive pressure on the vertebral column, which compresses a disk and causes it to bulge outward which put pressure on a spinal nerve and cause pain.
655. Spinal curvatures – usually congenital disorders Types: a 5. Spinal curvatures – usually congenital disorders Types: a. Kyphosis – excessive thoracic curvature of the vertebral column which produces a humpback condition.
66b. Lordosis – excessive lumbar curvature of the b. Lordosis – excessive lumbar curvature of the vertebral column which produces a swayback condition.
67c. Scoliosis – abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column. 6. Sprains – result from tearing or excessive stretching of the ligaments and tendons at a joint without dislocation.
68QUESTIONS: Give the differences between compact and spongy bone, and state where each type is found in the body.______________________________2. Name the bones that make up the rib cage, and describetwo functions of the rib cage __________________3. Give 1 specific example (bones) for each of the following types of joints:a. hinge _______________________________b. symphysis ___________________________c. pivot _______________________________d. suture ______________________________e. ball and socket _______________________