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Presentation on theme: "ACQUIRED HEART DISEASES"— Presentation transcript:

Ma. Rhodora R. Garcia-de Leon,M.D. FPPS, FPCC

2 Acquired Heart Diseases
Acute Rheumatic Fever Valvular Heart disease Infective Endocarditis Myocarditis Pericarditis Kawasaki Disease

3 ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER Epidemiology: Most common cause of acquired heart disease in all age groups In some developing countries, incidence is as high as 286/100,00 population In the Phil. incidence is 0.9/1,000 pop In the USA 0.5 /100,000 pop Age predilection: yrs Predisposing Factors: Family History, poverty, poor hygiene, medical deprivation

4 Rheumatic Fever: Etiology
Believed to be an immunologic lesion that occurs as a delayed sequela to GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION of the pharynx, and not of the skin. Certain serotypes of grp A strep are more frequently isolated: M types 1,3, 5, 6, 18 & 24

5 Rheumatic Fever : Pathology
The inflammatory lesion is found in many parts of the body, notably in the HEART, JOINTS, BRAIN and SKIN Valvular damage most frequently involves the MITRAL VALVE, less commonly the AORTIC, rarely the TRICUSPID & PULMONARY VLAVES

6 Clinical Manifestations
Acute rheumatic fever is diagnosed by the use of the Revised/ Updated JONE’S CRITERIA 5 Major criteria, 4 Minor criteria & Supporting Evidence of antecedent grp A infection History of strep pharyngitis 1-5 wks (ave. 3 wks) prior to onset of symptoms; latent period of 2-6 mos in isolated chorea

7 JONES CRITERIA: Major Manifestations
MIGRATORY POLYARTHRITIS * most common: seen in 75% of patients * typically involves large joints: knees, ankles, wrists, elbows * joints are generally swollen, hot, red, & exquisitely tender * not deforming * dramatic response to salicylates

8 Jones Criteria: Major Manifestations
CARDITIS * occurs in 50% - 60% of cases * usually presents as tachycardia, cardiac murmurs , + / - myo or pericardial involvement * cardiomegaly * signs of CHF * echo findings of valvular regurg does not satisfy criteria if no auscultatory evidence



11 Jones Criteria: Major Manifestations
CHOREA (Sydenham chorea) * occurs in 10% - 15% of cases * usually presents as an isolated, subtle, neurologic behavior disorder * uncontrollable movements, emotional lability, incoordination, facial grimacing disappears w/ sleep * long latent period bet. infection & chorea * rarely leads to neurologic sequelae

12 Major Manifestations ERYTHEMA MARGINATUM * rare, seen in less than 3% of cases * characteristic rash is erythematous, serpiginous, macular lesions w/ pale center, non-pruritic * usually seen in the trunk, not the face * accentuated by warming the skin


14 Major Manifestations SUBCUTANEOUS NODULES
* rare, seen in less than 1 % of cases * firm nodules, 1 cm in diameter, along extensor surfaces, near bony prominences


16 MINOR MANIFESTATIONS ARTHRALGIA in the absence of arthritis as a major criterion FEVER ELEVATED ACUTE PHASE REACTANTS (ESR, C-reactive protein) PROLONGED PR interval on ECG

an ABSOLUTE REQUIREMENT for the diagnosis of RF Streptococcal antibody tests most reliable Elevated or increasing ASO antibody titers * Titers at least 333 TU in children; elevated in 80% of pxs *Others: antideoxyribonuclease B, antistreptokinase, antihyaluronidase

18 Clinical Course Only carditis can cause permanent cardiac damage. Signs of mild carditis disappear rapidly in wks; severe carditis longer, 2-6 mos. Arthritis subsides in a few days to several wks; no permanent damage Chorea gradually subsides in 6-7 mos or longer; does not cause neurologic sequelae


20 Treatment Approaches to treatment: * 1. treat the grp A streptococcal infection single dose benzathine PCN; 10 days of appropriate oral antibiotics 2. use of anti-inflammatory agents to control clinical manifestations: aspirin or steroids 3. other support therapy: including Tx for CHF, chorea

21 Prevention Primary Prophylaxis – to prevent an initial attack of RF, a 10-day course of oral PCN Secondary Prophylaxis – to prevent colonization / infection with grp A strep every 21 or 28 days in pxs who already have RHD or had previous RF given for 10 yrs or longer: benzathine PCN, 1.2 MU, IM oral PCN V , 250mg BID; oral erythromycin 250mg BID; sulpha 1 gm OD


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