3What has happened? Roosevelt has died and Truman is now President (1945)Truman has brought WWII to an end with the bombing of Hiroshima and NagasakiThe aftershocks of the war were felt and previous alliances begin to break apart.Fear begins to rise aboutthe Soviets
4The Iron CurtainSatellite nations were set up by the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe and were Communist ruledWinston Churchill coined the phrase Iron Curtain, referring to the Soviet foreign policy from
5United States Reaction The United States removed troops after the war, leaving the Soviet Union as the lone superpower in Europe.President Truman invoked the policy of Containment in reaction to the Soviet take over of nations in Eastern Europe.Reaction to policy of containment- mistrust
6The Sides Communism Satellite Nations Soviet Union Mao Zedong EastCommunismSatellite NationsSoviet UnionMao ZedongHo Chi MinhFidel CastroWestCapitalismFree EnterpriseUnited StatesAlliesJohn F. KennedyLyndon B. JohnsonRichard NixonHenry KissingerSpiro Agnew
7Effects of the Cold War Constant state of military preparedness Large amounts of $ spent on military equipmentLarge amounts of money spent on technology to outdo the Soviets.Arms RaceSpace Race
8NATO v. Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization,1949 Allied United States, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany.Collective Security: agreement which pledged if one was attacked all were attacked and therefore all would help outGeneral Dwight Eisenhower commander of NATOMilitary Alliance, 1955Allied Soviet Union and all Satellite NationsSped up the arms raceCollective Security: agreement which pledged if one was attacked all were attacked and therefore all would help out
9The Cold War UN established as a world peacekeeping organization. Truman Doctrine (1947): Shifted the US away from peacetime isolation and supplied aid to Greece and Turkey, in hopes of containing CommunismMarshall Plan: extended the Truman Doctrine and gave $, supplies, and machinery to Western European Countries that were struggling to further contain Communism
10BerlinCity was divided into East (Soviet) controlled and West (Allies) controlled.Berlin Blockade - The Soviets blockaded all traffic from West Berlin to force the Allies to back down.Truman ordered the Berlin Airlift to supply the people for 10 monthsThe blockade was ended May 1949
12Cold War In AsiaUS sought to reestablish trade and prevent communist spread over the continentPhilippines – US gave independence (1946) and $ in exchange for military bases and special business privilegesJapan – US occupied, Douglas MacArthur placed in charge to turn Japan into a Democratic nation Japan was given its independence.
13Cold War in AsiaChina –In hopes for peace Roosevelt fought to give China a seat on the UN Security CouncilAfter Civil War China was ruled by the Communist party led by Mao ZedongTruman recognized the leader of the Nationalist government (Chiang Kai-shek), pushed to Taiwan, as the legitimate Chinese government and they were given the Chinese seat.
14Korean War 38th Parallel -point to which the Soviets had occupied KoreaNorth Korea (north of the 38thparallel)isolated itself from all non-satellite nationsand strengthened its militaryUN (1948) recognized the South Korean leader as the leader of all of KoreaUS withdrew troops in 1949 against many opinionsJune 1950, The North invaded the South and the UN was called to draft an order of withdrawing Northern troops.After 2 days of non-compliance, all UN members were called to aid South Korea
15Fighting in Korea Begins MacArthur commanded the troops and was told to keep all fighting south of the 38th parallelTruman did not declare war,but sent troops as an act ofcommander in chief and underthe UN charter1953 a cease fire was calledand the original borders werereestablishedResult was a commitment by many wavering countries to support the United States in the Cold War.
16President Eisenhower’s Approach to Foreign Policy Eisenhower ApproachContainment with forceDiplomacy + Covert activities of the CIAIran and GuatemalaCIA funded revolts to rid the country of unfriendly governmentsMiddle East instability caused a minor break of the Allies, which was shortly repaired
17President Eisenhower’s Approach to Foreign Policy Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) $ and Military AidSuez crisis: saw the need to create such a planFirst tested in 1958 by Lebanon crisis – American troops sent to control the country until a stable government was put in place(1957)Sputnik (Soviet Satellite) was launched causing fears as they could be monitoring U.S and they were seemingly superiorNASA was created to compete withthe Soviet space exploration
18President Eisenhower’s Approach to Foreign Policy 1959 Fidel Castro takes over Cubastep towards democracy?Fidel Castro made contact with Communist countries and fears began to rise.
19President Kennedy’s Approach to Foreign Policy *****The Cold War escalates during this period of American History ******The Bay of Pigs in 1961, ledby President John F. Kennedy,a failed attempt to overthrowCastro by the CIA and Cubanrevolutionaries failedCuban Missile Crisis (1962)– U-2 spy planes documented Soviet Missiles in Cuba. After a Khrushchev-Kennedy show down the Soviets backed down.
20President Kennedy’s Approach to Foreign Policy Peace Corps (1961)fight poverty and disease throughout the world in hopes of stopping the spread of communism.Despite President Kennedy’s talks with Khrushchev, 1961 theBerlin Wall was constructedto keep the people in theEastern portion
21President Kennedy’s Approach to Foreign Policy Kennedy increased the U.S presence in Vietnam just as Eisenhower“The New Frontier” was a response and a call to the younger generation of Americans and their duty to be participants in a global effort of peace. ASK NOT WHAT YOUR……….Signed the Nuclear Test Band Treaty prior to his assassination in November, 1963
22Table of Contents Unit Outline Foreign Policy Reading Berlin Wall Project SheetCold War PacketKorean War PacketEisenhowerSpace RaceVietnam PacketSince Vietnam Packet
23Build up to VietnamJohnson’s dilemma – American people wanted peace, campaign promises, domino theory, and an unstable South Vietnamese government.Johnson approved secret bombings of N. Vietnam under the pressure of the Domino Theory.Misled Congress in order to coerce their approval to enter the war
24Build up in VietnamTonkin Gulf Resolution (1964) – Congressional okay for Johnson to bomb N. Vietnam – any means necessary to prevent further aggression.Johnson saw this as a blanket authorization, rather than a temporary measure to amend the attack of the U.S boats.February 1965, Johnsoncommitted ground troopsto the war
25Build up in VietnamUnlike previous wars this War was not supported by the global community and thus the U.S fought the aloneTet Offensive – occurred on January, 1968 and was the turning point of the war as America realized that the war was not going to end anytime soon – demoralizingWar continued foranother 5 years
26New Type of War There were no battlefronts in which to mark victory “dirty, ruthless, and wandering war”Search-and-Destroy Strategies were used by the American troops to combat the guerilla tactics of the VietcongUse of Napalm and Agent Orange in order to clear large portions of land
27“We have to often been disappointed by the optimism of the American leaders to have faith any longer in the silver linings… To say that we are closer to victory today is to believe, in the face of evidence, the optimists who have been wrong in the past. To suggest we are on the edge of defeat is to yield to unreasonable pessimism. To say that we are mired in stalemate seems the only realistic, yet unsatisfactory conclusion.” (Walter Cronkite)
28President Nixon’s Foreign Policy and the Vietnam War Great desire to be remembered as a peacekeeper, and chose Henry Kissenger to achieve this desireProclaimed Détente – a relaxing of the tensions between the U.S and the Soviet Union.Proposed SALT I and II meetings between the U.S. and the Soviet Unionto achieve the Détente
29After a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation After a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation. Let all nations know that during this administration our lines of communication will be open. We seek an open world – open to ideas, open to the exchange of goods and people…” (President Nixon’s Inaugural Address)
30President Nixon’s Foreign Policy and the Vietnam War “Vietnamization”: two fold process of removing U.S troops and replacing them with Vietnamese conscriptsWar Powers Act (1973) after overriding a Presidential Veto, it required Congressional approval for troop deployment over 60 days.1973 organized a cease fire and the U.S military presence was ended, however not until 1975 under Gerald Ford was the War over
31President Nixon’s Foreign Policy and the Vietnam War Negotiated improved relations with ChinaVietnam: campaign promises to end the war were not met as it was a complicated messPentagon Papers – documented the lies that the executive branch did not want Congress or the people to see about the War in Vietnam.The Impact: Distrust and anger, led to a Supreme Court CaseNew York Times v. United States: Should items of National Security be allowed to be published – it was ruled that the Pentagon Papers were not of National Security
32Carter Administration’s Foreign Policy Use Morality rather than secrecy and economic mightSigned the control of the Panama Canal over to Panama: a symbol of the end of American intervention in Latin America and a New Policy toward Latin AmericaCut off military aid and $ to countries that did not respect Human Rights. Such as China, U.S.S.R, Latin American countries, Middle Eastern Countries, etc.Used the military as a last resort, relied heavily upon diplomacy
33Carter Administration’s Foreign Policy Middle East: Greatest Foreign Policy triumph and failureCamp David Accords: Peace agreement between Israel and Egypt, able to negotiate between two arch enemies
34“This is the first time that an Arab and an Israeli leader have signed a comprehensive framework for peace. It contains the seeds of a time when the Middle East, with all its vast potential, may be a land of human richness and fulfillment, rather than a land of bitterness and continued conflict.” (Jimmy Carter)
35Carter’s Failure in the Middle East Iran Hostage CrisisNot able to negotiate their release a huge part of his defeat in 1980 Presidential election. Hostages were held for 444 days
36Reagan Administration’s Foreign Policy “Star Wars”/SDI: symbol of Reagan’s commitment to building up the America’s military defenseLarge amounts of money was spent on the military/defense – growing the deficit and increasing deficit spendingBelieved the Soviet Union was the “Evil Empire”
37Reagan Administration’s Foreign Policy President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev met and agreed to a process of de-militarizing of European countries, removing nuclear missiles on the continentIran-Contra Scandal was yet another scandal dealing with the role of the executive and legislative branch in foreign policy
38Bush Administration’s Foreign Policy Berlin Wall was torn down ( ),an act of symbolism of the era of change and the end to the Soviet Union (1991)Coordinated the international Persian Gulf WarThe Persian Gulf War defined the U.S role in the Post-Cold War EraAmerica began to “De-militarize” around the world as a result of the desires of the American people, the move toward a global economy
39Clinton Administration’s Foreign Policy Diplomacy + Economic Pressure and if necessary military force through the UN was the Clinton PolicyConflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, Chechyna, and Haiti were resolvedGains in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: PLO and Israeli peace talks and accordsEnter in the Global Economy:countries interdependent uponeach other’s economy
40InternationalismNew World order was about interdependence and cooperationCoalitions to fight against enemies of the world – poverty, diseases, hunger, genocide …..Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Persian GulfMutual respect for each other
41Current Events Articles Groups of 4Group report sheetAreas of the world and issueActionsOpinionsOne person records and one person reports back to the class.
42President Bush Intelligence + Military Force + Diplomacy + UN September 11, 2001War on TerrorGlobal hunt for Al Quida and Osama Bin LadenU.S alone?Iraqi FreedomWeapons of Mass DestructionConnects with Osama Bin Laden
43President George Bush Darfur – Food and aid to refugee camps UN Peace Keeping ForceIran – Strong encouragement of sanctions in the UN"To support the aspirations of the Iranian people for freedom in their own country."Mexican Border and ImmigrationJobsEconomyRights?