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US Foreign Policy 1945 – Present.

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1 US Foreign Policy 1945 – Present


3 What has happened? Roosevelt has died and Truman
is now President (1945) Truman has brought WWII to an end with the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The aftershocks of the war were felt and previous alliances begin to break apart. Fear begins to rise about the Soviets

4 The Iron Curtain Satellite nations were set up by the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe and were Communist ruled Winston Churchill coined the phrase Iron Curtain, referring to the Soviet foreign policy from

5 United States Reaction
The United States removed troops after the war, leaving the Soviet Union as the lone superpower in Europe. President Truman invoked the policy of Containment in reaction to the Soviet take over of nations in Eastern Europe. Reaction to policy of containment- mistrust

6 The Sides Communism Satellite Nations Soviet Union Mao Zedong
East Communism Satellite Nations Soviet Union Mao Zedong Ho Chi Minh Fidel Castro West Capitalism Free Enterprise United States Allies John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard Nixon Henry Kissinger Spiro Agnew

7 Effects of the Cold War Constant state of military preparedness
Large amounts of $ spent on military equipment Large amounts of money spent on technology to outdo the Soviets. Arms Race Space Race

8 NATO v. Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization,1949
Allied United States, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany. Collective Security: agreement which pledged if one was attacked all were attacked and therefore all would help out General Dwight Eisenhower commander of NATO Military Alliance, 1955 Allied Soviet Union and all Satellite Nations Sped up the arms race Collective Security: agreement which pledged if one was attacked all were attacked and therefore all would help out

9 The Cold War UN established as a world peacekeeping organization.
Truman Doctrine (1947): Shifted the US away from peacetime isolation and supplied aid to Greece and Turkey, in hopes of containing Communism Marshall Plan: extended the Truman Doctrine and gave $, supplies, and machinery to Western European Countries that were struggling to further contain Communism

10 Berlin City was divided into East (Soviet) controlled and West (Allies) controlled. Berlin Blockade - The Soviets blockaded all traffic from West Berlin to force the Allies to back down. Truman ordered the Berlin Airlift to supply the people for 10 months The blockade was ended May 1949

11 The Cold War in Asia

12 Cold War In Asia US sought to reestablish trade and prevent communist spread over the continent Philippines – US gave independence (1946) and $ in exchange for military bases and special business privileges Japan – US occupied, Douglas MacArthur placed in charge to turn Japan into a Democratic nation Japan was given its independence.

13 Cold War in Asia China – In hopes for peace Roosevelt fought to give China a seat on the UN Security Council After Civil War China was ruled by the Communist party led by Mao Zedong Truman recognized the leader of the Nationalist government (Chiang Kai-shek), pushed to Taiwan, as the legitimate Chinese government and they were given the Chinese seat.

14 Korean War 38th Parallel -point to which
the Soviets had occupied Korea North Korea (north of the 38th parallel) isolated itself from all non-satellite nations and strengthened its military UN (1948) recognized the South Korean leader as the leader of all of Korea US withdrew troops in 1949 against many opinions June 1950, The North invaded the South and the UN was called to draft an order of withdrawing Northern troops. After 2 days of non-compliance, all UN members were called to aid South Korea

15 Fighting in Korea Begins
MacArthur commanded the troops and was told to keep all fighting south of the 38th parallel Truman did not declare war, but sent troops as an act of commander in chief and under the UN charter 1953 a cease fire was called and the original borders were reestablished Result was a commitment by many wavering countries to support the United States in the Cold War.

16 President Eisenhower’s Approach to Foreign Policy
Eisenhower Approach Containment with force Diplomacy + Covert activities of the CIA Iran and Guatemala CIA funded revolts to rid the country of unfriendly governments Middle East instability caused a minor break of the Allies, which was shortly repaired

17 President Eisenhower’s Approach to Foreign Policy
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) $ and Military Aid Suez crisis: saw the need to create such a plan First tested in 1958 by Lebanon crisis – American troops sent to control the country until a stable government was put in place (1957)Sputnik (Soviet Satellite) was launched causing fears as they could be monitoring U.S and they were seemingly superior NASA was created to compete with the Soviet space exploration

18 President Eisenhower’s Approach to Foreign Policy
1959 Fidel Castro takes over Cuba step towards democracy? Fidel Castro made contact with Communist countries and fears began to rise.

19 President Kennedy’s Approach to Foreign Policy
*****The Cold War escalates during this period of American History ****** The Bay of Pigs in 1961, led by President John F. Kennedy, a failed attempt to overthrow Castro by the CIA and Cuban revolutionaries failed Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)– U-2 spy planes documented Soviet Missiles in Cuba. After a Khrushchev-Kennedy show down the Soviets backed down.

20 President Kennedy’s Approach to Foreign Policy
Peace Corps (1961) fight poverty and disease throughout the world in hopes of stopping the spread of communism. Despite President Kennedy’s talks with Khrushchev, 1961 the Berlin Wall was constructed to keep the people in the Eastern portion

21 President Kennedy’s Approach to Foreign Policy
Kennedy increased the U.S presence in Vietnam just as Eisenhower “The New Frontier” was a response and a call to the younger generation of Americans and their duty to be participants in a global effort of peace. ASK NOT WHAT YOUR………. Signed the Nuclear Test Band Treaty prior to his assassination in November, 1963

22 Table of Contents Unit Outline Foreign Policy Reading
Berlin Wall Project Sheet Cold War Packet Korean War Packet Eisenhower Space Race Vietnam Packet Since Vietnam Packet

23 Build up to Vietnam Johnson’s dilemma – American people wanted peace, campaign promises, domino theory, and an unstable South Vietnamese government. Johnson approved secret bombings of N. Vietnam under the pressure of the Domino Theory. Misled Congress in order to coerce their approval to enter the war

24 Build up in Vietnam Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964) – Congressional okay for Johnson to bomb N. Vietnam – any means necessary to prevent further aggression. Johnson saw this as a blanket authorization, rather than a temporary measure to amend the attack of the U.S boats. February 1965, Johnson committed ground troops to the war

25 Build up in Vietnam Unlike previous wars this War was not supported by the global community and thus the U.S fought the alone Tet Offensive – occurred on January, 1968 and was the turning point of the war as America realized that the war was not going to end anytime soon – demoralizing War continued for another 5 years

26 New Type of War There were no battlefronts in which to mark victory
“dirty, ruthless, and wandering war” Search-and-Destroy Strategies were used by the American troops to combat the guerilla tactics of the Vietcong Use of Napalm and Agent Orange in order to clear large portions of land

27 “We have to often been disappointed by the optimism of the American leaders to have faith any longer in the silver linings… To say that we are closer to victory today is to believe, in the face of evidence, the optimists who have been wrong in the past. To suggest we are on the edge of defeat is to yield to unreasonable pessimism. To say that we are mired in stalemate seems the only realistic, yet unsatisfactory conclusion.” (Walter Cronkite)

28 President Nixon’s Foreign Policy and the Vietnam War
Great desire to be remembered as a peacekeeper, and chose Henry Kissenger to achieve this desire Proclaimed Détente – a relaxing of the tensions between the U.S and the Soviet Union. Proposed SALT I and II meetings between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to achieve the Détente

29 After a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation
After a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation. Let all nations know that during this administration our lines of communication will be open. We seek an open world – open to ideas, open to the exchange of goods and people…” (President Nixon’s Inaugural Address)

30 President Nixon’s Foreign Policy and the Vietnam War
“Vietnamization”: two fold process of removing U.S troops and replacing them with Vietnamese conscripts War Powers Act (1973) after overriding a Presidential Veto, it required Congressional approval for troop deployment over 60 days. 1973 organized a cease fire and the U.S military presence was ended, however not until 1975 under Gerald Ford was the War over

31 President Nixon’s Foreign Policy and the Vietnam War
Negotiated improved relations with China Vietnam: campaign promises to end the war were not met as it was a complicated mess Pentagon Papers – documented the lies that the executive branch did not want Congress or the people to see about the War in Vietnam. The Impact: Distrust and anger, led to a Supreme Court Case New York Times v. United States: Should items of National Security be allowed to be published – it was ruled that the Pentagon Papers were not of National Security

32 Carter Administration’s Foreign Policy
Use Morality rather than secrecy and economic might Signed the control of the Panama Canal over to Panama: a symbol of the end of American intervention in Latin America and a New Policy toward Latin America Cut off military aid and $ to countries that did not respect Human Rights. Such as China, U.S.S.R, Latin American countries, Middle Eastern Countries, etc. Used the military as a last resort, relied heavily upon diplomacy

33 Carter Administration’s Foreign Policy
Middle East: Greatest Foreign Policy triumph and failure Camp David Accords: Peace agreement between Israel and Egypt, able to negotiate between two arch enemies

34 “This is the first time that an Arab and an Israeli leader have signed a comprehensive framework for peace. It contains the seeds of a time when the Middle East, with all its vast potential, may be a land of human richness and fulfillment, rather than a land of bitterness and continued conflict.” (Jimmy Carter)

35 Carter’s Failure in the Middle East
Iran Hostage Crisis Not able to negotiate their release a huge part of his defeat in 1980 Presidential election. Hostages were held for 444 days

36 Reagan Administration’s Foreign Policy
“Star Wars”/SDI: symbol of Reagan’s commitment to building up the America’s military defense Large amounts of money was spent on the military/defense – growing the deficit and increasing deficit spending Believed the Soviet Union was the “Evil Empire”

37 Reagan Administration’s Foreign Policy
President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev met and agreed to a process of de-militarizing of European countries, removing nuclear missiles on the continent Iran-Contra Scandal was yet another scandal dealing with the role of the executive and legislative branch in foreign policy

38 Bush Administration’s Foreign Policy
Berlin Wall was torn down ( ),an act of symbolism of the era of change and the end to the Soviet Union (1991) Coordinated the international Persian Gulf War The Persian Gulf War defined the U.S role in the Post-Cold War Era America began to “De-militarize” around the world as a result of the desires of the American people, the move toward a global economy

39 Clinton Administration’s Foreign Policy
Diplomacy + Economic Pressure and if necessary military force through the UN was the Clinton Policy Conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, Chechyna, and Haiti were resolved Gains in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: PLO and Israeli peace talks and accords Enter in the Global Economy: countries interdependent upon each other’s economy

40 Internationalism New World order was about interdependence and cooperation Coalitions to fight against enemies of the world – poverty, diseases, hunger, genocide ….. Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Persian Gulf Mutual respect for each other

41 Current Events Articles
Groups of 4 Group report sheet Areas of the world and issue Actions Opinions One person records and one person reports back to the class.

42 President Bush Intelligence + Military Force + Diplomacy + UN
September 11, 2001 War on Terror Global hunt for Al Quida and Osama Bin Laden U.S alone? Iraqi Freedom Weapons of Mass Destruction Connects with Osama Bin Laden

43 President George Bush Darfur – Food and aid to refugee camps
UN Peace Keeping Force Iran – Strong encouragement of sanctions in the UN "To support the aspirations of the Iranian people for freedom in their own country." Mexican Border and Immigration Jobs Economy Rights?

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