Presentation on theme: "What Managers Do Managers (or administrators)"— Presentation transcript:
1What Managers Do Managers (or administrators) Individuals who achieve goals through other people.Managerial ActivitiesMake decisionsAllocate resourcesDirect activities of others to attain goals
2Where Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
3Management Functions Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading ControllingManagement Functions
4Management Functions (cont’d) PlanningA process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing different ways to coordinate activities.
5Management Functions (cont’d) OrganizingDetermining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
6Management Functions (cont’d) LeadingA function that includes giving vision, motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
7Management Functions (cont’d) ControllingMonitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
8What Is Planning? Planning A primary functional managerial activity that involves:Defining the organization’s goalsEstablishing an overall strategy for achieving those goalsDeveloping a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate organizational work.Types of planningInformal: not written down, short-term focus; specific to an organizational unit.Formal: written, specific, and long-term focus, involves shared goals for the organization.
9Why Do Managers Plan? Purposes of Planning Provides direction Reduces uncertaintyMinimizes waste and redundancySets the standards for controlling
10Planning and Performance The Relationship Between Planning And PerformanceFormal planning is associated with:Higher profits and returns of assets.Positive financial results.The quality of planning and implementation affects performance more than the extent of planning.The external environment can reduce the impact of planning on performance,Formal planning must be used for several years before planning begins to affect performance.
11How Do Managers Plan? Elements of Planning Goals (also Objectives) Desired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entire organizationsProvide direction and evaluation performance criteriaPlansDocuments that outline how goals are to be accomplishedDescribe how resources are to be allocated and establish activity schedules
12Types of Goals Financial Goals Strategic Goals Are related to the expected internal financial performance of the organization.Strategic GoalsAre related to the performance of the firm relative to factors in its external environment (e.g., competitors).Stated Goals versus Real GoalsBroadly-worded official statements of the organization (intended for public consumption) that may be irrelevant to its real goals (what actually goes on in the organization).
15Planning in the Hierarchy of Organizations Exhibit 7.7
16Managers Versus Leaders Are appointed to their position.Can influence people only to the extent of the formal authority of their position.Do not necessarily have the skills and capabilities to be leaders.LeadersAre appointed or emerge from within a work group.Can influence other people and have managerial authority.Do not necessarily have the skills and capabilities to be managers.Leadership is the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals.
17The Managerial Grid Managerial Grid Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:Concern for peopleConcern for productionPlaces managerial styles in five categories:Impoverished managementTask managementMiddle-of-the-road managementCountry club managementTeam management
19Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership Transactional LeadershipLeaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.Transformational LeadershipLeaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements.Leaders who also are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.
20Cutting Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Charismatic LeadershipAn enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.Characteristics of charismatic leaders:Have a vision.Are able to articulate the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
21Cutting Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Visionary LeadershipA leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.Visionary leaders have the ability to:Explain the vision to others.Express the vision not just verbally but through behavior.Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.
22Cutting Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Team Leadership CharacteristicsHaving patience to share informationBeing able to trust others and to give up authorityUnderstanding when to interveneTeam Leader’s JobManaging the team’s external boundaryFacilitating the team processCoaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communication
23Cutting Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Team Leadership RolesLiaison with external constituenciesTroubleshooterConflict managerCoach
25Beyond Charismatic Leadership Level 5 LeadersPossess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic leadership qualities of individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, and the ability to stimulate others to high performance.Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company.
26Contemporary Planning Techniques ScenarioA consistent view of what the future is likely to be.Scenario PlanningAn attempt not try to predict the future but to reduce uncertainty by playing out potential situations under different specified conditions.Contingency PlanningDeveloping scenarios that allow managers determine in advance what their actions should be should a considered event actually occur.
27ORGANIZING Organizing Organization structure The process of arranging people and other resources to work together to accomplish a goal.Organization structureThe system of tasks, workflows, reporting relationships, and communication channels that link together diverse individuals and groups.
28Organizing viewed in relationship with the other management functions.
29What are the major types of organization structures? Functional structuresPeople with similar skills and performing similar tasks are grouped together into formal work units.Members work in their functional areas of expertise.Are not limited to businesses.Work well for small organizations producing few products or services.
30What are the new developments in organization structures? Network structuresA central core that is linked through networks of relationships with outside contractors and suppliers of essential services.Own only core components and use strategic alliances or outsourcing to provide other components.
31What are the major types of organization structures? Divisional structuresGroup together people who work on the same product or process, serve similar customers, and/or are located in the same area or geographical region.Common in complex organizations.Avoid problems associated with functional structures.
32The boundary less organization eliminates internal and external barriers.
33What organizing trends are changing the workplace? Contemporary organizing trends include:Shorter chains of command.Less unity of command.Wider spans of control.More delegation and empowerment.Decentralization with centralization.Reduced use of staff.
34What organizing trends are changing the workplace? Shorter chains of commandThe line of authority that vertically links all persons with successively higher levels of management.Organizing trend:Organizations are being “streamlined” by cutting unnecessary levels of management.Flatter structures are viewed as a competitive advantage.
35What organizing trends are changing the workplace? Less unity of commandEach person in an organization should report to one and only one supervisor.Organizing trend:Organizations are using more cross-functional teams, task forces, and horizontal structures.Organizations are becoming more customer conscious.Employees often find themselves working for more than one boss.
36What organizing trends are changing the workplace? Wider spans of controlThe number of persons directly reporting to a manager.Organizing trend:Many organizations are shifting to wider spans of control as levels of management are eliminated.Managers have responsibility for a larger number of subordinates who operate with less direct supervision.
37Spans of control in “flat” versus “tall” structures.
38What organizing trends are changing the workplace? More delegation and empowermentDelegation is the process of entrusting work to others by giving them the right to make decisions and take action.The manager assigns responsibility, grants authority to act, and creates accountability.Authority should be commensurate with responsibility.
39What organizing trends are changing the workplace? Guidelines for effective delegation:Carefully choose the person to whom you delegate.Define the responsibility; make the assignment clear.Agree on performance objectives and standards.Agree on a performance timetable.Give authority; allow the other person to act independently.Show trust in the other person.Provide performance support.Give performance feedbackRecognize and reinforce progress.Help when things go wrong.Don’t forget your accountability for performance results.
40What organizing trends are changing the workplace? More delegation and empowerment (cont.)A common management failure is unwillingness to delegate.Delegation leads to empowerment.Organizing trend:Managers are delegating more and finding more ways to empower people at all levels.
41What organizing trends are changing the workplace? Reduced use of staffSpecialized staffPeople who perform a technical service or provide special problem-solving expertise to other parts of the organization.Personal staffPeople working in “assistant-to” positions that provide special support to higher-level managers.
42RecruitmentProcess of locating, identifying, and attracting capable candidatesCan be for current or future needsCritical activity for some corporations.What sources do we use for recruitmentOnce managers know their staffing needs, they can begin to look for capable people to fill those needs.The process to do this is called recruitment. It is a process that locates, identifies, and attracts capable candidates for the work.For many organizations, this has become a critical activity. As the business demands change, so do the skills required. And there are some skill sets that are in high demand which means organizations have to have a good plan to locate the people with the unique skills.7
43Job Performance, Selection Criteria, and Predictors
46What Is Control? Control The Purpose of Control The process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations.The Purpose of ControlTo ensure that activities are completed in ways that lead to accomplishment of organizational goals.
47Why Is Control Important? As the final link in management functions:PlanningControls let managers know whether their goals and plans are on target and what future actions to take.Empowering employeesControl systems provide managers with information and feedback on employee performance.Protecting the workplaceControls enhance physical security and help minimize workplace disruptions.
51Taking Managerial Action Courses of Action“Doing nothing”Only if deviation is judged to be insignificant.Correcting actual (current) performanceImmediate corrective action to correct the problem at once.Basic corrective action to locate and to correct the source of the deviation.Corrective ActionsChange strategy, structure, compensation scheme, or training programs; redesign jobs; or fire employees
52Taking Managerial Action (cont’d) Courses of Action (cont’d)Revising the standardExamining the standard to ascertain whether or not the standard is realistic, fair, and achievable.Upholding the validity of the standard.Resetting goals that were initially set too low or too high.
53Controlling for Organizational Performance What Is Performance?The end result of an activityWhat Is Organizational Performance?The accumulated end results of all of the organization’s work processes and activitiesDesigning strategies, work processes, and work activities.Coordinating the work of employees
54Understanding Groups Group Formal groups Informal groups Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular goals.Formal groupsWork groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks.Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals.Informal groupsGroups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.
55Stages in Group Development FormingMembers join and begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.StormingIntragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership.NormingClose relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior.PerformingA fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand.AdjourningThe group prepares to disband and is no longer concerned with high levels of performance.
57Group Structure: Group Size Small groupsComplete tasks faster than larger groups.Make more effective use of facts.Large groupsSolve problems better than small groups.Are good for getting diverse input.Are more effective in fact-finding.Social LoafingThe tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when work individually.
58Group Structure (cont’d) Group CohesivenessThe degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals.Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals.
59The Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity Exhibit 1.6
60Techniques for Making More Creative Group Decisions Exhibit 1.7
61Advantages of Using Teams Teams outperform individuals.Teams provide a way to better use employee talents.Teams are more flexible and responsive.Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.
62What Is a Team? Work Team Types of Teams A group whose members work intensely on a specific common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.Types of TeamsProblem-solving teamsSelf-managed work teamsCross-functional teamsVirtual teams
63Types of Teams Problem-solving Teams Self-managed Work Teams Employees from the same department and functional area who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problemsSelf-managed Work TeamsA formal group of employees who operate without a manager and responsible for a complete work process or segment.
64Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-functional TeamsA hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks.Virtual TeamsTeams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
65Examples of Formal Groups Command GroupsGroups that are determined by the organization chart and composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager.Task GroupsGroups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because once the task is completed, the group disbands.
66Examples of Formal Groups (cont’d) Cross-functional TeamsGroups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each others’ jobs.Self-managed TeamsGroups that are essentially independent and in addition to their own tasks, take on traditional responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations.
68Characteristics of Effective Teams Have a clear understanding of their goals.Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills.Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members.Are unified in their commitment to team goals.Have good communication systems.Possess effective negotiating skillsHave appropriate leadershipHave both internally and externally supportive environments
69Job satisfactionA general attitude toward one’s job, the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.