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National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PROJECT MERCURY.

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1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration


3 Mercury Spacecraft The first U.S. spaceship was a cone-shaped one-man capsule with a cylinder mounted on top. Two meters (6 ft, 10 in) long, 1.9 meters (6 ft, 2 1/2 in) in diameter, a 5.8 meter (19 ft, 2 in) escape tower was fastened to the cylinder of the capsule. The blunt end was covered with an ablative heat shield to protect it against the 3000 degree heat of entry into the atmosphere. The Mercury program used two launch vehicles: A Redstone for the suborbital and an Atlas for the four orbital flights. Prior to the manned flights, unmanned tests of the booster and the capsule, carrying a chimpanzee, were made. Each astronaut named his capsule and added the numeral 7 to denote the teamwork of the original astronauts. The objectives of the Mercury Project, as stated at the time of project go-ahead, were as follows: Place a manned spacecraft in orbital flight around the earth. Investigate man's performance capabilities and his ability to function in the environment of space. Recover the man and the spacecraft safely. PROJECT MERCURY

4 Mercury-Redstone 3 FREEDOM 7 May 5, 1961 Alan B. Shepard, Jr. 15 minutes, 28 seconds Suborbital flight that successfully put the first American in space. Mercury-Redstone 4 LIBERTY BELL 7 July 21, 1961 Virgil I. Grissom 15 minutes, 37 seconds Also suborbital; successful flight but the spacecraft sank shortly after splashdown. Mercury-Atlas 6 FRIENDSHIP 7 February 20, 1962 John H. Glenn, Jr. 04 hours, 55 minutes 23 seconds Three-orbit flight that placed the first American into orbit. Mercury-Atlas 7 AURORA 7 May 24, 1962 M. Scott Carpenter 04 hours, 56 minutes, 5 seconds Confirmed the success of Mercury-Atlas 6 by duplicating flight. Mercury-Atlas 8 SIGMA 7 October 03, 1962 Walter M. Schirra, Jr. 09 hours, 13 minutes, 11 seconds Six-orbit engineering test flight. Mercury-Atlas 9 FAITH 7 May 15-16, 1963 L. Gordon Cooper, Jr. 34 hours, 19 minutes, 49 seconds Last Mercury mission; completed 22 orbits to evaluate effects of one day in space.

5 Alan Shepard, Jr. The First American in Space Altitude: statute miles Orbits: 0 Duration: 0 Days, 0 hours, 15 min, 28 seconds Distance: 303 statute miles Velocity: 5,134 mph Max Q: 580 psf Max G: 11

6 Altitude: x 100 statute miles Inclination: Orbits: 3 Period: 88min 29sec Duration: 0 Days, 4 hours, 55 min, 23 seconds Distance: 75,679 statute miles Velocity: 17,544 mph Max Q: 982 psf Max G: 7.7 First American in Orbit JOHN GLENN


8 Gemini Goals The second U.S. manned space program was announced in January Its two-man crew gave it its name, Gemini, for the third constellation of the Zodiac and its twin stars, Castor and Pollux. Gemini involved 12 flights, including two unmanned flight tests of the equipment. Like Mercury's, its major objectives were clear-cut: To subject man and equipment to space flight up to two weeks in duration. To rendezvous and dock with orbiting vehicles and to maneuver the docked combination by using the target vehicle's propulsion system; To perfect methods of entering the atmosphere and landing at a preselected point on land. Its goals were also met, with the exception of a land landing, which was cancelled in 1964.

9 The Spacecraft The spacecraft was an enlargement of the familiar Mercury capsule--5.8m (19 ft) long, 3m (10 ft) in diameter, and about 3810 kilograms (8400 pounds) in weight. Engineering changes simplified maintenance and made it more maneuverable for the pilots. The Titan II rocket, more powerful than the Redstone, placed the larger spacecraft into orbit. Sometimes referred to as Gemini-Titan for the craft and its launch vehicle, each flight was designated by a Roman numeral. Only the first capsule was nicknamed; Command Pilot Virgil Grissom called it the Molly Brown in reference to his Mercury spacecraft that sank. Gemini 3

10 The Manned Flights Gemini III, Molly Brown March 23, 1965 Virgil I. Grissom, John W. Young 4 hours, 52 minutes 31 seconds First manned Gemini flight, three orbits. Gemini IV June 03-07, 1965 James A. McDivitt, Edward H. White II 4 days 1 hour 56 minutes 12 seconds Included first extravehicular activity (EVA) by an American; White's "space walk" was a 22 minute EVA exercise. Gemini V August 21-29, 1965 L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., Charles Conrad, Jr. 7 days 22 hours 55 minutes 14 seconds First use of fuel cells for electrical power; evaluated guidance and navigation system for future rendezvous missions. Completed 120 orbits. Gemini VII December 04-18, 1965 Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr. 13 days, 18 hours, 35 minutes 1 seconds When the Gemini VI mission was scrubbed because its Agena target for rendezvous and docking failed, Gemini VII was used for the rendezvous instead. Primary objective was to determine whether humans could live in space for 14 days. Gemini VI-A December 15-16, 1965 Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Thomas P. Stafford.

11 1 Day 1 hour 51 minutes 24 seconds First space rendezvous accomplished with Gemini VII, station-keeping for over five hours at distances from 0.3 to 90 m (1 to 295 ft). Gemini VIII March 16, 1966 Neil A. Armstrong, David R. Scott 10 hours 41 minutes 26 seconds Accomplished first docking with another space vehicle, an unmanned Agena stage. A malfunction caused uncontrollable spinning of the craft; the crew undocked and effected the first emergency landing of a manned U.S. space mission. Gemini IX-A June 03-06, 1966 Thomas P. Stafford, Eugene A. Cernan 3 days 21 hours Rescheduled from May to rendezvous and dock with augmented target docking adapter (ATDA) after original Agena target vehicle failed to orbit. ATDA shroud did not completely separate, making docking impossible. Three different types of rendezvous, two hours of EVA, and 44 orbits were completed. Gemini X July 18-21, 1966 John W. Young, Michael Collins 2 days 22 hours 46 minutes 39 seconds First use of Agena target vehicle's propulsion systems. Spacecraft also rendezvoused with Gemini VIII target vehicle. Collins had 49 minutes of EVA standing in the hatch and 39 minutes of EVA to retrieve experiment from Agena stage. 43 orbits completed. Gemini XI September 12-15, 1966 Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, Jr.

12 2 days 23 hours 17 min 8 seconds Gemini record altitude, 1,189.3 km (739.2 mi) reached using Agena propulsion system after first orbit rendezvous and docking. Gordon made 33-minute EVA and two-hour standup EVA. 44 orbits. Gemini XII November 11-15, 1966 James A. Lovell, Jr., Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. 3 days 22 hours 34 minutes 31 seconds Final Gemini flight. Rendezvoused and docked with its target Agena and kept station with it during EVA. Aldrin set an EVA record of 5 hours, 30 minutes for one space walk and two stand-up exercises Virgil Grissom James Lovell

13 PROJECT APOLLO Apollo Goals "That's one small step for man. One giant leap for mankind." - Neil Armstrong The national effort that enabled Astronaut Neil Armstrong to speak those words as he stepped onto the lunar surface, fulfilled a dream as old as humanity. But Project Apollo's goals went beyond landing Americans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth: To establish the technology to meet other national interests in space. To achieve preeminence in space for the United States. To carry out a program of scientific exploration of the Moon. To develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment.

14 The Apollo Spacecraft Apollo was a three-part spacecraft: the command module (CM), the crew's quarters and flight control section; the service module (SM) for the propulsion and spacecraft support systems (when together, the two modules are called CSM); and the lunar module (LM), to take two of the crew to the lunar surface, support them on the Moon, and return them to the CSM in lunar orbit. The flight mode, lunar orbit rendezvous, was selected in The boosters for the program were the Saturn IB for Earth orbit flights and the Saturn V for lunar flights.

15 Step one: Unmanned Saturn I Missions These missions included SA-1 through SA-10. Pad Abort Test I and II Little Joe II Tests A-001 through A-004

16 Step Two: Unmanned Apollo-Saturn Missions AS-201 AS-202 AS-203 Apollo 4 Apollo 5 Apollo 6


18 TRAGEDY On January 27, 1967, tragedy struck the Apollo program when a flash fire occurred in command module 012 during a launch pad test of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle being prepared for the first piloted flight, the AS-204 mission. Three astronauts, Lt. Col. Virgil I. Grissom, a veteran of Mercury and Gemini missions; Lt. Col. Edward H. White, the astronaut who had performed the first United States extravehicular activity during the Gemini program; and Roger B. Chaffee, an astronaut preparing for his first space flight, died in this tragic accident. A seven-member board, under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center Director, Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, conducted a comprehensive investigation to pinpoint the cause of the fire. The final report, completed in April 1967 was subsequently submitted to the NASA Administrator. The report presented the results of the investigation and made specific recommendations that led to major design and engineering modifications, and revisions to test planning, test discipline, manufacturing processes and procedures, and quality control. With these changes, the overall safety of the command and service module and the lunar module was increased substantially. The AS-204 mission was redesignated Apollo I in honor of the crew.

19 Apollo 7 Saturn 1B (AS-205, CSM-101) October 11-22, 1968 Walter M. Schirra Jr. (commander), Donn F. Eisele (CM pilot), R. Walter Cunningham (LM pilot) 10 days, 20 hours 163 Earth orbits. First manned CSM operations in lunar landing program. First live TV from manned spacecraft. Apollo 8 Saturn V (AS-503, CSM-103) December 21-27, 1968 Frank Borman (commander), James A. Lovell Jr. (CM pilot), William A. Anders (LM pilot) 06 days, 03 hours In lunar orbit 20 hours, with 10 orbits. First manned lunar orbital mission. Support facilities tested. Photographs taken of Earth and Moon. Live TV broadcasts. MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND MISSION RESULTS

20 Apollo 9 (Gumdrop and Spider) Saturn V (AS-504, SM-104, CM-104, LM-3) March 03-13, 1969 James A. McDivitt (commander), David R. Scott (CM pilot), Russell L. Schweickart (LM pilot) 10 days, 01 hour First manned flight of all lunar hardware in Earth orbit. Schweickark performed 37 minutes EVA. Human reactions to space and weightlessness tested in 152 orbits. First manned flight of lunar module. Apollo 10 (Charlie Brown and Snoopy) Saturn V (AS-505, SM-106, CM-106, LM-4) May 18-26, 1969 Thomas P. Stafford (commander), John W. Young (CM pilot), Eugene A. Cernan (LM pilot) 08 days, 03 minutes Dress rehearsal for Moon landing. First manned CSM/LM operations in cislunar and lunar environment; simulation of first lunar landing profile. In lunar orbit 61.6 hours, with 31 orbits. LM taken to within 15,243 m (50,000 ft) of lunar surface. First live color TV from space. LM ascent stage jettisoned in orbit.

21 MISSION ACCOMPLISHED Apollo 11 (Columbia and Eagle) Saturn V (AS-506, SM-107, CM-107, LM-5) July 16-24, 1969 Neil A. Armstrong (commander), Michael Collins (CM pilot), Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr. (LM pilot) 08 days, 03 hours, 18 minutes First manned lunar landing mission and lunar surface EVA. "Houston, Tranquility base here. The eagle has landed." - July 20 th, 1969 Landing site: Sea of Tranquility. Landing Coordinates: 0.71 degrees North, degrees East 1 EVA of 02 hours, 31 minutes. Flag and instruments deployed; unveiled plaque on the LM descent stage with inscription: "Here Men From Planet Earth First Set Foot Upon the Moon. July 1969 A.D. We Came In Peace For All Mankind." Lunar surface stay time 21.6 hours; 59.5 hours in lunar orbit, with 30 orbits. LM ascent stage left in lunar orbit. 20kg (44 lbs) of material gathered.

22 Neil Armstrong Michael Collins Edwin Buzz Aldrin, Jr.

23 OUR FINEST HOUR James Lovell Jr.Fred Haise Jr. Thomas Mattingly III

24 Apollo 13 Thirty-five years ago, on April 11, 1970, Apollo 13 lifted off for the Moon with Commander Jim Lovell, Command Module Pilot Jack Swigert and Lunar Module Pilot Fred Haise aboard. Two days later, with the spacecraft well on its way to the Moon, an oxygen tank exploded, scrubbing the lunar landing and putting the crew in jeopardy. Working with Mission Control in Houston, the crew used their lunar module as a "lifeboat," and even rigged an adapter so than a command module "air scrubber" would work in the lunar module, preventing a dangerous buildup of carbon dioxide. The mission ended safely when the crew splashed down on April 17, 1970, but it's "can- do" spirit lives on at NASA. It shows in the efforts of thousands to return the Shuttle fleet to flight, and it will ultimately help NASA fulfill its exploration Vision -- returning to the Moon, journeying to Mars and beyond. Clockwise from left: The launch, damage from the explosion, the lunar module Aquarius, the improvised air scrubber, (from left) Haise, Lovell and Swigert.

25 AFTER APOLLO: SKYLAB, Apollo- Soyuz Test Projet, STS, AND ISS

26 SKYLAB Skylab was America's first space station and orbital science and engineering laboratory.

27 The mission itself began with the Soyuz launch from Baykonur Cosmodrome on 15 July 1975, followed by the Apollo launch from Kennedy Space Center 7 hours later. The docking in space of the two spacecraft took place at 2:17 p.m. U.S. Central Daylight Time on 17 July. Two days of joint operations followed. After separation, the Soyuz remained in space for almost two days before landing in the USSR on 21 July. The Apollo spacecraft remained in space for another three days before splashing down near Hawaii on 24 July. The mission was a resounding success for both Americans and Soviets. They achieved their goal of obtaining flight experience for rendezvous and docking of human spacecraft. In addition, they also demonstrated in-flight intervehicular crew transfer, as well as accomplished a series of scientific experiments. APOLLO-SOYUZ PROJECT

28 STS SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM The Space Shuttle Columbia 1981

29 Challenger Sally Ride: The first woman in space 1983

30 Atlantis Discovery

31 Image above: STS-51L Crew photo with Commander Francis R. Shobee, Pilot Michael J. Smith, Mission Specialists Judith A. Resnik, Ellison S. Onizuka, Ronald E. McNair and Payload Specialists Gregory B. Jarvis and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. Challenger Disaster January 28, 1986

32 Columbia remembered : Columbia and crew lost during entry on February 1, 2003 Image above: STS The STS-107 crewmembers pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. From the left (bottom row) are astronauts Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; Rick D. Husband, mission commander; Laurel B. Clark, mission specialist; and Ilan Ramon, payload specialist. From the left (top row) are astronauts David M. Brown, mission specialist; William C. McCool, pilot; and Michael P. Anderson, payload commander.

33 International Space Station

34 A: Well, I was inspired by the men who walked on the moon. It really was my inspiration, I think, you know, as a kid of 9 years old I know Im dating myself but I thought what a cool job! It really didnt become a reality to me to become a goal until I graduated from high school, which was coincidentally the same year they picked the first set of female astronauts. I think that was when I decided I wanted to become an astronaut. Still, I knew very little about the whole process or what it would take to get in. But I do have a healthy dose of that stubborn thing going for me which, I think, kept me pursuing the goal. I knew I wanted to be a part of NASA in any case, and so I chose my goals in education to be consistent with working at NASA even as, you know, a scientist. Q: There are hundreds of thousands of pilots and scientists out there in the world but there are only about 100 astronauts. What made you try to become one of them, one of those people who flies in space? PEGGY WHITSON

35 Peggy A. Whitson (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut PERSONAL DATA: Born Feb. 9, 1960 in Mt. Ayr, Iowa. Hometown is Beaconsfield, Iowa. Married to Clarence F. Sams, Ph.D. She enjoys weight lifting, biking, basketball, and water skiing. EDUCATION: Graduated from Mt. Ayr Community High School, Mt. Ayr, Iowa, in 1978; received a bachelor of science degree in biology/chemistry from Iowa Wesleyan College in 1981, and a doctorate in biochemistry from Rice University in AWARDS/HONORS: NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (2006); NASA Space Flight Medal (2002). Two patents approved (1997, 1998); Group Achievement Award for Shuttle-Mir Program (1996); American Astronautical Society Randolph Lovelace II Award (1995); NASA Tech Brief Award (1995); NASA Space Act Board Award (1995, 1998); NASA Silver Snoopy Award (1995); NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1995, 2003, 2006); NASA Space Act Award for Patent Application; NASA Certificate of Commendation (1994); Selected for Space Station Redesign Team (March-June 1993); NASA Sustained Superior Performance Award (1990); Krug International Merit Award (1989); NASA-JSC National Research Council Resident Research Associate ( ); Robert A. Welch Postdoctoral Fellowship ( ); Robert A. Welch Predoctoral Fellowship ( ), Summa Cum Laude from Iowa Wesleyan College (1981); Presidents Honor Roll ( ); Orange van Calhoun Scholarship (1980); State of Iowa Scholar (1979); Academic Excellence Award (1978). EXPERIENCE: From 1981 to 1985, Whitson conducted her graduate work in biochemistry at Rice University, Houston, Texas, as a Robert A. Welch Predoctoral Fellow. Following completion of her graduate work she continued at Rice University as a Robert A. Welch Postdoctoral Fellow until Oct Following this position, she began her studies at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, as a National Research Council Resident Research Associate. From April 1988 until Sept. 1989, Whitson served as the Supervisor for the Biochemistry Research Group at KRUG International, a medical sciences contractor at NASA-JSC. In , Whitson was also invited to be an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics at University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. In 1997, Whitson began a position as Adjunct Assistant Professor at Rice University in the Maybee Laboratory for Biochemical and Genetic Engineering.

36 NASA EXPERIENCE: From 1989 to 1993, Whitson worked as a Research Biochemist in the Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA-JSC. From , she served as Technical Monitor of the Biochemistry Research Laboratories in the Biomedical Operations and Research Branch. From she was the Payload Element Developer for Bone Cell Research Experiment (E10) aboard SL-J ( STS-47), and was a member of the US-USSR Joint Working Group in Space Medicine and Biology. In 1992, she was named the Project Scientist of the Shuttle-Mir Program ( STS-60, STS-63, STS-71, Mir 18, Mir 19) and served in this capacity until the conclusion of the Phase 1A Program in From Whitson held the additional responsibilities of the Deputy Division Chief of the Medical Sciences Division at NASA-JSC. From she served as Co-Chair of the U.S.-Russian Mission Science Working Group. In April 1996, she was selected as an astronaut candidate and started training, in Aug Upon completing two years of training and evaluation, she was assigned technical duties in the Astronaut Office Operations Planning Branch and served as the lead for the Crew Test Support Team in Russia from From Nov to March 2005 she served as Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office. From Mar 2005-Nov she served as Chief of the Station Operations Branch, Astronaut Office. Whitson trained as the backup ISS Commander for Expedition 14 from Nov Sept Whitson is currently serving a six month tour of duty aboard the International Space Station as the ISS Commander for Expedition 16. The crew launched on Oct. 10, 2007 aboard a Soyuz TMA-11 spacecraft, docking with the station on Oct. 12, This is Whitsons second long-duration spaceflight. SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: The Expedition-5 crew launched on June 5, 2002 aboard STS-111 and docked with the International Space Station on June 7, During her 6-month stay aboard the Space Station, Dr. Whitson installed the Mobile Base System, the S1 truss segment, and the P1 truss segment using the space station remote manipulator system, performed a 4 hour and 25 minute Orlan EVA to install micrometeoroid shielding on the Zvezda Service Module, and activated and checked out the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox, a facility class payload rack. She was named the first NASA Science Officer during her stay, and she conducted 21 investigations in human life sciences and microgravity sciences, as well as commercial payloads. The Expedition-5 crew (one American Astronaut and two Russian Cosmonauts) returned to Earth aboard STS-113 on Dec. 7, Completing her first flight, Dr. Whitson logged 184 days, 22 hours and 14 minutes in space. OCTOBER 2007 Current information on Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson multimedia

37 Cost v. Spinoffs Project Mercury: $392.6 million Project Gemini: $1.3 billion Project Apollo: $25 billion After the Moon Skylab: $2.6 billion Apollo-Soyuz: $250 million STS-Endeavour: $1.7 billion to build/launch $450 million per mission ISS: TBD

38 Uses of Funds for the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2007 (Dollars in Millions) Total Uses of Funds: $15,078 billion Source: AFR Addendum: Consolidated Statement of Net Cost, Unaudited.

39 Sources of Funds for the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2007 (Dollars in Millions) Total Sources of Funds: $20,246 billion Note: Nonexpenditure transfers of $1 M do not appear in the chart.Source: AFR Addendum: Combined Statement of Budgetary Resources, Unaudited.

40 So what does it cost me? $50.26 per person per year or $.14 cents per day

41 Costs v. Spinoff NASA around you ( html) Spinoff: There have been over 30,000 applications of space technology over the past 40 years. Examples: insulin infusion pump, advanced wheelchairs, vehicles controls for the disabled

42 Costs v. Spinoffs Additional examples: Advanced turboprops, dental braces, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), voice activation, scratch-resistant glasses, reading machines for the blind, water recycling, breathing systems for firefighters, speech autocuer, cell phone technology, television communication

43 The Future?

44 For more information, images and multimedia, explore NASA at Presentation created by Jack R. Vanderflught March 2008

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