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Thinking Like an Economist Thinking Like an Economist.

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Presentation on theme: "Thinking Like an Economist Thinking Like an Economist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking Like an Economist Thinking Like an Economist

2 Economics trains you to.... u Be mindful about the choices that you make. u Evaluate the cost of individual and social choices. u Examine and understand how certain events and issues are related. u But there is the issue of terminology, some math, and GRAPHS, GRAPHS AND SOME MORE GRAPHS!

3 The Economist as a Scientist The economic way of thinking... u Involves thinking analytically and objectively. u Makes use of the scientific method. uInvolves the use of abstract models to focus the discussion on a main idea or theme in the complexity of the real world. u To apply the scientific method in economics, assumptions are used to make the world easier to understand. uCeteris Paribus Assumption-All else equal. uRole Play Scenario-Purchasing something at a store.

4 Economic Models u Economists use models to simplify reality in order to improve our understanding of the world. u As simplifications of reality, models need assumptions. uA Model of Boids Flying A Model of Boids FlyingA Model of Boids Flying u Models start small and then grow in increasing complexity. uPlay Bolero by Maurice Ravel

5 Graphing Data  A graph reveals a causal relationship between two variables.  The vertical line is the y- axis. ► Independent variable.  The horizontal line is the x- axis. ► Dependent variable.  How do we show a negative and a positive relationship between variables?

6 Two Simple Rules for Movements vs. Shifts ► Rule One  When an independent variable changes and that variable does not appear on the graph, the curve on the graph will shift. ► Rule Two  When an independent variable changes and does appear on the graph, a movement along the existing curve will occur. The curve will not shift.

7 Graphing Data  Economists use three types of graphs to reveal relationships between variables. They are:  Time-series graphs  Cross-section graphs  Scatter diagrams

8 Two of the Most Basic Economic Models Are ► The Circular Flow Diagram ► The Production Possibilities Frontier.

9 The Circular-Flow Diagram Firms Households Market for Factors of Production Market for Goods and Services SpendingRevenue Wages, rent, and interest Income Goods & Services sold Goods & Services bought Labor, land, and capital Inputs for production

10 Journal Assignment-Circular Flow Diagram ► Draw a circular flow diagram. ► Identify the parts of the model that correspond to the flow of goods and services and the flow of dollars for each of the following activities:  Sam pays a storekeeper $1 for a quart of milk.  Sam gets a quart of milk.  Sally earns $4.50 per hour working at a fast food restaurant.  Sally works at the restaurant.

11 The Production Possibilities Frontier Shows the various combinations of two goods that can be produced by one firm. Shows the various combinations of two goods that can be produced by one firm. Assumes two goods Assumes two goods Assumes fixed technology and fixed factors of production. Assumes fixed technology and fixed factors of production.

12 The Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of Computers Produced Quantity of Cars Produced 3, ,000 2, , A B 2, C D

13 The Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of Computers Produced Quantity of Cars Produced 3,000 1,000 2,000 2,200 A ,000 B C D Production possibilities frontier

14 Concepts Illustrated by the Production Possibilities Frontier u Efficiency u Tradeoffs u Opportunity Cost u Economic Growth

15 4,000 The Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of Computers Produced Quantity of Cars Produced 3,000 2,000 A ,000 E 2, An outward shift in the production possibilities frontier Increase in technology to produce computers.

16 Microeconomics and Macroeconomics u Microeconomics focuses on the individual parts of the economy. u How households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets u Macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. u How the markets, as a whole, interact at the national level.

17 The Essence of Microeconomics- Buyers and Sellers

18 The Many Facets of Macroeconomics

19 Two Roles of Economists u When they are trying to explain the world, they are scientists. u When they are trying to change the world, they are policymakers.

20 Positive versus Normative Analysis  Positive statements are statements that describe the world as it is. u Called descriptive analysis  Normative statements are statements about how the world should be. u Called prescriptive analysis

21 Why Economists Agree and Disagree u We agree on the methodology, but not on the underlying assumptions underlying incentives and behavior. uExample-No Child Left Behind and Test Scores.

22 JOIN KHALID AZIZ ► ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. ► FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. ► COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. CONTACT: R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.


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