# Thinking Like an Economist

## Presentation on theme: "Thinking Like an Economist"— Presentation transcript:

Thinking Like an Economist

Economics trains you to. . . .
Be mindful about the choices that you make. Evaluate the cost of individual and social choices. Examine and understand how certain events and issues are related. But there is the issue of terminology, some math, and GRAPHS, GRAPHS AND SOME MORE GRAPHS! 2

The Economist as a Scientist
The economic way of thinking . . . Involves thinking analytically and objectively. Makes use of the scientific method. Involves the use of abstract models to focus the discussion on a main idea or theme in the complexity of the real world. To apply the scientific method in economics, assumptions are used to make the world easier to understand. Ceteris Paribus Assumption-All else equal. Role Play Scenario-Purchasing something at a store. 3

Economic Models Economists use models to simplify reality in order to improve our understanding of the world. As simplifications of reality, models need assumptions. A Model of Boids Flying Models start small and then grow in increasing complexity. Play Bolero by Maurice Ravel

Graphing Data A graph reveals a causal relationship between two variables. The vertical line is the y-axis. Independent variable. The horizontal line is the x-axis. Dependent variable. How do we show a negative and a positive relationship between variables?

Two Simple Rules for Movements vs. Shifts
Rule One When an independent variable changes and that variable does not appear on the graph, the curve on the graph will shift. Rule Two When an independent variable changes and does appear on the graph, a movement along the existing curve will occur. The curve will not shift.

Graphing Data Economists use three types of graphs to reveal relationships between variables. They are: Time-series graphs Cross-section graphs Scatter diagrams

Two of the Most Basic Economic Models Are
The Circular Flow Diagram The Production Possibilities Frontier.

The Circular-Flow Diagram
Spending Revenue Market for Goods and Services Goods & Services sold Goods & Services bought Firms Households Wages, rent, and interest Income Labor, land, and capital Inputs for production Market for Factors of Production 7

Journal Assignment-Circular Flow Diagram
Draw a circular flow diagram. Identify the parts of the model that correspond to the flow of goods and services and the flow of dollars for each of the following activities: Sam pays a storekeeper \$1 for a quart of milk. Sam gets a quart of milk. Sally earns \$4.50 per hour working at a fast food restaurant. Sally works at the restaurant.

The Production Possibilities Frontier
Shows the various combinations of two goods that can be produced by one firm. Assumes two goods Assumes fixed technology and fixed factors of production. Give an example to them at first and draw out the PPF. The example could be spending time at work and spending time at school. 14

The Production Possibilities Frontier
Quantity of Computers Produced D 3,000 C 2,200 600 A 2,000 700 B 1,000 300 1,000 Quantity of Cars Produced 15

The Production Possibilities Frontier
Quantity of Computers Produced D 3,000 C 2,200 A 2,000 Production possibilities frontier B 1,000 300 600 700 1,000 Quantity of Cars Produced 15

Concepts Illustrated by the Production Possibilities Frontier
Efficiency Tradeoffs Opportunity Cost Economic Growth 21

The Production Possibilities Frontier
Quantity of Computers Produced 4,000 An outward shift in the production possibilities frontier Increase in technology to produce computers. 3,000 E 2,100 750 2,000 A 700 1,000 Quantity of Cars Produced 15

Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
Microeconomics focuses on the individual parts of the economy. How households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets Macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. How the markets, as a whole, interact at the national level. 13

The Essence of Microeconomics-Buyers and Sellers

The Many Facets of Macroeconomics

Two Roles of Economists
When they are trying to explain the world, they are scientists. When they are trying to change the world, they are policymakers. 30

Positive versus Normative Analysis
Positive statements are statements that describe the world as it is. Called descriptive analysis Normative statements are statements about how the world should be. Called prescriptive analysis 31

Why Economists Agree and Disagree
We agree on the methodology, but not on the underlying assumptions underlying incentives and behavior. Example-No Child Left Behind and Test Scores. 35

JOIN KHALID AZIZ ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. CONTACT: R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.