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US Presidents.

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1 US Presidents

2 George Washington (1789-1797) No party
Economy: Hamilton established BUS Foreign Policy: No foreign entanglements (no long term alliances in peacetime) Jay‘s treaty (British leaves forts on US soil, British damages maritime US losses) Pinckney‘s Treaty (Spanish clarifies south-western borders, free navigation of Mississippi) Domestic: Whiskey Rebellion (force to maintain order) Political/Legal: Disliked formation of parties 2 term limit Jay's Treaty: a treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S. and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians.was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Pinckney's Treaty: Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in which Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi and use the New Orleans port. Spain also agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida along the 31st parallel and prevent Indians from launching raids across the border into the U.S. Whiskey Rebellion: In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

3 John Adams (1797-1801) Federalist
Foreign Policy: French Revolution XYZ affair Convention of 1800, peace w/France, alliance canceled, French to pay damages to American shippers Domestic: Alien & Sedition act Political/Legal: Marshall Court Politicians disagreed on who to support in the French Revolution (Jefferson wanted to support the French, Adams was pro-British) XYZ Affair: 3 american delegates sent to France to negotiate, caused by British and French threatening American shipping, French bribe delegates but US leaves Convention of 1800: signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napoleon was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Louisiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America. Alien & Sedition Acts: These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts. John Marshall upholds supremacy of the federal govt (appointed in 1800)

4 Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Demotic Republican
Economy: Embargo Act (forbidden exports, tried to get France/Britain to respect US) Lowered taxes Eliminated whiskey tax Non-Intercourse Act– embargo to France/Britain Foreign Policy: Louisiana Purchase (1803) Chesapeake Affair Domestic: -Lewis & Clark -Cumberland Road authorized Political/Legal: -Midnight judges (Marbury v. Madison, judicial review) Embargo Act of 1807: This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. Ultimately hurt the national economy and was replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act. Non-Intercourse Act:1809-Replaced the Embargo of Unlike the Embargo, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's bill No. 2. (1810-Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first.) Chesapeake Affair: The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. Midnight Judges: a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms Marbury v. Madison: Sec. of State James Madison held up one of John Adams' "Midnight Judges" appointments. The appointment was for a Justice of the Peace position for William Marbury. Marbury sued. Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed Marbury's suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case cleared up controversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did. This is judicial review.

5 James Madison (1809-1817) Democratic Republican
Economy: Macon‘s Bill No2– lifts embargo for first country to repeal certain decrees/orders Protectionist Tariff of British goods start flooding US market, first protectionist tariff First BUS charter ends, not renewed Foreign Policy: War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent– ends War of 1812, “Not one inch of territory ceded or lost“, armistice Macon's Bill No. 2: intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. The law lifted all embargoes with Britain or France Tariff of 1816: A protective tariff that helped American industry by raising the prices of British goods which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those of the U.S War of 1812: A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.. Treaty of Ghent: December 24, Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

6 James Madison (cont.) (1809-1817)Democratic Republican
Domestic: Battle of Tippecanoe (Tecumseh dies {Indians screwed}, Harrison gets famous) Battle of New Orleans (Jackson‘s popularity increases) Cumberland Road construction begins Vetoes Bonus Bill (internal improvements should be done by state) Political/Legal: Fletcher v. Peck (legislatures could not mess w/contracts) Battle of Tippecanoe: Americans v. Shawnee Indians. led by governor William Henry Harrison, the Americans defeated the Shawnee's and Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory. Bonus bill veto: March, Madison vetoed John C. Calhoun's Bonus Bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the federal government in the Constitution. Fletcher v. Peck: Arouse out of a series of notorious land frauds in Georgia, the Court had to decide whether the Georgia legislature of 1796 could repeal the act of the previous legislature granting lands under shady circumstances to the Yazoo Lands Companies. In a unanimous decision, Marshall said that a land grant was a valid contract and could not be repealed even if corruption was involved.

7 James Monroe (1817-1825) Democratic Republican
Economy: Second BUS (1816) Panic of wildcat banks, too much land speculation Foreign Policy: Monroe Doctrine– hands off American continent Russo-American Treaty of Russia leaves Oregon Treaty of fixed northern boundary of Louisiana 2nd BUS: In 1816, during the administration of President James Madison, the Democratic-Republicans reversed course and supported its creation. It was patterned after the first and quickly established branches throughout the Union. Panic of 1819: The first major financial crisis in the United States, which occurred during the end of the Era of Good Feelings. Treaty of 1818: Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.

8 James Monroe (cont.) (1817-1825) Democratic Republican
Domestic: Jackson invades Florida Missouric Compromise (slave below 36‘30, admit Maine/Missouri) Political/Legal: Gibbons v. Ogden- states couldn‘t regulate interstate commerce Dartmouth College v. Woodward– states can‘t mess w/contracts Jackson invaded Florida in the Seminole Wars (leading to Spain ceding Florida to the US) Missouri Compromise (1820): The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri (36°,30')saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery. Gibbons v. Ogden: Suit over whether New York could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce. Dartmouth College v. Woodward: 1819, New hamp. tried to take over a college by revising a charter)charters are protected under the contract clause of the U.S. constitution

9 John Q. Adams Democratic Republican
Economy: Tariff of Abominations Domestic: Corrupt bargain, Clay becomes Secretary of State Political/Legal: Henry Clay throws election to Adams Tariff of Abominations: AKA Tariff of 1828; raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South. The South claimed that it was discriminatory and unconstitutional Corrupt Bargain of 1824: A political scandal that arose when the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break a deadlock. Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State.

10 Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) Democrat
Economy: Pet banks, pulls money out of BUS Vetoes vote to recharter BUS Tariff of lower than Abomination, but seemed more permanent Compromise Tariff of 1833 Foreign Policy: Texas wins independence Tariff of 1832: reduced some duties but retained high taxes on imported irons, cottons, and woolens; leads to the nullification crisis Compromise Tariff of 1833: A result of Henry Clay's efforts to soothe South Carolina's qualms about the Tariff of Abominations. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted this compromise. TX becomes independent

11 Andrew Jackson (cont.) (1829-1837) Democrat
Domestic: Indian Removal Act Maysville Road veto- strict construction Specie Circular- attempted to discourage land spec., paid hard money for hard land Political/Legal: Spoils system Indian Removal Debate: Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West. Maysville Road veto: The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements. Specie Circular: issued by President Jackson in 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.

12 Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Democrat
Economy: Panic of screwed Buren over Independent Treasury Foreign Policy: Recognizes Republic of Texas, but doesn‘t annex Panic of 1837: When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. It was short-lived and reduced the pressure on the economy TX is annexed in 1845

13 William Henry Harrison (1841-1841) Whig
Political/Legal: Longest speech, shortest term March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841 Who was the first president to die in office? (Harrison, of course) Who had the shortest term? (Harrison’s term lasted one month: it ended on April 4, 1841.) Who spoke the longest inaugural address? (At 8,445 words, his speech clocked in at close to two hours.) Who had the most memorable campaign slogan of the 19th century? (Harrison’s primary campaign slogan was “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too.”)

14 John Tyler (1841-1845) Whig Economy: Foreign Policy: Vetoed bank bills
Vetoed a tariff bill Foreign Policy: Webster-Ashburton treaty– Maine border dispute Texas annexed Webster-Ashburton Treaty: signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border. Also banned the slave trade (on the ocean) TX annexed When the Whig Party came to power in the presidency, many changes came about.  The first one was financial reform.  The independent treasury system was ended.  A bill for a "Fiscal Bank," which would establish a new Bank of the United States went through Congress, but President Tyler vetoed it.  The Whigs presented a "Fiscal Corporation" but the president again vetoed it. President Tyler was rejected by his former Whig Party.

15 James K. Polk (1845-1849) Democrat
Economy: Tariff-for-revenue Bill– lowered average rates from 32% to 25% Foreign Policy: “Fifty-four forty or fight“, but didn‘t fight War w/Mexico– got disputed land of Texas and California Domestic: CA, OR acquired California gold rush 1848 the Walker Tariff of 1846, a tariff-for-revenue bill that reduced the rates of the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%. “54”40 or fight”-- An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan- the Democrats' wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54'40" latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846. Mexican-American War: ( ) Conflict after US annexation of Texas; Mexico still considered Texas its own; Victor: US; granted all land from Texas to California (minus the Gadsden Purchase) in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

16 Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) Whig
Domestic: Doesn‘t want Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850: California was admitted as a free state. The slave trade was abolished (the sale of slaves, not the institution of slavery) in the District of Columbia. The Territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona) and the Territory of Utah were organized under the rule of popular sovereignty A harsher Fugitive Slave Act Texas gave up much of the western land which it claimed and received compensation of $10,000,000 to pay off its national debt. Taylor died on the evening of July 9, after four days of suffering from symptoms that included severe cramping, diarrhea, nausea and dehydration. His personal physicians concluded that he had succumbed to cholera morbus, a bacterial infection of the small intestine. His vice president, Millard Fillmore, was sworn in as the new president the next day.

17 Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) Whig
Domestic: Wants Compromise of 1850 (CA free, Fugitive Slave Act) Last whig to hold office

18 Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) Democrat
Foreign Policy: Ostend Manifesto- sent diplomats to try to get Cuba from Spain but Northerners found & failed Gadsden Purchase- create Pacific RR and brought land from Mexico Domestic: Kansas-Nebraska Act- Nebraska: free, Kansas: slave but northerners came into Kansas (caused formation of Republicans) The Ostend Manifesto took place in A group of southerners met with Spanish officials in Belgium to attempt to get more slave territory. They felt this would balance out congress. They tried to buy Cuba but the Spanish would not sell it. Southerners wanted to take it by force and the northerners were outraged by this thought. The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad, it also showed the American belief in Manifest Destiny. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): Senator Douglas passed a bill that proposed the Nebraska territory be divided into the Kansas Territory to allow slavery; located above 36/30' line, both houses of Congress passed Douglas' bill; renewed the sectional controversy that had been at least partly resolved by the compromise of 1850

19 James Buchanan (1857-1861) Democrat
Economy: Financial crash of 1857 – North was hardest hit and south thought they could live without the north (King Cotton) Tariff of 1857 – lowest tariff since 1812 rate 20% Northerners complained, fincancial crisis struck soon after Domestic: John Brown- martyr for anti-slavery forces; killed pro-slavery person in Kansas Lincoln-Douglas debates Political/Legal: Dred Scott v. Sanford= slaves were considered to be property & couldn’t sue in federal courts Panic of 1857: 5,000 business failures, and high unemployment were factors in this financial crisis. Tariff of 1857: Major tax reduction in the US amended the Walker Tariff. Supporters mostly came from south and agriculture states John Brown: An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858): A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election. What decision involved a Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

20 Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Republican
Domestic: Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Crittenden compromise – below 36’30 would be slave above would be free; Lincoln struck it down Freedmen‘s Bureau – education & land for blacks Political/Legal: Suspend civil liberties during war Emancipation Proclamation: After victory of Antietam Lincoln announces on the first of 1863 all slaves in the rebelling states would be free. AIM: injure confederacy, threaten its property, heighten its dread, hurt its morale Crittenden Compromise: The first of compromise proposals submitted in hopes to prevent a civil war. This one was first submitted by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky. This plan was a proposal to reestablish the Missouri Compromise line and extend it westward to the Pacific coast. Slavery would be prohibited north or the line and permitted south of the line. Southerners in the Senate were willing to accept this plan, but the compromise would have required the northerners to abandon their most fundamental position-that slavery should not be allowed to expand- and so they rejected it. Freedmen's Bureau: The first kind of primitive welfare agency used to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to freedman and to white refugees.First to establish school for blacks to learn to read.

21 Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Democrat
Economy: National Labor Union appears Foreign Policy: Seward buys Alaska Political/Legal: 13th Amendment (free slaves) 14th Amendment (citizenship) Impeached but acquitted in Senate NLU: Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals. (dies under grant) Seward's folly was the purchase of Alaska from Russia in Although seen as a foolish purchase, this added more land and available resources to the U.S. President Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives on February 24, 1868 and the Senate tried the case in a trial that lasted from March to May In the end, the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson by a margin of 35 guilty to 19 not guilty - one vote short of the two- thirds needed to convict. 13th amendment 14th amendment

22 Ulysses Grant (1869-1877) Republican
Economy: Panic of 1873 – RR speculation Resumption Act – redeem govt loans in hard currency (step away from bimetallism) Domestic: Political corruption (Credit Mobilier scandal, Tweed Ring, Whiskey Ring) Freedmen‘s Bureau expires Political/Legal: 15th Am. (voting) Force acts (guarantee voting for blacks) Civil Rights Act of 1875 (full and equal accomodations, ruled unconstitutional by SC) Panic of 1873: over-enterprising (railroads, mines, factories, grainfields) beyond that which the market could bear, bankers also made too many imprudent loans to fund those enterprises; when profits failed to materialize, loans went unpained, and caused the bust; economic strain hard on blacks and debtors; also linked to controversies over soft v. hard money Resumption act: the 1875 act of Congress in which the government was to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and begin in 1879 to redeem all paper currency in gold Credit Mobilier: the scandal in which Union Pacific executives formed their own railroad construction company, then hired and overpaid themselves to build their own railroad Tweed Ring:In NYC, Boss Tweed employed bribery and fraudulent elections to milk the metropolis of as much as $200 million. Whiskey Ring: ; robbed the Treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues; President Grant said "Let no guilty man escape" but then pardoned his guilty secretary 15th Amendment Force acts: congress attacked in KKK with three force acts. designed to protect black voters in the south, these laws placed state elections under federal jurisdiction and imposed fines and imprisonment on those guilty of interfering with any citizen exercising his right to vote

23 Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1841) Republican
Economy: Bland-Allison Act– Treasury buys silver & makes silver dollars (continued bimetallism) Domestic: Hayes-Tilden standoff--> Compromise of 1877= end of military reconstruction for Hayes victory Desert Land Act – gave land to those who would irrigate for 3 years Bland Allison Act: Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900. Hayes-Tilden Standoff: Hayes's presidency suffered from a supposed secret deal that gave him (Hayes) the victory over Democrat Samuel Tilden in the election. Because of this Hayes lost his chance at a second term. Also, Hayes's party (Republicans) split between Stalwarts and Half Breeds. Stalwarts strongly supported Grant during his presidency and the spoils system and Half Breeds were half-loyal to Grant and half committed to reform the spoils system. Stalwarts were led by Conkling, Half Breeds by Blaine. Desert Land Act: 1877; first feeble step toward conservation; the federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within three years

24 James Garfield (1881-1881) Republican
Assassinated by “deranged office seeker,” led to Pendleton Act

25 Chester Arthur (1881-1885) Republican
Economy: Tariff of continued protectionist principles Foreign Policy: Chinese Exclusion Act Political/Legal: Pendleton Act (led to downfall of patronage) Tariff of 1875: Continued downward revision; average rates reduced by 10 percent; (Grant administration). Chinese Exclusion ActL (1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. Pendleton Act (1883): the federal legislation that created a system in which federal employees were chosen based upon competitive exams. This made job positions based on merit or ability and not inheritance or class. It also created the Civil Service Commission.

26 Grover Cleveland (part 1: 1885-1889) Democrat
Economy: Interstate Commerce Act – rein in RRs (but commissioners were all RR people, so nothing happened) Knights of Labor dissolved Foreign Policy: Dawes Severalty Act – largely destroys Indian govts Political/Legal: Wabash case – defeat for populists who wanted to control railways Interstate Commerce Act: established the federal government's right to oversee railroad activities; required railroads to public their rate schedules and file them with the government Haymarket Riot:This riot was a direct result of the extreme tensions between laborers and the wealthy business owners. The McCormick Reaper Company was on strike, 4 people had just been killed, tensions were high, and anarchists showed up and began speaking at the rally attended mainly by immigrant workers in May 1886 at Haymarket Square. It was originally intended as a rally to protest the establishment of a National Wage. Someone in the crowd threw a bomb, a riot broke out, 7 policemen died, and as a result 8 innocent German immigrants were arrested and the Knights of Labor were blamed for the riot. The riot resulted in the loss of all sympathy for laborers, and a fear anarchy in the middle class, which became a huge obstacle for the AF of L and Knight's of Labor. Dawes Act: attempt to "americanize" the indians giving each tribe 160 acres; after 25 years this property would become theirs (if they were good little whites) and they would become an american citizen Wabash case: This 1886 case overturned the earlier Munn vs. Illinois case. In this case, the Supreme Court severely limited the right of states to regulate businesses that dealt with interstate commerce. This meant only the federal government had a power that had been granted to the states. Farmers responded to this case with increased political organizing, and Congress responded by creating the first real business regulatory body: the Interstate Commerce Commission.

27 Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) Republican
Economy: McKinley Tariff – highest tariff in American history until then (48%) Sherman Anti-Trust Act – prohibited combinaitons in restraint of trade ... Would be used to target unions though Foreign Policy: Pan-American conference – worked w/Latin America to establish treaties on trade McKinlyey tariff: 1890 bill calling for the highest peacetime tariff yet: percent. It gave a bounty of two cents a pound to American sugar producers, and raised tariffs on agricultural products. The duties on manufactured goods hurt farmers financially. Sherman Act: This act banned any formations that would restrict trade, not distinguishing between bad and good trusts. The act was a hamper on worker unions, but it showed that the government was slowly moving away from laissez faire ideals. Pan-American Conference: James G. Blaine pushed his "Big Sister" policy, which sought better relations with Latin America, and in 1889, he presided

28 Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) Republican-- [continued]
Domestic: “Billion Dollar Congress“ Frontier line disappears Pension Act 1890 – gave money to veterans (too much money coming in) Hull House – helped immigrants US Forest Service est. by Forest Reserve Act Political/Legal: Populists organized Billion Dollar Congress: 51st congress; 1st Congress to spend over $1B Pension Act: Passed by the Fifty-First congress in 1890 under the direction of president Harrison; it awarded stipends to all Civil War veterans who had fought for at least 90 days and were no longer able to do manual labor. Foreshadowed the "welfare state" of the next century. Won support from the GAR and the GOP. Populists: made up of farmers, greenbacks, laborers, grangers - government ownership of rails and telephone - unlimited coinage of silver - graduated income tax on wealth - sub-treasury to store farm goods with loans given to keep farmers in business - 8 hr. workday - restriction on immigration - initiative, referendum, secret ballot, direct election of senators

29 Grover Cleveland (part 2: 1893-1897) Democrat
Economy: Panic of 1893 (blamed on Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which would be repealed) Foreign Policy: Hawaii revolts, but Cleveland refuses to annex Domestic: Labor unrest (Pullman strike) Political/Legal: Plessy v. Ferguson – “separate but equal“ Panic of 1893: result of overspeculation by investors that artificially inflated the price of stocks; stocks took a tumble & didn't recover for almost 4 years Hawaii's wholesale sugar prices plummeted as a result of the elimination of the duty-free status enjoyed by Hawaiian sugar. Facing ruin, the planters deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Jan 1893, proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii, and requested U.S. annexation. Hawaii was claimed as an American territory in Pullman Strike: 1894 strike against a rail car company after wages were depleted by 1/3 but company town rent was not correspondingly lowered. Strike led by Eugene V. Debs, leader of American Railway Union. Cars were overturned from Chicago to the Pacific Coast, halting rail traffic. Federal troops were brought in on the excuse that the workers were interfering with transit of mail. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.

30 William McKinley (1897-1901) Republican
Economy: Gold Standard Act – stopped bimetallism Foreign Policy: USS Maine sunk Imperialism Open Door note Domestic: Yellow journalism (hyped Maine) Gold Standard Act: This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate. Open Door Policy: John Hay's clever diplomatic efforts to preserve Chinese territorial integrity and maintain American access to China

31 Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Republican
Economy: Northern Securities case – he didn‘t want trusts out of control Panic of 1907 (“Roosevelt Panic“) Foreign Policy: Panama Canal Expansionism – Platt Amendment (Cubans got independence in name only) Roosevelt Corollary (Big Stick)

32 Theodore Roosevelt (cont.)
Domestic: 3 C‘s– conservation, consumer, corporations Hepburn Act – no free passes & strengthens ICC Regulations: Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act Political/Legal: Lochner v. New York- can‘t limit # of working hrs Gentlemen‘s Agreement w/Japan Muller v. Oregon – women‘s working hrs can be restricted

33 William H. Taft Republican
Economy: Payne-Aldrich Tariff– Taft didn‘t lower tariffs US Steel prosecution- angered TR Foreign Policy: Dollar diplomacy Domestic: NAACP forms Ballinger-Pinchot Affair – disagreement between TR & Taft

34 Woodrow Wilson Democrat
Economy: Underwood Tariff– lowered tariff Federal Reserve Act Clayton Antitrust Act– outlawed price discrimination, allowed labor unions FTC established LaFollette Seamen’s Act Worker’s Compensation Act Adamson’s Act- 8 hr workday for interstate RR workers (same wages as 10 hr day) Keating-Owens Act– federal child labor law War Revenue Act– graduated income tax

35 Woodrow Wilson Democrat
Foreign policy: Tries to stay out of WWI Russian Rev. (US doesn’t recognize for 16 years) Treaty of Versailles– Fourteen Points League of Nations Red Scare– Sacco & Vanzetti

36 Woodrow Wilson Democrat
Domestic Triple Wall of Privilege (tarriff, banks, trusts) Selective Service Act– WWI draft War Industries Board– took control of war industries Harlem Renaissance Political/legal 16th Amendment- income tax 17th Amendment- direct election of senators Appoints Jew to Supreme Court Schenck v. US– 1st Am. restricted during war 18th Amendment- prohibition 19th Amendment- woman suffrage

37 Warren G. Harding Republican
Economic: Emergency tariff of 1921– saved farmers Fordney-McCumber tariff– blatantly protective tariff Foreign Policy: Separate peace w/ Germany Domestic: Veterans Bureau Emergency Quota Act Scandals: Teapot Dome, Veteran Bureau KKK revived

38 Calvin Coolidge Republican
Foreign Policy Kellogg-Briand Pact– outlaws war Domestic Snyder Act of American Indians get citizenship Immigration Act of similar to Emergency Quota Act Soldier’s Bonus Act- bonus to soldiers Political/ legal Scopes trial- evolution trial First female state governor

39 Herbert Hoover Republican
Economy Stock market crash Reconstruction Finance Corporation- gave loans to businesses (trickle-down) Norris LaGuardia Anti-Injection Act- no yellow-dog contracts Glass-Steagall Act- created FDIC, insured deposits in banks Foreign Policy Appeasement towards Japan (Manchuria) & Germany Debt Moratorium- slowed repayment on loans from European nations Domestic Bonus Army– veterans march on Washington, dispersed by military force

40 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat
Economy: Hundred Days Congress TVA Agricultural Adjustment Act (paid to not grow crops) Bank holiday Good Neighbor policy- stopped armed intervention in Latin America US off gold standard- allowed for inflation of dollar Civilian Conservation Corps- young men work in forest, send earnings to family Federal Emergency Relief Act- direct $ to civilians Federal Securities Act- regulated stock market

41 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat
Economy (continued) Indian Reorganization Act– more pol. & eco. Freedom National Housing Act- fed. Housing administration, homes for cheap Works Progress Administration- provided $ for public works Wagner Act- National Labor Relations Board est. Social Security- pay money to retired people Soil Conservation Act- replaces AAA Fair Labor Standards Act- minimum wage & maximum hours

42 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat
Foreign Policy Neutrality Acts Munich Conference- appeases Germany Cash & carry Lend-lease Act Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact Atlantic Charter (if US enters war, Europe would be first) Tehran conference- “Big Three” meet, open 2nd front in Europe

43 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat
Domestic GI Bill Fair Employment Practices Commission- no discrimination in war industry War Production Board (WPB)- controlled production

44 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat
Political/Legal 20th Amendment- shortens lame duck period 21st Amendment- prohibition ends “court-packing”- no messing w/SC Korematsu v. US- internment legal

45 Harry Truman Democrat Economy Foreign Policy
Employment Act- fed. govt. responsible for economy Taft-Hartley Act- no closed shop (can’t be forced to join union) Fair Deal Foreign Policy Potsdam Conference- expanded on Yalta conference Nuremburg Trials- warcrime trial Churchill’s Iron Curtain Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Containment policy Berlin Airlift NATO (North Atlantic TREATY Organization, not trade)

46 Harry Truman Democrat Domestic Political/Legal
National Security Act- coordinates wartime intelligence Armed forces desegregate Political/Legal Fear of communism Alger Hiss Rosenbergs McCarthyism 22nd Amendment– 2 terms

47 Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican
Economy Landrum-Griffin Act- limited union boycotting National highways Foreign Policy Korean war armistice Domino theory Geneva Summit (“open skies”- ignored) Hungarian revolution failed Suez crisis intervention in Middle East Sputnik

48 Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican
Domestic Civil rights: Montgomery Bus Boycott, Little Rock integrated, SCLC & SNCC est., lunch counter sit ins Alaska & Hawaii become states Political/legal Brown v. Board- “separate is inherently unequal”

49 John F. Kennedy Democrat
Foreign Policy (Cold War) Berlin Wall constructed Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis Alliance for Progress– Marshall Plan for Latin America Trade Expansion Act- led to lower tariffs between Europe & US Peace Corps founded

50 John F. Kennedy Democrat
Domestic Civil Rights: Freedom Riders, March on Washington Political/legal 23rd Amendment– DC gets 3 electoral college votes

51 Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat
Economy Great Society- fought poverty & racial injustice War on Poverty, Social Security Act, Medicare & Medicaid Foreign Policy Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Paris Peace Talks Tet offensive

52 Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat
Domestic Civil Rights Acts Political/legal 24th Amendment- no poll taxes Miranda case (Miranda v. Arizona) 25th Amendment– presidential succession First black on Supreme Court

53 Richard Nixon Republican
Economy OPEC embargo Alaskan pipeline Foreign Policy Détente SALT Opens relationship w/China Ceasefire in Vietnam Moon landing

54 Richard Nixon Republican
Domestic Environment- Clean Air Act, EPA Watergate Political/legal War Powers Act- President couldn’t send troops w/o approval 26th Amendment– 18 to vote

55 Gerald Ford Republican
Foreign Policy South Vietnam falls Political/legal Pardons Nixon

56 Jimmy Carter Democrat Economy Foreign Policy Political/legal
Energy Department (due to OPEC) Foreign Policy Camp David between Egypt & Israel Panama Canal treaty– US will return it SALT II Iran Hostage Crisis USSR invades Afghanistan Political/legal Pardons draft evaders in Vietnam War

57 Ronald Reagan Republican
Economy “Reaganomics” tax cut (tried to decrease size of govt) Stock Market plunge, 1987 Foreign Policy Hostages released SDI initiative- outspend USSR Meets w/Gorbachev Domestic Iran-Contra scandal Political/legal 1st woman justice

58 George Bush, Sr. republican
Economy Americans with Disabilities act Foreign Policy Gulf war Berlin Wall falls- Germans united USSR disintegrates Domestic War on Drugs Political/legal 27th Amendment- congressional pay raises take effect for next round of senators

59 Bill Clinton Democrat Economy Foreign Policy Domestic Welfare reform
NAFTA signed EU created Domestic WTC bombed

60 George W. Bush 9/11/2001– attack on WTC, the Pentagon, & thwarted flight against the White House 3,000 Americans killed Created Dept. of Homeland Security Sent American forces into Afghanistan to break up Taliban Most controversial act= invasion of Iraq To capture Saddam Hussein Hurricane Katrina (2005)

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