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US Presidents. George Washington (1789-1797) No party Economy: Hamilton established BUS Foreign Policy: No foreign entanglements (no long term alliances.

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Presentation on theme: "US Presidents. George Washington (1789-1797) No party Economy: Hamilton established BUS Foreign Policy: No foreign entanglements (no long term alliances."— Presentation transcript:

1 US Presidents

2 George Washington ( ) No party Economy: Hamilton established BUS Foreign Policy: No foreign entanglements (no long term alliances in peacetime) Jays treaty (British leaves forts on US soil, British damages maritime US losses) Pinckneys Treaty (Spanish clarifies south-western borders, free navigation of Mississippi) Domestic: Whiskey Rebellion (force to maintain order) Political/Legal: Disliked formation of parties 2 term limit

3 John Adams ( ) Federalist Foreign Policy: French Revolution XYZ affair Convention of 1800, peace w/France, alliance canceled, French to pay damages to American shippers Domestic: Alien & Sedition act Political/Legal: Marshall Court

4 Thomas Jefferson ( ) Demotic Republican Economy: Embargo Act (forbidden exports, tried to get France/Britain to respect US) Lowered taxes Eliminated whiskey tax Non-Intercourse Act– embargo to France/Britain Foreign Policy: Louisiana Purchase (1803) Chesapeake Affair Domestic: -Lewis & Clark -Cumberland Road authorized Political/Legal: -Midnight judges (Marbury v. Madison, judicial review)

5 James Madison ( ) Democratic Republican Economy: Macons Bill No2– lifts embargo for first country to repeal certain decrees/orders Protectionist Tariff of British goods start flooding US market, first protectionist tariff First BUS charter ends, not renewed Foreign Policy: War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent– ends War of 1812, Not one inch of territory ceded or lost, armistice

6 James Madison (cont.) ( )Democratic Republican Domestic: Battle of Tippecanoe (Tecumseh dies {Indians screwed}, Harrison gets famous) Battle of New Orleans (Jacksons popularity increases) Cumberland Road construction begins Vetoes Bonus Bill (internal improvements should be done by state) Political/Legal: Fletcher v. Peck (legislatures could not mess w/contracts)

7 James Monroe ( ) Democratic Republican Economy: Second BUS (1816) Panic of wildcat banks, too much land speculation Foreign Policy: Monroe Doctrine– hands off American continent Russo-American Treaty of Russia leaves Oregon Treaty of fixed northern boundary of Louisiana

8 James Monroe (cont.) ( ) Democratic Republican Domestic: Jackson invades Florida Missouric Compromise (slave below 3630, admit Maine/Missouri) Political/Legal: Gibbons v. Ogden- states couldnt regulate interstate commerce Dartmouth College v. Woodward– states cant mess w/contracts

9 John Q. Adams Democratic Republican Economy: Tariff of Abominations Domestic: Corrupt bargain, Clay becomes Secretary of State Political/Legal: Henry Clay throws election to Adams

10 Andrew Jackson ( ) Democrat Economy: Pet banks, pulls money out of BUS Vetoes vote to recharter BUS Tariff of lower than Abomination, but seemed more permanent Compromise Tariff of 1833 Foreign Policy: Texas wins independence

11 Andrew Jackson (cont.) ( ) Democrat Domestic: Indian Removal Act Maysville Road veto- strict construction Specie Circular- attempted to discourage land spec., paid hard money for hard land Political/Legal: Spoils system

12 Martin Van Buren ( ) Democrat Economy: Panic of screwed Buren over Independent Treasury Foreign Policy: Recognizes Republic of Texas, but doesnt annex

13 William Henry Harrison ( ) Whig Political/Legal: Longest speech, shortest term

14 John Tyler ( ) Whig Economy: Vetoed bank bills Vetoed a tariff bill Foreign Policy: Webster-Ashburton treaty– Maine border dispute Texas annexed

15 James K. Polk ( ) Democrat Economy: Tariff-for-revenue Bill– lowered average rates from 32% to 25% Foreign Policy: Fifty-four forty or fight, but didnt fight War w/Mexico– got disputed land of Texas and California Domestic: CA, OR acquired California gold rush 1848

16 Zachary Taylor ( ) Whig Domestic: Doesnt want Compromise of 1850

17 Millard Fillmore ( ) Whig Domestic: Wants Compromise of 1850 (CA free, Fugitive Slave Act)

18 Franklin Pierce ( ) Democrat Foreign Policy: Ostend Manifesto- sent diplomats to try to get Cuba from Spain but Northerners found & failed Gadsden Purchase- create Pacific RR and brought land from Mexico Domestic: Kansas-Nebraska Act- Nebraska: free, Kansas: slave but northerners came into Kansas (caused formation of Republicans)

19 James Buchanan ( ) Democrat Economy: Financial crash of 1857 – North was hardest hit and south thought they could live without the north (King Cotton) Tariff of 1857 – lowest tariff since 1812 rate 20% Northerners complained, fincancial crisis struck soon after Domestic: John Brown- martyr for anti-slavery forces; killed pro-slavery person in Kansas Lincoln-Douglas debates Political/Legal: Dred Scott v. Sanford= slaves were considered to be property & couldnt sue in federal courts

20 Abraham Lincoln ( ) Republican Domestic: Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Crittenden compromise – below 3630 would be slave above would be free; Lincoln struck it down Freedmens Bureau – education & land for blacks Political/Legal: Suspend civil liberties during war

21 Andrew Johnson ( ) Democrat Economy: National Labor Union appears Foreign Policy: Seward buys Alaska Political/Legal: 13th Amendment (free slaves) 14th Amendment (citizenship) Impeached but acquitted in Senate

22 Ulysses Grant ( ) Republican Economy: Panic of 1873 – RR speculation Resumption Act – redeem govt loans in hard currency (step away from bimetallism) Domestic: Political corruption (Credit Mobilier scandal, Tweed Ring, Whiskey Ring) Freedmens Bureau expires Political/Legal: 15th Am. (voting) Force acts (guarantee voting for blacks) Civil Rights Act of 1875 (full and equal accomodations, ruled unconstitutional by SC)

23 Rutherford B. Hayes ( ) Republican Economy: Bland-Allison Act– Treasury buys silver & makes silver dollars (continued bimetallism) Domestic: Hayes-Tilden standoff--> Compromise of 1877= end of military reconstruction for Hayes victory Desert Land Act – gave land to those who would irrigate for 3 years

24 James Garfield ( ) Republican Assassinated by deranged office seeker, led to Pendleton Act

25 Chester Arthur ( ) Republican Economy: Tariff of continued protectionist principles Foreign Policy: Chinese Exclusion Act Political/Legal: Pendleton Act (led to downfall of patronage)

26 Grover Cleveland (part 1: ) Democrat Economy: Interstate Commerce Act – rein in RRs (but commissioners were all RR people, so nothing happened) Knights of Labor dissolved Foreign Policy: Dawes Severalty Act – largely destroys Indian govts Political/Legal: Wabash case – defeat for populists who wanted to control railways

27 Benjamin Harrison ( ) Republican Economy: McKinley Tariff – highest tariff in American history until then (48%) Sherman Anti-Trust Act – prohibited combinaitons in restraint of trade... Would be used to target unions though Foreign Policy: Pan-American conference – worked w/Latin America to establish treaties on trade

28 Benjamin Harrison ( ) Republican-- [continued] Domestic: Billion Dollar Congress Frontier line disappears Pension Act 1890 – gave money to veterans (too much money coming in) Hull House – helped immigrants US Forest Service est. by Forest Reserve Act Political/Legal: Populists organized

29 Grover Cleveland (part 2: ) Democrat Economy: Panic of 1893 (blamed on Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which would be repealed) Foreign Policy: Hawaii revolts, but Cleveland refuses to annex Domestic: Labor unrest (Pullman strike) Political/Legal: Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equal

30 William McKinley ( ) Republican Economy: Gold Standard Act – stopped bimetallism Foreign Policy: USS Maine sunk Imperialism Open Door note Domestic: Yellow journalism (hyped Maine)

31 Theodore Roosevelt ( ) Republican Economy: Northern Securities case – he didnt want trusts out of control Panic of 1907 (Roosevelt Panic) Foreign Policy: Panama Canal Expansionism – Platt Amendment (Cubans got independence in name only) Roosevelt Corollary (Big Stick)

32 Theodore Roosevelt (cont.) Domestic: 3 Cs– conservation, consumer, corporations Hepburn Act – no free passes & strengthens ICC Regulations: Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act Political/Legal: Lochner v. New York- cant limit # of working hrs Gentlemens Agreement w/Japan Muller v. Oregon – womens working hrs can be restricted

33 William H. Taft Republican Economy: Payne-Aldrich Tariff– Taft didnt lower tariffs US Steel prosecution- angered TR Foreign Policy: Dollar diplomacy Domestic: NAACP forms Ballinger-Pinchot Affair – disagreement between TR & Taft

34 Woodrow Wilson Democrat Economy: Underwood Tariff– lowered tariff Federal Reserve Act Clayton Antitrust Act– outlawed price discrimination, allowed labor unions FTC established LaFollette Seamens Act Workers Compensation Act Adamsons Act- 8 hr workday for interstate RR workers (same wages as 10 hr day) Keating-Owens Act– federal child labor law War Revenue Act– graduated income tax

35 Woodrow Wilson Democrat Foreign policy: Tries to stay out of WWI Russian Rev. (US doesnt recognize for 16 years) Treaty of Versailles– Fourteen Points League of Nations Red Scare– Sacco & Vanzetti

36 Woodrow Wilson Democrat Domestic Triple Wall of Privilege (tarriff, banks, trusts) Selective Service Act– WWI draft War Industries Board– took control of war industries Harlem Renaissance Political/legal 16th Amendment- income tax 17th Amendment- direct election of senators Appoints Jew to Supreme Court Schenck v. US– 1st Am. restricted during war 18th Amendment- prohibition 19th Amendment- woman suffrage

37 Warren G. Harding Republican Economic: Emergency tariff of 1921– saved farmers Fordney-McCumber tariff– blatantly protective tariff Foreign Policy: Separate peace w/ Germany Domestic: Veterans Bureau Emergency Quota Act Scandals: Teapot Dome, Veteran Bureau KKK revived

38 Calvin Coolidge Republican Foreign Policy Kellogg-Briand Pact– outlaws war Domestic Snyder Act of American Indians get citizenship Immigration Act of similar to Emergency Quota Act Soldiers Bonus Act- bonus to soldiers Political/ legal Scopes trial- evolution trial First female state governor

39 Herbert Hoover Republican Economy Stock market crash Reconstruction Finance Corporation- gave loans to businesses (trickle-down) Norris LaGuardia Anti-Injection Act- no yellow-dog contracts Glass-Steagall Act- created FDIC, insured deposits in banks Foreign Policy Appeasement towards Japan (Manchuria) & Germany Debt Moratorium- slowed repayment on loans from European nations Domestic Bonus Army– veterans march on Washington, dispersed by military force

40 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat Economy: Hundred Days Congress TVA Agricultural Adjustment Act (paid to not grow crops) Bank holiday Good Neighbor policy- stopped armed intervention in Latin America US off gold standard- allowed for inflation of dollar Civilian Conservation Corps- young men work in forest, send earnings to family Federal Emergency Relief Act- direct $ to civilians Federal Securities Act- regulated stock market …

41 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat Economy (continued) Indian Reorganization Act– more pol. & eco. Freedom National Housing Act- fed. Housing administration, homes for cheap Works Progress Administration- provided $ for public works Wagner Act- National Labor Relations Board est. Social Security- pay money to retired people Soil Conservation Act- replaces AAA Fair Labor Standards Act- minimum wage & maximum hours

42 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat Foreign Policy Neutrality Acts Munich Conference- appeases Germany Cash & carry Lend-lease Act Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact Atlantic Charter (if US enters war, Europe would be first) Tehran conference- Big Three meet, open 2nd front in Europe

43 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat Domestic GI Bill Fair Employment Practices Commission- no discrimination in war industry War Production Board (WPB)- controlled production

44 Franklin Roosevelt Democrat Political/Legal 20th Amendment- shortens lame duck period 21st Amendment- prohibition ends court-packing- no messing w/SC Korematsu v. US- internment legal

45 Harry Truman Democrat Economy Employment Act- fed. govt. responsible for economy Taft-Hartley Act- no closed shop (cant be forced to join union) Fair Deal Foreign Policy Potsdam Conference- expanded on Yalta conference Nuremburg Trials- warcrime trial Churchills Iron Curtain Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Containment policy Berlin Airlift NATO (North Atlantic TREATY Organization, not trade)

46 Harry Truman Democrat Domestic National Security Act- coordinates wartime intelligence Armed forces desegregate Political/Legal Fear of communism Alger Hiss Rosenbergs McCarthyism 22nd Amendment– 2 terms

47 Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican Economy Landrum-Griffin Act- limited union boycotting National highways Foreign Policy Korean war armistice Domino theory Geneva Summit (open skies- ignored) Hungarian revolution failed Suez crisis intervention in Middle East Sputnik

48 Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican Domestic Civil rights: Montgomery Bus Boycott, Little Rock integrated, SCLC & SNCC est., lunch counter sit ins Alaska & Hawaii become states Political/legal Brown v. Board- separate is inherently unequal

49 John F. Kennedy Democrat Foreign Policy (Cold War) Berlin Wall constructed Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis Alliance for Progress– Marshall Plan for Latin America Trade Expansion Act- led to lower tariffs between Europe & US Peace Corps founded

50 John F. Kennedy Democrat Domestic Civil Rights: Freedom Riders, March on Washington Political/legal 23rd Amendment– DC gets 3 electoral college votes

51 Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat Economy Great Society- fought poverty & racial injustice War on Poverty, Social Security Act, Medicare & Medicaid Foreign Policy Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Paris Peace Talks Tet offensive

52 Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat Domestic Civil Rights Acts Political/legal 24th Amendment- no poll taxes Miranda case (Miranda v. Arizona) 25th Amendment– presidential succession First black on Supreme Court

53 Richard Nixon Republican Economy OPEC embargo Alaskan pipeline Foreign Policy Détente SALT Opens relationship w/China Ceasefire in Vietnam Moon landing

54 Richard Nixon Republican Domestic Environment- Clean Air Act, EPA Watergate Political/legal War Powers Act- President couldnt send troops w/o approval 26th Amendment– 18 to vote

55 Gerald Ford Republican Foreign Policy South Vietnam falls Political/legal Pardons Nixon

56 Jimmy Carter Democrat Economy Energy Department (due to OPEC) Foreign Policy Camp David between Egypt & Israel Panama Canal treaty– US will return it SALT II Iran Hostage Crisis USSR invades Afghanistan Political/legal Pardons draft evaders in Vietnam War

57 Ronald Reagan Republican Economy Reaganomics tax cut (tried to decrease size of govt) Stock Market plunge, 1987 Foreign Policy Hostages released SDI initiative- outspend USSR Meets w/Gorbachev Domestic Iran-Contra scandal Political/legal 1st woman justice

58 George Bush, Sr. republican Economy Americans with Disabilities act Foreign Policy Gulf war Berlin Wall falls- Germans united USSR disintegrates Domestic War on Drugs Political/legal 27th Amendment- congressional pay raises take effect for next round of senators

59 Bill Clinton Democrat Economy Welfare reform Foreign Policy NAFTA signed EU created Domestic WTC bombed

60 George W. Bush 9/11/2001– attack on WTC, the Pentagon, & thwarted flight against the White House 3,000 Americans killed Created Dept. of Homeland Security Sent American forces into Afghanistan to break up Taliban Most controversial act= invasion of Iraq To capture Saddam Hussein Hurricane Katrina (2005)

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