Presentation on theme: " By the end of 1960s, many analysts began to notice that economic growth was not necessarily correlated with other development objectives. This suggested."— Presentation transcript:
By the end of 1960s, many analysts began to notice that economic growth was not necessarily correlated with other development objectives. This suggested that, while growth was important, it was by no means a sufficient condition to induce broadly based development.
A growing number of theorists and practitioners of development argued that the focus should be on the animate and not on the inanimate. As dissatisfaction with the mainstream models became widespread within the development community during the 1970’s, many international and bilateral aid agencies began searching for alternative, more-people oriented approaches.
‘Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and self-respect’
Human Development Puts human beings at the centre, not incomes… ‘People are the real wealth of a nation. The basic objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to live long, healthy and creative lives’
Aspects 1. Humans are ends not means 2. Incomes are means not end. 3. In practice major focus is on BN type goods and services, but also discusses other issues (freedom, democracy, gender, environment, communities, culture) – it is open ended.
How is Human Development measured? 1. Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2. Through other indicators mentioned by some philosophers.
HDI 1. life expectancy 2. literacy 3. purchasing power