Introduction of IOT Technologies of Internet of Things Introduction to RFID Applications of RFID Current Applications Future Research and Applications Conclusion
Introduction of Internet of things
The concept of the internet of things is attributed to the original Auto-ID Center. Founded in 1999 and based at the time in MIT
Connecting places Connecting People Connecting Technologies Connecting objects of the Physical world Bringing data from real world onto the internet. Getting data from the internet out into the real world
Size & Complexity INANIMATE Fixed Buildings Industrial Plant Machines Environmental Assets Underground Assets Fixed Assets - Large Medium Small Information Points Posters Moveable Transport vehicles Large Containers Unit loads - pallets Transport Units Packages Devices mobile phones, smart-phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile or pocket PC computers Items Moveable Population Groups People Animals Large Medium Small Anatomical parts Cells DNA Identifiable cluster for mobility networking Life-cycle considerations ANIMATE Physical Objects
The Internet of Things is a network of Internet enabled objects, together with web services that interact with these objects. Underlying the Internet of Things are technologies such as RFID (radio frequency identification), sensors, and smart phones.
“We are heading into a new era of ubiquity, where the users of the Internet will be counted in billions, and where humans may become the minority as generators and receivers of traffic. Changes brought about by the Internet will be dwarfed by those prompted by the networking of everyday objects ”– UN report
Device processing and storage power increases Technology becomes smaller ‘Connect and to sense’ - the ability to be intelligent.
Emerging Technologies for the Future Session 1: Keynote Presentations Session 2: Commerce & Governance - Creating a regulatory framework to encourage innovation and maximize the potential Session 3: Standardization and Interoperability Session 4: Privacy, Security & Data Protection Session 6: Service Architecture and Communication
"In the near future, everything of value will be on the network in one form of another" -John Fowler, Software CTO of Sun Microsystems.
Technologies of Internet of Things
RFID means “radio-frequency identification” RFID is a technology for identifying people and assets without human intervention, enabling computer systems to not only identify objects, but also understand their status.
Invented in 1948 by Harry Stockman. Initial application was during World War II-The United Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones. RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane, not the kind of plane it was.. Came into commercial use only in 1990s.
RFID API Software (Communicates with the RFID Reader) Customer-Specific Application Software Host Computer Host Memory Space Reader Antenna Application Program Interface (API) Application Program Interface (API) Components of an RFID System
RFID tags read-only or read-write Factory Programmed Basic Types: Active Tag transmits radio signal Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry High Read Range (300 feet) Passive Tag reflects radio signal from reader Reader powered Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)
Active RFID Automatic payment of tolls Physical access control Passive RFID Inventory and Supply Chain Management Payment identifiers
Each tag contains a unique code that facilitating the identification process & is known as EPC.
RFIDBarcode Forging is difficultForging is easy Scanner not required. No need to bring the tag near the reader Scanner needs to see the bar code to read it RFID is comparatively fast Can read multiple tagsCan read only one tag at a time Relatively expensive as compared to Bar Codes (Reader 1000$, Tag 20 cents a piece) Can be reusable within factory premises Cannot be reused
Inventory Control Container/Pallet Tracking Parking Lot Access Control Manufacturing Line Car Inventory Tracking Fleet Tracking Hands-Free Access Control E-Health Airport Security
Many companies are now using sophisticated Warehouse Management Systems integrated with Supply Chain Systems. Tracking systems employ two-dimensional barcodes that must be close to and within the "line of sight" of the barcode reader.
RFID active tags can be programmed with contents and assigned locations and then placed on containers and pallets that are stored in a warehouse. RFID-based automatic tracking system can identify and keep track of goods that are located anywhere in the warehouse.
RFID technology can provide independent, non- stop systems for security, parking, and access control.
Manufacturers can track and record in-process assembly information into the RFID tag as an item progresses along the line.
RFID systems can be used to manage inventory of automobiles in new and used car dealerships and in rental car lots.
RFID technology, commercial, government, and private fleets can provide hands-free access to their maintenance depot.
ID Badges and access control RFID technology provides a hands-free access control solution with many advantages over traditional access control badges and systems.
Equipment tracking in Hospitals RFID system can be used to track patients, doctors and expensive equipment in hospitals in real time.
RFID access control and personnel tracking and location systems can help to assure the security of restricted areas in airports.
Wireless toll payment systems, such as EZ-Pass are an area where RFID is making significant inroads.
Today almost every phone sold is equipped with some kind of short range radio communication like Bluetooth, or more specifically near field communication (NFC) specifically designed for reading RFID tags.
Present Applications of RFID
Nabaztag Rabbit is a Wi-Fi enabled ambient electronic device in the shape of a rabbit. Invented by Rafi Haladjian and Olivier Mével It is a plastic rabbit which is equipped with RFID reader in its nose and Wi-Fi in its ears setting the cute little rabbit rolling.
These are magical Violet Mirrors based on the RFID technology For example, if you wave an umbrella in front of this magic mirror it would give you a weather forecast, or let you know when you took your last medication if you place your pills on it. It has to be connected to a computer to perform all these functions though.
The bracelet interacts with a RFID Tag Applications Access control in recreational area Amusement park Swimming pool Hospital
Home door lock Vehicle access Computer logon Electronic safe Smart shelves and cabinets Doggie door Object locator Theft alert Handheld scanner Implantable chips
As your run or walk, the sensor sends information to your iPod Nano, tracking your time, distance, pace, and calories burned. If you choose, real- time, spoken feedback can even alert you to milestones throughout your workout.
The RFID tags contain a chip that is imparted with information. In a back shop retail environment, the tags will contain the details of what is in a case or on a pallet of goods. Rather than have a worker with a handheld scanner logging in barcodes, the system will let a computer system use a radio signal to log the goods as they arrive at the loading dock.
A ROADMAP FOR THE FUTURE
“We have a clear vision – to create a world where every object - from jumbo jets to sewing needles – is linked to the Internet. Compelling as this vision is, it is only achievable if this system is adopted by everyone everywhere – Success will be nothing less than global adoption". Helen Duce
The future holds applications of RFID that go far beyond mere bar-coding. A ubiquitously RFID- tagged and networked world offers a transformational extension of the World Wide Web.
The future ubiquitous IoT will make possible for virtually any object around us to exchange information and work in synergy to increase dramatically the quality of our lives.
Internet of things
There will be smart clothes, made of smart fabrics, which will interact with the Climate Control of the cars or homes, selecting the most suited temperature and humidity for the person concerned; smart books of the future will interact with the entertainment module.
Health Biodegradable materials will offer the possibility to place temporary sensors and lab-on-a-chip equipment on the patient, or in the patient. This new sort of personal medical equipment will enable the patient to stay longer and safer at home since the equipment itself can alarm the hospital in case of critical situations.
There will be robots taking care of the house, performing routine works such as cleaning or maintenance. The house will also jointly try to maximize the comfort of each of its inhabitants by learning the individual preference profiles.
Cars will be able to communicate and autonomously start gathering ambient information. Cars will be able to maintain themselves, calling for the appropriate service based on the self diagnosis of the problem and ensuring that the right replacement parts are in stock.
Resource Efficiency Energy conservation is a prerequisite for the Internet of Things. Therefore research producing new knowledge on how to develop more energy efficient electronics will influence the design of all electronics.
Pollution and disaster avoidance Combining sensory information will allow early warnings and prevention of catastrophies. An open gas valve on a stove may be detected by comparing the gas flow measurement with the lack of increased temperature in the room.
In the near term, RFID will serve as a supply chain management tool. It will replace manual processes for tracking supplies in warehouses and at loading docks. For businesses and consumers alike, RFID promises cost savings, more rapid delivery of goods, and enhanced quality control.
In an RFID-enhanced future, the benefits would accrue not just to businesses, but also to consumers.
Easy item returns: You might be able to return RFID-tagged items of apparel without a store receipt. The unique identifier in the tag would reference a database record with the time of purchase and the original price – and even credit card information, if desired.
Smart appliances: Your washing machine could choose its cycle setting based on tag information in the items to be washed. Your “smart” refrigerator could take inventory automatically.
Personalization: You might carry an RFID tag that stores (or references) personalization data. When you walk up to a clothing rack in a shop, LEDs might flash on the hangers with items in your size and preferred colors.
"In the future, RFID will be combined with other sensors into a wireless, secure, self- configuring and self-healing network," says Dick Lampman, senior vice president for research, HP, and director of HP Labs. "Customers will reap incredible visibility, flexibility and efficiency into their operations."
HP also is pursuing research in RFID and sensing technologies, creating systems aimed at allowing businesses to track and monitor products they've purchased.
"Researchers are developing an intelligent network of sensors that will create an adaptive, secure and easy-to-manage sensing infrastructure -- one that turns data centers into Smart Data Centers and warehouses into Smart Warehouses," Lampman said. "We have just scratched the surface in terms of what we can do with this technology."
Web 3.0 is generally regarded as the appearance of the semantic web. Web 3.0 online networks allow people to see through the marketplace or society and cooperatively match them, learn, and consume information in hours not months. The President of the World Bank recently said that a “facebook” of global government was required.
Web 4.0 will be the Internet of Things. One of the most important developments of Web 4.0 will be the immigration of online functionality into the physical world. Artificial Intelligence and reasoning will be the main elements of Web 4.0 One of the simplest examples, imagine being able to Google your home to locate your car keys or the remote control
It is widely expected that RFID technology will become mainstream in the retail industry around A vast amount of objects will be addressable, and could be connected to IP-based networks, to constitute the very first wave of the “Internet of Things”. The Internet of things will become a reality over the next 20 years; with universal smart devices wirelessly communicating over hybrid and ad-hoc networks of devices.