Internet fundamentals Open network, open standards –Developed within IETF system (RFC series) –TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, IPSEC, etc etc –“Dumb network” – global p2p datagram service “IP over Everything” –Layered networking model (a la OSI) –Relying on ITU and IEEE standards –Serial line, Modem, Ethernet, ISDN, xDSL, cable/fibre, MPLS, 802.11x, Mobile 2G/3G… Platform for competition and innovation –Great benefits to consumers 3
The “Protocol Hourglass” 4 Phone/Fax/SMS TV/VOD/conf “The Internet” Applications Fixed, Dialup/ISDN Mobile/2G Cable/ADSL Infrastructure Voice Video Data Network
The Hourglass – Tomorrow 5 Voice, email, IM Video, TV, conf WWW+++ Applications 802.11*/WiMax Mobile/3G Cable/*DSL FTTH, ETTH Infrastructure IP Network
Broadband and Mobile Acceleration of Internet function and growth, simultaneously –Broadband: more speed means more applications –Mobile: more devices means more applications –More applications means more demand Separation of services from infrastructure –Vertical disintegration –Greater innovation and competition Multiple “always-on” services per user –Huge increase in IP address requirements… 6
What is an IP address? The Internet Protocol –Packets, addressing and routing –Two types: IPv4 and IPv6 An IP address is a number –Every device directly connected to the Internet needs a unique IP address –IP address space is finite Not the same as a Domain Name ! 7
IP Addresses vs Domain Names The Internet 2001:0C00:8888:: My Computerwww. cernet.cn 2001:0400:: www.cernet.cn? 22.214.171.124 2001:0400:: DNS 8
Private addresses and NAT Router 126.96.36.199/26 (64 addresses) 188.8.131.52..2..3..4 10.0.0.1..2..3..4 *AKA home gateway, ICS, firewall… NAT* 184.108.40.206 (1 address) 220.127.116.11 (1 address) ISP 18.104.22.168/16 The Internet 61.100/16 (2 16 addresses)
Private addresses and NAT Internet 10.0.0.202 22.214.171.124 NAT ? Extn 202 Phone Network 02 6262 9898 PABX
Internet NAT The limits of NAT… 12 NAT NAT * ✗ * Double NAT ✗ NAT
Enter IPv6…. Why? Just one reason: More addresses –Billions… Trillions… Gazillions…? –Suffice to say, “Enough for a long time” The promise of ample address supply… –Simpler, faster, cheaper network –No more NAT: “Restore Internet transparency” –Better for everyone Other benefits … –Security, QoS, autoconfiguration, etc? –Actually not new: all available in IPv4 –But all are “built-in” to IPv6
IP Addresses: IPv4 vs IPv6 IPv4IPv6 Deployed 1981Deployed 1999 32-bit address 126.96.36.199 128-bit address 2001:DB8:0234:ABCD:0123:4567:8900:BEEF Address space 2 32 = ~4,000,000,000 Address space 2 128 = ~340,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000 Security, autoconfig, QoS added later (IPSec etc) Security, autoconfig, QoS “built-in” (IPSec etc) Projected lifetime: 2012Projected lifetime: Indefinite
Internet NAT No more NAT ? 15 NAT NAT * ✗ * Double NAT ✗ NAT
The Transition to IPv6 IPv4 address exhaustion is inevitable –IANA will allocate the last /8 in Sept 2011 –The first RIR to exhaust IPv4 address pool will be APNIC in July 2012 –Even now, some IPv4 address blocks have reachability concerns, e.g. 1/8 IPv6 should be inevitable –The only solution to IPv4 exhaustion –Protocol is 10 years old –Under a new spotlight for at least 18 months 17
The BGP view of IPv6 IPv4 ASNs 34,000 IPv6 ASNs2,100 330,000 IPv4 routes2,900IPv6 routes
Ratio of IPv6 to IPv4 Networks 21 Measuring IPv6 Deployment by Geoff Huston, APNIC http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/ipv6momentum/http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/ipv6momentum/ IPv6:IPv6 ASNs
Ratio of IPv6 to IPv4 ASes 22 Measuring IPv6 Deployment by Geoff Huston, APNIC http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/ipv6momentum/http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/ipv6momentum/ “IPv6 is currently 6.0% of IPv4 in terms of ASs that announce or transit IPv6 routes. “Assuming future exponential growth of this ratio, IPv6 will be at 80% of the v4 Internet in 2018”
“Relative use of IPv6 has slowly increased over four years to reach around 1% today”
APNIC IPv6 Survey 2009 Deployed or ready for immediate deployment? Formal plan for future deployment? Budgeted for future deployment? 25
APNIC IPv6 Survey 2009 n=118 If not, why not considering IPv6?
EU Survey 2009 27 http://www.ipv6monitoring.eu http://www.ipv6.eu/admin/bildbank/uploads/Documents/Commision/COM_.pdf
OECD: Latest Report Indicators of infrastructure readiness –Over 5.5% of networks on the Internet are IPv6-enabled (and accelerating) –At least 23% of IXPs support IPv6 –Over 90% of installed OSes are IPv6-ready (and 25% on by default) –Approx 1% of DNS names (1.5M) have IPv6 Only 0.15% of the top 1M websites (ranked by Alexa) are IPv6 accessible –The top economies with IPv6 presence Germany, The Netherlands, US, China and UK 28 http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/48/51/44953210.pdf
Sometime in 2012… ISPs will need addresses for new network infrastructure –and will receive only IPv6 End users will start receiving IPv6 Internet services –With or without private IPv4 addresses Enterprises and businesses will get IPv6 for their new networks –“Customer NAT” will apply to IPv4 All Internet users will be affected Are you ready? 30
ISPs and Operators Note well: One day soon, you will only get IPv6 addresses for new deployments… Is your infrastructure ready for IPv6? Can you deliver IPv6 service in 2012? What is your plan for IPv4 services to your customers? None? Customer NAT? CGN? Are your services and systems ready? –DNS, SMTP, web, mail, etc etc etc –Security, monitoring, customer admin, billing… And by the way, do you have addresses?
Enterprises and content providers One day, your customers and business partners may only have IPv6 addresses… Will your website and services be visible via IPv6 in 2012? Do you have an upgrade path between now and then? Does your domain name have AAAA? Do all your service providers, integrators and vendors have their plans in place? Have you asked them? And by the way, do you need addresses?
Others… System integrators and consultants –Can you put all the pieces together? –Are your people trained to answer questions? –Can you help your customers with their planning? Academics and educators –Is your institution ready for IPv6 in 2011? –Are you producing IPv6-ready graduates? –Have you upgraded your skills?
Governments Do you have procurement criteria mandating IPv6 capabilities? Are your agencies ready with IPv6? Are your online and e-government services ready with IPv6? Are your Internet industries up to speed? Are you providing leadership? What else are you doing?
Where do IP addresses come from? Standards Allocation Assignment End user 36
Regional Internet Registries Structure and operations… –Open membership-based industry bodies –Non-profit, neutral, and independent –Allocation, registration and other services –APNIC: training, infrastructure, cooperation History… –First established in early 1990s –Voluntarily by consensus of community –To ensure responsible address management, according to technical needs –To support Internet development 37
Regional Internet Registries 38 The Internet community established the RIRs to provide fair and consistent resource distribution and accurate resource registration throughout the world.
Policy Development Process 39 OPEN TRANSPARENTBOTTOM UP Anyone can participate All decisions & policies are documented & freely available to anyone Internet community proposes and approves policy Need DiscussEvaluate Implement Consensus
Policy Development Process AKA “PDP” –Formally defined process(es) –Open, bottom-up, consensus-based Participation –Members and non-members –Secretariat as equal party Mechanism –OPM and SIGs –SIG Chair elected by participants Global Policies –Via regional PDP, and ASO global PDP
APNIC’s Other Efforts IPv6 compliance in all our services ISPs, our main constituents –Training, education, supporting NOGs Outreach on IPv6 –Enterprises and content providers –ccTLDs and their registrars –Governments –IGF and related meetings –Asia Pacific Regional IGF in HK, June 2010 –APEC TEL, ITU, OECD and others
“Google has quietly turned on IPv6 support for its YouTube video streaming Web site, sending a spike of IPv6 traffic across the Internet…” – 1 Feb 2010 Networld Monash University, Melbourne, Australia: Chicken or Egg?
“What’s the Killer App for IPv6?” The Internet ! 45
Remember the IPv4 revolution? The 1990’s – a new world of… –Cheaper switching technologies –Cheaper bandwidth –Lower operational costs –The PC revolution, funded by users The Internet boom –The dumb (= cheap) network –Technical and business innovation at the edges –Many compelling business cases for new services and innovation
How about an IPv6 revolution? The 2010’s – a new world of… –Commodity Internet service provision –Broadband, mobile, always-on –Massive reduction in cost of consumer electronics –A network-ready society An IPv6 boom? –Ubiquitous pervasive networking –Bringing online the “Next 5 Billion” –Plus a device population some 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than today’s Internet –“Internet for Everything”