Presentation on theme: "BANGGAAN SA DAAN: PAANO NA SI JUAN?"— Presentation transcript:
1BANGGAAN SA DAAN:PAANO NA SI JUAN?A CASE CONTROL STUDY ON THE EXPOSURE FACTORS LEADING TO THE OCCURRENCE OF VEHICULAR ACCIDENT RELATED INJURIESAgustin, Aranjuez, Magat, Maglaque, Ocampo, Parco, Regalado, Serrano, Tan, Tanbonliong
2I. Introduction A. Review of Related Literature OUTLINEI. IntroductionA. Review of Related LiteratureB. Conceptual FrameworkC. Statement of the ProblemD. HypothesesE. Research ObjectivesF. Significance of the Study
3II. Methodology Research Design Participants Scope and Limitations OUTLINEII. MethodologyResearch DesignParticipantsScope and LimitationsOperational DefinitionsData CollectionMethods to Minimize Potential BiasesMethods to Minimize Sources of ErrorData AnalysisPlan for Dissemination of ResultsEthical ConsiderationsTimetableProjected Cost
4Filipinos debilitated everyday road accidents INTRODUCTIONFilipinos debilitated everyday road accidentsSafety Organization of the Philippines, Inc. (Jan 2006 to Dec 2006)30.22% of non-fatal accidents56.92% of property damage were due to private vehicles2005 Accident Locations (Arterial Roads) by Metropolitan Road Safety Unit 6433 accidents occur at EDSA aloneCommonwealth Avenue ranks second
5REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE INTRODUCTIONREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREAs of the year 2000, the Department of Health (DOH) ranks it as the fifth leading cause of death and mortality in the countryvehicular accidents are prevalent in the Metro Manila end up in fatal injuries and even deathpossible outcomes of road collisions – fatality, injury, and property damage
6REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE INTRODUCTIONREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREMetro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) Types of vehiclesLand Transportation Office topmost causes of vehicular accidents here in Metro Manila
7INTRODUCTION CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Driver Exposure to factors -Environmental Factors (Ambient lighting, surface condition of road)-Vehicular Factors(motorcycle, motor tricycle, car, jeepney/FX/taxi, bus, van)-Driver Error (driving too fast, inattentiveness, bad overtaking, driving too close, disobeying traffic signs/ lights, othersPositive for Vehicular Accident Related Injury (VARIs)Negative for Vehicular Accident Related Injury (VARIs)Vehicular Accident:Pertinent info from rrl – relate to conceptual framework
8STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM INTRODUCTIONSTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMAims to determine whether environmental, vehicular and driver-related exposures act as risk factors for acquiring vehicular accident-related injuries (VARIs)What is the prevalence of each type of exposure?Among the environmental/vehicular/driver error factors, which has the strongest association with VARIs?
9INTRODUCTIONHYPOTHESESIf the driver is exposed to certain environmental, vehicular and driver-related factors prior to the accident then there is an increased likelihood of VARIs.driver (certain environmental factors) increased likelihood of acquiring VARIsexposure to certain vehicular factors and driver factors increase acquiring VARIs.
10Identify exposures involved with the occurrence of VARIs. INTRODUCTIONRESEARCH OBJECTIVESIdentify exposures involved with the occurrence of VARIs.Identify the prevalence of each exposure.Identify the prevalence of each factor under each type of exposure.Rank each type of exposure according to degree of prevalence
11Rank strength of association between VARIs and each type of exposure INTRODUCTIONRESEARCH OBJECTIVESRank each factors under each type of exposure according to degree of prevalenceRank strength of association between VARIs and each type of exposureRank strength of association between VARIs and each factor under each type of exposure.
12SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTIONSIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYTraffic accidents are highly avoidable best to know the determinants of these unfortunate events, determine the ways to avoid them and the ways to improve the traffic systemFocus of the studymore specific in the categories of traffic collisions, the environmental factors, personal factors and type of vehiclehelp formulate necessary intervention, decrease the economic cost of accidents, and possibly improve the future quality of life of drivers
13METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN Positive for the Disease/ Condition Occurrence of a Disease/ ConditionPositive for the Disease/ ConditionNegative for the Disease/ ConditionIdentify the exposure/s suspected of causing the disease/ conditiona)Negative for Vehicular Accident Related Injuries (VARIs)Occurrence of Vehicular Accident Related Injuries (VARIs)Positive for Vehicular Accident Related Injuries (VARIs)Identify the exposure/s suspected of causing VARIsb)Figure 5. Comparison between a Case Control Study’s retrograde process (a) with this study’s research design (b)
14EDSA and Commonwealth – main areas of the study METHODOLOGYPARTICIPANTSEDSA and Commonwealth – main areas of the studyCases - motor vehicle drivers who are involved in vehicular accidents with accompanying major and/or minor injuriesControls - motor vehicle drivers who are involved in vehicular accidents without accompanying major and/or minor injuries
15METHODOLOGYPARTICIPANTSSampling methodAll potential accident reports within the limitations and framework of the study shall be compiled from official accident reports in the Guadalupe and Commonwealth Traffic Sectorsbe segregated to the cases (for nonfatal accidents with minor or major injuries to the driver) and controls (for nonfatal accidents without minor or major injuries to the driver).
16Time period: 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009. METHODOLOGYSCOPE AND LIMITATIONSTime period: 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009.Non-fatal vehicle-to-vehicle accidents under the jurisdiction of the Guadalupe Traffic Sector (for EDSA) and the Commonwealth Traffic Sector (for Commonwealth)Primary data source: Official accident reports made by trained traffic police investigators in the Guadalupe and Commonwealth Traffic Sectors
17OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS METHODOLOGYOPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSVehicle ParametersVehicular AccidentRefers to accident involving collisions between two or more vehiclesVehicleRefers to an engine-run transport mechanism, and is limited to the following:Motorcycle (two-wheeled vehicle)Motor Tricycle (three-wheeled passenger-carrying vehicle)Car (privately-owned vehicle, including all forms of ‘private use’ small passenger-carrying vehicles)Jeepney/Taxi/Bus (four-wheeled vehicle which carries passengers for a feeTruck (large four or more-wheeled vehicle for delivering goods)Van (small four-wheeled vehicle used for delivering goods)
18METHODOLOGY OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Driver Error Parameters Driving too fastRefers to driving beyond the speed limit (greater than 80 km/hr) as indicated by skid marks on the road or extensive damage beyond repair to the vehicles involved, or both. Extensive damage refers to destruction of more than 50% of the vehicle, rendering it beyond economic repairInattentivenessRefers to the lack of attention to driving which directly contributed to the accident as directly indicated in the written affidavit of the parties involvedBad overtakingRefers to the act of passing another vehicle on its passenger side without the use of signal lights which directly contributed to the accidentDriving too closeRefers to the lack of sufficient distance between cars, which is specified as follows: If the traffic runs at km/hr, there should be a 1 car distance between vehicles; from km/hr there should be a distance of 2 cars between vehicles; lastly for speed of 80 km/hr and above, there should be a distance of 3 cars between vehicles.Disobeying traffic signs/ Traffic lightsRefers to the act of purposely violating traffic signs or traffic lights which directly contributed to the accident as judged by the police investigator.OthersRefers to other human error factors which do not fall under the preceding variables.
19OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS METHODOLOGYOPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSEnvironmental ParametersAmbient lightRefers to the amount of illumination available in the area of the accident during its occurrence as indicated by the attending traffic enforcer, and consists of the following:Daylight (natural-occurring illumination from a fully-risen sun)Dawn/Dusk (illumination during sunrise and sunset, where the sunlight is partially available)Lit night (illumination during night, coming primarily from nearby street lights)Unlit night (illumination during night, in the absence of nearby street lights)Surface conditionRefers to the state of the road in the area of the accident during its occurrence as indicated by the attending traffic enforcer, and consists of the following:Dry (normal state of the road, without the presence of water or mud)Wet (damp or soggy road, with water levels not exceeding 3/4ths of the vehicle tire)Muddy (road with the presence of wet and soft earth)Flooded (road with water levels exceeding 3/4ths of the vehicle tire)
22METHODS TO MINIMIZE POTENTIAL BIASES METHODOLOGYMETHODS TO MINIMIZE POTENTIAL BIASESRater biasOfficial accident reports filled up by designated police investigators who have underwent the Traffic Accident Investigation CourseConsider the investigatorInstrument biasDPWH-crafted police report
23METHODS TO MINIMIZE SOURCES OF ERROR METHODOLOGYMETHODS TO MINIMIZE SOURCES OF ERROREDSA and Commonwealth have similar characteristics, such as the same types of vehicles that run through them, the same number of lanes and volume of trafficData collection methods were standardized
24METHODOLOGYDATA ANALYSISOdds ratio between the outcome and each of the available exposure factors (OR = AD/BC)Ranked in order to determine which exposure factor has the greatest correlation with the outcome
25PLAN FOR DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS METHODOLOGYPLAN FOR DISSEMINATION OF RESULTSPresented to the general academic communityA copy of the study output will be given to the MMDA and to other traffic-related bodiesUsed as a reference for preventive interventions against possible fatal and untimely accidents along major roads and highways
26ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS METHODOLOGYETHICAL CONSIDERATIONSThe use of the data from the official accident reports solely for the purposes of the studyThe protection and right to privacy of the identities of the parties involved in the accidents described in the accident reports
27METHODOLOGY TIMETABLE MONTH October November December January February MarchAprilMayWEEK1234Activity1. Preparationa. Establish definitionsb. Prepare a letter of requestc. Scout for the different precincts along EDSA and Commonwealth Avenued. Prepare a letter of request for access to recordse. Finalize proposal and present to for approval2. Data-gatheringa. Gather data from the EDSA and Commonwealth police precinctsb. Gather information needed from the raw datac. Conduct needed statistical analyses from the data acquired
28METHODOLOGY PROJECTED COSTS Item (price) Quantity Total price Transportation (gas)Paper and PrintingOthers~Php 1,000.00PhpPhpTOTALPHP 1,800.00