Presentation on theme: "A CASE CONTROL STUDY ON THE EXPOSURE FACTORS LEADING TO THE OCCURRENCE OF VEHICULAR ACCIDENT RELATED INJURIES Agustin, Aranjuez, Magat, Maglaque, Ocampo,"— Presentation transcript:
A CASE CONTROL STUDY ON THE EXPOSURE FACTORS LEADING TO THE OCCURRENCE OF VEHICULAR ACCIDENT RELATED INJURIES Agustin, Aranjuez, Magat, Maglaque, Ocampo, Parco, Regalado, Serrano, Tan, Tanbonliong BANGGAAN SA DAAN: PAANO NA SI JUAN?
I. Introduction A. Review of Related Literature B. Conceptual Framework C. Statement of the Problem D. Hypotheses E. Research Objectives F. Significance of the Study OUTLINE
II. Methodology A.Research Design B.Participants C.Scope and Limitations D.Operational Definitions E.Data Collection F.Methods to Minimize Potential Biases G.Methods to Minimize Sources of Error H.Data Analysis I.Plan for Dissemination of Results J.Ethical Considerations K.Timetable L.Projected Cost OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION Filipinos debilitated everyday road accidents Safety Organization of the Philippines, Inc. (Jan 2006 to Dec 2006) – 30.22% of non-fatal accidents – 56.92% of property damage were due to private vehicles 2005 Accident Locations (Arterial Roads) by Metropolitan Road Safety Unit 6433 accidents occur at EDSA alone Commonwealth Avenue ranks second
INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE As of the year 2000, the Department of Health (DOH) ranks it as the fifth leading cause of death and mortality in the country vehicular accidents are prevalent in the Metro Manila end up in fatal injuries and even death possible outcomes of road collisions – fatality, injury, and property damage
INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) Types of vehicles Land Transportation Office topmost causes of vehicular accidents here in Metro Manila
INTRODUCTION CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK DriverExposure to factors -Environmental Factors (Ambient lighting, surface condition of road) -Vehicular Factors (motorcycle, motor tricycle, car, jeepney/FX/taxi, bus, van) -Driver Error (driving too fast, inattentiveness, bad overtaking, driving too close, disobeying traffic signs/ lights, others Positive for Vehicular Accident Related Injury (VARIs) Negative for Vehicular Accident Related Injury (VARIs) Vehicular Accident:
INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Aims to determine whether environmental, vehicular and driver-related exposures act as risk factors for acquiring vehicular accident- related injuries (VARIs) – What is the prevalence of each type of exposure? – Among the environmental/vehicular/driver error factors, which has the strongest association with VARIs?
INTRODUCTION HYPOTHESES If the driver is exposed to certain environmental, vehicular and driver-related factors prior to the accident then there is an increased likelihood of VARIs. – driver (certain environmental factors) increased likelihood of acquiring VARIs – exposure to certain vehicular factors and driver factors increase acquiring VARIs.
INTRODUCTION RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Identify exposures involved with the occurrence of VARIs. Identify the prevalence of each exposure. Identify the prevalence of each factor under each type of exposure. Rank each type of exposure according to degree of prevalence
INTRODUCTION RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Rank each factors under each type of exposure according to degree of prevalence Rank strength of association between VARIs and each type of exposure Rank strength of association between VARIs and each factor under each type of exposure.
INTRODUCTION SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Traffic accidents are highly avoidable best to know the determinants of these unfortunate events, determine the ways to avoid them and the ways to improve the traffic system Focus of the study – more specific in the categories of traffic collisions, the environmental factors, personal factors and type of vehicle help formulate necessary intervention, decrease the economic cost of accidents, and possibly improve the future quality of life of drivers
METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN Occurrence of a Disease/ Condition Positive for the Disease/ Condition Negative for the Disease/ Condition Identify the exposure/s suspected of causing the disease/ condition a) Negative for Vehicular Accident Related Injuries (VARIs) Occurrence of Vehicular Accident Related Injuries (VARIs) Positive for Vehicular Accident Related Injuries (VARIs) Identify the exposure/s suspected of causing VARIs b) Figure 5. Comparison between a Case Control Study’s retrograde process (a) with this study’s research design (b)
METHODOLOGY PARTICIPANTS EDSA and Commonwealth – main areas of the study Cases - motor vehicle drivers who are involved in vehicular accidents with accompanying major and/or minor injuries Controls - motor vehicle drivers who are involved in vehicular accidents without accompanying major and/or minor injuries
METHODOLOGY PARTICIPANTS Sampling method 1.All potential accident reports within the limitations and framework of the study shall be compiled from official accident reports in the Guadalupe and Commonwealth Traffic Sectors 2.be segregated to the cases (for nonfatal accidents with minor or major injuries to the driver) and controls (for nonfatal accidents without minor or major injuries to the driver).
METHODOLOGY SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS Time period: 1 January 2009 to 31 December Non-fatal vehicle-to-vehicle accidents under the jurisdiction of the Guadalupe Traffic Sector (for EDSA) and the Commonwealth Traffic Sector (for Commonwealth) Primary data source: Official accident reports made by trained traffic police investigators in the Guadalupe and Commonwealth Traffic Sectors
METHODOLOGY OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Vehicle Parameters Vehicular Accident Refers to accident involving collisions between two or more vehicles VehicleRefers to an engine-run transport mechanism, and is limited to the following: - Motorcycle (two-wheeled vehicle) - Motor Tricycle (three-wheeled passenger-carrying vehicle) - Car (privately-owned vehicle, including all forms of ‘private use’ small passenger-carrying vehicles) - Jeepney/Taxi/Bus (four-wheeled vehicle which carries passengers for a fee - Truck (large four or more-wheeled vehicle for delivering goods) - Van (small four-wheeled vehicle used for delivering goods)
METHODOLOGY OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Driver Error Parameters Driving too fastRefers to driving beyond the speed limit (greater than 80 km/hr) as indicated by skid marks on the road or extensive damage beyond repair to the vehicles involved, or both. Extensive damage refers to destruction of more than 50% of the vehicle, rendering it beyond economic repair InattentivenessRefers to the lack of attention to driving which directly contributed to the accident as directly indicated in the written affidavit of the parties involved Bad overtakingRefers to the act of passing another vehicle on its passenger side without the use of signal lights which directly contributed to the accident Driving too closeRefers to the lack of sufficient distance between cars, which is specified as follows: If the traffic runs at km/hr, there should be a 1 car distance between vehicles; from km/hr there should be a distance of 2 cars between vehicles; lastly for speed of 80 km/hr and above, there should be a distance of 3 cars between vehicles. Disobeying traffic signs/ Traffic lights Refers to the act of purposely violating traffic signs or traffic lights which directly contributed to the accident as judged by the police investigator. OthersRefers to other human error factors which do not fall under the preceding variables.
METHODOLOGY OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Environmental Parameters Ambient lightRefers to the amount of illumination available in the area of the accident during its occurrence as indicated by the attending traffic enforcer, and consists of the following: - Daylight (natural-occurring illumination from a fully-risen sun) - Dawn/Dusk (illumination during sunrise and sunset, where the sunlight is partially available) - Lit night (illumination during night, coming primarily from nearby street lights) - Unlit night (illumination during night, in the absence of nearby street lights) Surface condition Refers to the state of the road in the area of the accident during its occurrence as indicated by the attending traffic enforcer, and consists of the following: - Dry (normal state of the road, without the presence of water or mud) - Wet (damp or soggy road, with water levels not exceeding 3/4ths of the vehicle tire) - Muddy (road with the presence of wet and soft earth) - Flooded (road with water levels exceeding 3/4ths of the vehicle tire)
METHODOLOGY DATA COLLECTION
METHODOLOGY DATA COLLECTION
METHODOLOGY METHODS TO MINIMIZE POTENTIAL BIASES Rater bias – Official accident reports filled up by designated police investigators who have underwent the Traffic Accident Investigation Course – Consider the investigator Instrument bias – DPWH-crafted police report
METHODOLOGY METHODS TO MINIMIZE SOURCES OF ERROR EDSA and Commonwealth have similar characteristics, such as the same types of vehicles that run through them, the same number of lanes and volume of traffic Data collection methods were standardized
METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS Odds ratio between the outcome and each of the available exposure factors (OR = AD/BC) Ranked in order to determine which exposure factor has the greatest correlation with the outcome
METHODOLOGY PLAN FOR DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS Presented to the general academic community A copy of the study output will be given to the MMDA and to other traffic-related bodies Used as a reference for preventive interventions against possible fatal and untimely accidents along major roads and highways
METHODOLOGY ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS The use of the data from the official accident reports solely for the purposes of the study The protection and right to privacy of the identities of the parties involved in the accidents described in the accident reports
METHODOLOGY TIMETABLE MONTHOctoberNovemberDecemberJanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMay WEEK Activity 1. Preparation a. Establish definitions b. Prepare a letter of request c. Scout for the different precincts along EDSA and Commonwealth Avenue d. Prepare a letter of request for access to records e. Finalize proposal and present to for approval 2. Data-gathering a. Gather data from the EDSA and Commonwealth police precincts b. Gather information needed from the raw data c. Conduct needed statistical analyses from the data acquired
METHODOLOGY PROJECTED COSTS Item (price)QuantityTotal price Transportation (gas) Paper and Printing Others ~Php 1, Php Php TOTAL PHP 1,800.00