Presentation on theme: "Anusha M. Nugaliyadda Reg. No. 04/5303 JOB SATISFACTION OF THE ESTATE WORKERS A Study of Loolecondure Estate, Hewaheta."— Presentation transcript:
Anusha M. Nugaliyadda Reg. No. 04/5303 JOB SATISFACTION OF THE ESTATE WORKERS A Study of Loolecondure Estate, Hewaheta
INTRODUCTION Background of the Sri Lankan Tea Industry Commercial Tea Cultivation in Loolecondure Estate, Hewaheta Workers for tea plantations migrated from South India From 1867 to All Tea Plantations were managed by Private Companies Tea Plantations - JEDB and SLSPC Private Companies 40 Estates JEDB and SLSPC (Sri Lanka Tea Board Annual Report 2009,2010; PHDH Kandy Record Books; Loolecondure Estate, Hewaheta Record Books; S. Kdituwakku and H.M.S.Priyanath,2007 )
3 Figures Indicate Declining Trend of Tea Industry after 1960 both Production and labor; Total Labor Force 500, ,000 (Surplus) (Deficit) Average 5% drop every year and will be worse in years to come Sri Lankan Tea Production is heavily based on labor which leads labor is the most important factor affect productivity Labor Productivity in Tea Industry is declining over the past decades and recorded very lower ranks in world labor productivity tables (Central Bank- Economic and Social Statistics Report of Sri Lanka – 2010; Kodituwakku & Priyanath, 2001; Wickramasinghe & Cameron, 2003; N.C.Wickramasinghe,2008) Labor Force of Tea Industry
4 Labor shortage is becoming the major threat to the Tea Industry; Disturb day to day operationsLow Production Reduce the quality of TeaIncrease - Cost of Tea Decrease – Profitability of the Industry Job Satisfaction is one of the reasons for labor shortage Workers not encouraging their children to work as Estate Labors Younger Generation find jobs outside the Estate Estate work force is less than 30% of the Total Residents (Loolecondure Estate, Hewaheta Record Books; Kodituwakku & Priyanath,2001; Wickremasinghe, 2008; M.M.M.Aheeyar, 2005; Central Bank- Economic and Social Statistics Report of Sri Lanka – 2010) Labor Shortage in Tea Industry
Research Questions 5 1. What is the overall level of Job Satisfaction of Plantation Workers? 2. What are the main factors affecting Plantation Worker’s Job Satisfaction?
Research Objectives 6 1. Measure overall Job Satisfaction level of the Plantation Workers 2. Identify the main factors affecting Plantation Worker’s Job Satisfaction
Literature Review 7 Job Satisfaction is an attitudinal variable that can be used to indicate whether someone likes his/her job or not (Spector,1997) Factors affect Job Satisfaction (Glisson & Durick, 1988; Jex, 2002) 1. Individual Characteristics 2. Job Characteristics ( Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model: 1976) 3. Organizational Characteristics (Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory, 1954; Jex’s Social information processing Theory, 2002) (Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer, 1999, Robbins and Decenzo, 2004, Hong Lu, Aloson & Barriaball, 2006)
Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory 8 Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibilities Advancement Growth Supervision Company Policy Relationship with Supervisor Working Conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal Life Relationship with employees Status Security Supervision Company Policy Relationship with Supervisor Working Conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal Life Relationship with employees Status Security Extremely Satisfied Neutral Extremely Dissatisfied (Herzberg’, 1968; Source: Robbins & Decenzo, 2004) Motivational FactorsHygiene Factors
Importance of Job Satisfaction 9 Employee Attitude Behavior Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Work Hard/Less Personal life Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction (Farrell, 1983: Exit-voice- loyalty-neglect framework) 1. Low Performance 2. Poor Attendance 3. Less Loyalty 4. Neglect 5. Turnover (Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer, 1999; Robbins and Decenzo, 2004; Hong Lu, Aloson & Barriaball, 2006; Alsaeed, 2010)
Conceptual Framework Demographic Factors 2. Job Related Factors Responsibility Achievements Recognition Job Security Status 2. Job Related Factors Responsibility Achievements Recognition Job Security Status 3. Organizational Factors Targets Supervision Salary Promotion Interpersonal Relationships Working Conditions Non Financial Benefits Retirement Benefits 3. Organizational Factors Targets Supervision Salary Promotion Interpersonal Relationships Working Conditions Non Financial Benefits Retirement Benefits JOB SATISFACTION/ DISSATISFACTION
METHODS 11 Loolecodure Tea Plantation, Hewaheta, Nuwara Eliya Workers are from the Generation of first set of Plantation Workers Largest government owned Tea Plantation (JEDB) Exposed to the urban area is less due to the location and original Tea Plantation Culture exists Study Site
Population 12 Divisions of Loolecondure Estate Total Workers MaleFemaleTotal 1. Naranhinne 4638%7462% Loolecondure 6348%6952% WalOya 4444%5756% Lower Goonawe 5444%6956% Upper Goonawe 5754%4846%105 Total 26445%31755%581 Methods Contd.
Sample Selection Method 13 Sampling Method Step 1 : Stratified Sampling based on ; Division of the Estate Gender Step 2: Random Sampling in each Strata Total Sample Size Methods Contd.
Demographic Data of the Sample 15 VARIABLECATEGORYFREQUENCYPERCENTAGE 1. GenderFemale 6655% 2. Age % % 3. Marital StatusMarried % 4. EducationNever gone to School % G % 5. Yrs of Experience16 – 25 Yrs % 6. Individual IncomeBelow Rs. 5, % 7. Family IncomeRs. 5,001 – 7, % 8. Dependents % 9. GenerationMigrants % 10. Member of TUMember %
16 Data Analysis Tools Data Analysis ToolObjective Factor AnalysisAs a data reduction tool and found a smaller model of questionnaire Descriptive Statistics Frequency Test Cross Tabulation Analyze demographic data Measure Statistical differences of Overall Job Satisfaction Level with relates to the demographic variables Cronbatch’s AlphaMeasure reliability of the Factors Mean AnalysisMeasure Overall Job Satisfaction Level Regression Analysis Ordinal Logit Model To identify factors affect Job Satisfaction
Data Collection Methods 17 Focus Interviews - 06 Composition : Mgt Staff -02, Clerical Staff -02, Kanganis -02 Focus Group Discussions – 02 Composition : Group I – 10 Male ; Group II – 8 Female 06 Open Ended Questions; 1. How do you feel your job? 2. What are the present satisfactions and dissatisfactions with your job? 3. How do you see your job needs changing? 4. What are the major frustrations in your job? 5. What will you need from your job in next 05 years? 6. Do you have any other advice for me? Study 1 – Focus Group Discussions (Qualitative Data)
18 Data Collection Method – Questionnaire - Structured Questions, Tamil Rating Scale – Likert Scale :1 - Strongly Disagree 5 - Strongly Agree Questionnaire – 05 Factors, 31 Questions Job RelatedTargets and Interpersonal Relationships SupervisionSalary and Retirement Benefits Promotions Pre-Testing of the Questionnaire : Ensure Validity and Reliability Rating Scale:1-5 or 1-3 (Tan Teck Hon & Amna Waheed,’Hertzberg’s Motivation- Hygiene Theory and Job Satisfaction in the Malaysian Retail Sector;Asian Academy of Management Journal, Vol.16, No , January 2011) Study 2 – Survey (Quantitative Data)