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PR Campaigns An Overview 1 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ.

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1 PR Campaigns An Overview 1 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

2 Culbertson, Jeffers, Stone, and Terrell (1993) noted that public relations practitioners appreciate theory for academic reasons but see little use for it outside the classroom. The authors observed, however, that marketing experts' reliance on theoretical concepts has resulted in their success in identifying target market segments and in positioning products or organizations. The authors concluded that that success should spur public relations practitioners to adopt theoretical approaches. 1 1 Alfonso González-Herrero, and Cornelius B. Pratt, "An Integrated Symmetrical Model for Crisis-Communications Management," Journal of Public Relations Research8.2 (1996): 81, Questia, 16 June 2009. 2 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

3 German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804; 1793/ 1971) examined the relation between theory and practice, noting that (a) the soundness of any theory, grounded in experience, depends on its applicability; (b) the importance of any theory is its guide to action in fruitful ways; and (c) the practical relevance of any theory is that it is a set of principles that specifies procedures for achieving certain ends. 3 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

4 Definition Campaigns are coordinated, purposeful, extended efforts designed to achieve a specific goal or a set of interrelated goals that will move the organisation towards a longer-range objective expressed as its mission statement 4 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

5 Campaigns are designed and developed to address an issue, to solve a problem or to correct or improve a situation They accomplish these purposes by changing a behaviour; by modifying a law or opinion; or by retaining a desirable behaviour, law or opinion that is challenged 5 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

6 A campaign may be constructed around a positioning statement –an objective operating statement for the organisation e.g. Asian Heart Hospital The term positioning is often used in marketing to refer to a competitive strategy- way to identify a niche in the market for a product or service 6 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

7 Types of PR campaigns Public Awareness program-simple awareness Public Information campaigns-to offer information along with awareness 7 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

8 Public Education campaign-this means that a person has encompassed the material sufficiently and is emotionally and attitudinally comfortable enough with it that he can actually apply it to daily behaviour 8 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

9 Re-enforcement campaigns- here we must re- enforce the attitudes and behaviour of those who are in agreement with our position Cognitive dissonance campaigns-change or attempt to change attitudes of those who do not agree to your position Behaviour modification campaigns 9 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

10 Basic principles of successful campaigns Assessment of the needs, goals, and capabilities of priority publics or target publics Systematic campaign planning and production Continuous monitoring and evaluation to see what is working and where extra effort needs to be made 10 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

11 Consideration of the complementary role of mass media and interpersonal communication Selection of the appropriate media for each priority public, with due consideration of that medium’s ability to deliver the message 11 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

12 Planning a campaign Campaigns are designed to accomplish specific organisational objectives A campaign’s foundation is the organisational mission and its roof or its containing factor is the budget The elements are research, publics and evaluation 12 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

13 It involves setting up of goals, creating time-tables and developing budgets Setting up a theme and media to use in communicating with the designated publics Internal strategy is critical to establishing organisational support for the campaign 13 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ


15 Using Research for planning Research is critical at every step of public relations work, from planning and goal setting to identifying results for purposes of future planning and action 15 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

16 Six ways to use research To formulate strategy To gauge success To test messages To size up connection To get publicity To sway opinion 16 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

17 A public relations practitioner interested in putting together a program to bring an organisation's goals and objectives to public’s attention begins by examining all available research information indicating how various publics view the organisation (or similar organisations) 17 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

18 When a public relations practitioner reaches the point of planning messages for various publics, audience research becomes critically important 18 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

19 Issue Forecasting An organisation uses collected information to determine how it and its publics might react to a future event, trend or controversy Anticipate issues, analyse issues, recommend an organisational position, identify publics/opinion leaders, identify desired behavior of publics/opinion leaders 19 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

20 Learning about publics Deciding upon the major publics, minor publics, prioritizing them Reexamine their profiles to see how each might be affected by the situation What are the real facts with the publics? 20 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

21 Grunig says we must take into consideration that people control their behavior Expect different communication behaviors from information seekers than from information processors 21 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

22 An information seeker is interested enough in the problem or situation to want to know more about it An information processor is aware of the of the communication and may be touched by the message but does not actively seek the information 22 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

23 Planning media use What media different publics use is widely available from professional, trade and academic journals How people use media, which media they use and who the users are A medium will provide its own research data to help sell time or space or to provide editorial guidance 23 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

24 Setting goals and timetables and Budgets Planning your goals for the campagains from the research data Making estimates or timetables for achieving results Allow for foul-up time or finishing work ahead of schedule 24 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

25 Contingency planning Deciding you budget 25 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

26 What is a strategy? An elaborate and systematic plan of action designed to achieve a pre-determined goal 26 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

27 What is the objective of the campaign? What are the desired results? What is the deadline or the period fixed for the campaign Last but not the least: Budget? 27 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

28 Objectives could be Delivering a positive vote or reaction at the proper time Building support for an issue that will be resolved in due courses Raising funds for an organization so that it can proceed with growth Attracting enough support to guarantee continuance or survival of an organization at critical time 28 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

29 Successful organizations also base their actions on a game plan. The process starts with the enunciation of a mission statement. This is an important part of a strategic planning. “Making a fair profit for our stockholders by developing and distributing the highest-quality goods to a national market.” “treating our consumers and employees fairly and being good citizens of the communities where are facilities are located.” Out of the mission statement grows a list of goals-somewhat more specific than the mission statement, but still general in nature and unspecific as to time frame or numerical targets. Goals for the manufacturing company may be “to be a market leader in the small appliance field.” 29 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

30 Only when a mission statement and goals are in place can the management of an organization move to the necessary task of setting objectives. What makes objectives different from mission and goals is their specificity. An objective should specify the desire effects as specifically as possible. E.g. “To decrease the number of newspapers in the state that oppose rate reforms for the insurance industry from 60 percent to 40 percent by the first of the year.” 30 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

31 Once goals and objectives are in place, they can be drawn upon to plan campaigns and programs. Research on the problem or opportunity Action that includes evaluation and planning Communication of the message from organization to publics, and Evaluation of the effects of those messages Grunig’s “ Behavioral Molecule” further broke the management steps into: detecting a problem constructing a possible solution defining alternatives selecting the best course of action confirming the choice by pre-testing behaving by enacting a program, and then returning to the process of detecting whether the program met the desired objectives. 31 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

32 Behavioural molecule by Grunig In the context of a ‘behavioural molecule’, Grunig describes the elements of public relations as detect, construct, define, select, confirm, behave, detect. The process of detecting, constructing, defining, selecting, confirming, behaving (which, in systems language, means producing outputs) and detecting, continues ad infinitum 32 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

33 During the planning of a campaign or a program, part of the analysis of each key public should include such questions as: Where do members of our key publics get their information? Which media do they rely upon to make decisions about what is important and how to behave? Which channels provide the two-way communication that enables key publics to provide information to our organization about their needs and concerns? Another level of analysis focuses on the characteristics of each medium and their relationship to the campaign or program: Which media allows us to get our point of view across most effectively? Which media are best suited to the information requirements of our campaign, such as the presenting of visual images, the need for two-way communication, or the ability to tell a story in depth? Which media are most cost-effective for this type of information? 33 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

34 Budgeting must follow the setting of goals and objectives, and it also must follow the identification of key publics. It precedes media selection and message design 34 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

35 Format of a plan DateActivityResponsibility Print MainlinesTVRadio 35 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

36 Format of a plan Media opportunities Media activities Non-media tools 36 Meenakshi Upadhyay,Academician,UDCJ

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