Presentation on theme: "Page 1 E N T A I L M E N T By: Riza Nirmala Putri."— Presentation transcript:
Page 1 E N T A I L M E N T By: Riza Nirmala Putri
Page 2 Entailment The Meaning In linguistics, Entailment is the relationship between two sentences where the truth of the first sentence requires the truth of the second sentence. (wikipedia) It is impossible to accept the first sentence but deny the second.
Page 3 ENTAILMENT The Example Example: One way Entailment 1 st sentence (A) : The anarchist assassinated the emperor 2 nd sentence (B) : The emperor died The sentence A entails B, if we believe the statement in sentence A then we know that the sentence B must be true also without being told anymore (automatic truth).
Page 4 ENTAILMENT Truth Table A -------------- B T T F T/F F F T/F T If we believe A is true then B is automatically true also If the sentence A is false then we couldn’t say anything about the sentence B (it can be true or false) If the sentence B is false then A is false also If the sentence B is true then we couldn’t say anything about the sentence A (it can be true or false also)
Page 5 ENTAILMENT The Example Example: Two ways entailments 1 st sentence (A): Alice owns this book 2 nd sentence (B): This book belongs to Alice This is two ways entailments, because if A is true means B also true, and if B false A also false. The relationship is like this; A ------------------- B T T F F T T F F
Page 6 ENTAILMENT The Sources 1.Hyponymy from lexical items is a regular source for entailment between sentence (we can see it also from the words assassinated and die) Look another example: (one way entailment) a. I bought a dog today b. I bought an animal today Dog is the hyponym of Animal
Page 7 ENTAILMENT The Sources 2.Other source of entailment is syntactic : for example active and passive. Look at the example: (two ways entailments) a. The Etruscans built this tomb b. This tomb was built by the Etruscans Both sentences mutually entail each other.