3learned, shared, and enduring orientation patterns in a society. People demonstrate their culture through values, ideas, attitudes, behaviors, and symbols.transmitted through the process of learning and interacting with one’s environment, rather than through the genetic process.
7All cultures of the world—despite many differences—face a number of common problems and share a number of common featuresAll societies, if they are to survive, are confronted with fundamental universal needs that must be satisfied.
8Economic Systemsthe most obvious and immediate needs of a society is to meet the basic physiological requirements of its people.Because commodities are always in finite supply, each society must develop systematic ways of producing, distributing, and consuming these essential resources.
9Marriage and Family Systems One should know about these systems, especially in those areas where one is running businessImportant implication in labor contracts
10A society must have an organized way of passing on its cultural heritage from one generation to the next.This universal societal need for cultural transmission gives rise to some form of educational system in every society.Knowledge of these is helpful for businessperson engaged in marketing strategies abroad.
11Socio-control Systems Every society has a system for coercing people to obey the social rules, and these are called social control systems.In order to maintain order and good working relationships among employees, corporations operating abroad would be more successful by using local mechanisms of social control.
12Religions and Other Supernatural Belief Systems Societies develop supernatural belief systems for explaining these unexplainable occurrences.Religions and other supernatural belief systems affect the conduct of business by shaping attitudes about work, savings, consumption, efficiency, and individual responsibility.
14Research suggests that employees are socialized into three cultures: national culture, professional culture, and corporate cultureWorking effectively within these overlapping cultures is a major challenge.
16There are numerous dimensions of national culture. Can be grouped into two broad categories- subjective and objective
17Subjective Dimensions of Culture values and attitudesmanners and customsdeal versus relationship orientationperceptions of timeperceptions of spacereligion
18Objective Dimensions of Culture symbolic and material productions, such as the tools, roads, and architecture unique to a society.
19Language- a Key Dimension of Culture Language is such an important dimension of culture that it requires extensive treatment.Often described as the expression or mirror of culture, language is not only essential for communications, it provides insights into culture.
20Language- a Key Dimension of Culture Linguistic proficiency is a great asset in international business because it facilitates cross-cultural understanding.The same word can convey different meanings in the two countries- thus advertising themes often lose their original meaning in translation or convey unfavorable interpretations.Business jargon can also impede communication
36West East Christianity concerned with absolute moral values Buddhism and Confucianism focuses on virtuelegalistic contractual relationshipsdirect personal relationshipsWeak hierarchical structureStrong hierarchical structureAttribution groups are importantFrame groups are importantfreedom and personal consciencesecurity and obedienceIndividualistic orientationGroup orientationNeed for self-assertionNeed for coordination
38Cultural Diffusion it is seen to be superior to what already exists it is consistent with existing cultural patternsit is easily understoodit can be tested on an experimental basisits benefits are clearly visible to a relatively large number of people
39Impact on Business Product design Advertisement Acceptability Strategic guidelines