Presentation on theme: "Anonymous “Good planning and organization means that you spread out the assignment enough to feel relaxed about it – not that you simply put off the cramming."— Presentation transcript:
Anonymous “Good planning and organization means that you spread out the assignment enough to feel relaxed about it – not that you simply put off the cramming until the last minute!” AnonymousAnonymous
Principles of Effective Research Writing
How to write it? All data should be on hand. Organize all data. Structure your report. Title, section heading, subheadings. Check for sufficient information to write in each section. Each subsection should have key contents to make writing easier. Use simple logical procedure. Edit and rewrite thoroughly until the report is coherent. Write – revise – rewrite. The first draft tends to be poorly written. Whenever a key point emerges, revise the appropriate section and edit the rest. Seek help. If possible rewrite. Be clear. Be simple. Write sentences that have the greatest impact. Use diagrams, illustrations, and tables to break up the text and avoid boredom.
CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION
Sub – sections Introduction Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Limitations Definition of Terms
DEFINITION : This is the background and purpose of your study. It includes your clearly formulated and testable hypothesis, as well as explanation of your idea, how you got it and why you think the work is interesting. Also include what you hoped to achieve when you started the project. One paragraph that tells the whole story. One way to do this is to write a sentence for each idea in the scientific method. One for the purpose, one telling what experiment or test you did, etc.
Tips on Writing good Introduction
Rules for a Good Introduction It should present with all clarity the nature and scope of the problem It should review the pertinent literature to orient the reader It should state the method of investigation
How to make instant Introduction ?
Answer the ff. QUESTONS Why did you select this research project ? Are there others who have done similar studies ? What the others have done or not done that moved you to work on this problem ? What are your observations that are relevant to the study ? Will the results of the study make any contributions in the attainment of a better quality of life ?
Example : Our country is located in the ring of fire and faults geographically, that is why we are prone to natural disaster such as tsunami, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. We cannot predict where and when these phenomena will occur. Most of the time, we are not prepared and these lead to damage of properties and if worse comes to worst, these will even cost our lives. These things trigger the researchers to look and produce a product out of waste materials to be utilized. The research is about using Polyester Resin Filler as an alternative material in preserving small damages such as cracks and holes in concrete cement buildings that may lead to great damage because it may cause the infrastructures to be weak. But the study is limited to applying the produced product in roads. Epoxies and Polyesters were first developed in the 1930’s. However, neither found widespread commercial application until after World War II. Both materials have since played a major role in revolutionizing manufacturing and construction techniques.
Currently, newly asphalted and cemented roads easily deteriorate to the point that cracking and potholes occur at once. These lead to serious road accidents and may even cause death. These things can be avoided if we choose right and appropriate material even though there are high quality materials that are commercially sold in the market today still we encounter problems in terms of their effectiveness and durability. Concrete epoxy is usually used to repair road cracks and potholes. However, concrete epoxy exhibits long setting time ranging from 24 to 38 hours curing time in at least 72 hours. It is for this reason the researchers wanted to explore Polyester Filled Resin to be a possible replacement to concrete epoxy. Polyester Resin Filler is a fast-setting compound for quick repair of concrete surfaces. It starts to set within 20 minutes after addition of catalyst and will totally cure overnight or 24 hours.
Polyester Resin Filler is a two-component system comprising of a filled thermosetting polyester resin and its catalyst. Thermosetting polyester resin refers to the unsaturated polyester resin which is a reaction condensation product of glycol and acids particularly propylene glycol, phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride. During the condensation reaction, water is eliminated and ester linkages are generated to produce a resin. The unsaturation brought to this system by the acid provides reactive sites for subsequent cross-linking. The resin produced is dissolved in styrene monomer for ease of handling. The liquid resin is accelerated with Cobalt Accelerator and catalyze with liquid catalyst particularly MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) which causes the resin to polymerize into a hard solid state. (Caution: MEKP is extremely powerful oxidizing agent, thus extra care is needed in handling this chemical as this causes slight burning under prolonged exposure). Polyester resins come in hundreds of different formulations and use. Polyester resin may be flexible for used in mouldings, placemats and for automotive body-patching compound. Semi-flexible or semi- rigid resins are primarily used for the production of glass fiber- reinforced boats, planters and decorative castings. There are also the rigid type polyester resins, which are used for lamination, for the production of cultured marble and onyx, and furnitures. For road filler, a rigid resin will be used as this need to be tough enough to withstand the weight.
As far as polyester resin is concerned, there are many things to consider. Specifications of resin are very important, as these will influence final resin performance. Some of these specifications are: viscosity, acid value, gel time, cure time and hardness. End-use properties are tailored to the specific market place into which the resins are sold. For instance, for automotive applications, they require resin with shrink control additive in order to produce very smooth molded surfaces. The sanitary ware market requires resin with a variety of fillers such as talc, calcium carbonate, marblemite, etc. The marine industry requires resin that can be sprayed up with fiberglass reinforcement. Thus, while polyester resins may be cast in pure form, they are most frequently used in combination with fillers and reinforcements, such as glass fibers. In the case of this study, the fillers to be used will either be sand.
GROUP ACTIVITY Create your own Introduction using the tips that you’ve learned. Then let your group members read and critic your work. That will serve as your second quiz in research.
Background of the Study
Definition It is the reasons or observations that led the researcher to select a particular problem. It also state your sources of idea or how did you come up with that problem and; Introduce “briefly” the variables involved in the study.
It usually answers the ff. questions: What triggers you to do the research ? What are your reasons ? How did you come up with that problem ? What are the variables involve ? What is the relationship between the variables ?
Example Nowadays, many infrastructures are built to conform to the fast-changing life. In order to cope up with those changes, people look for alternative that will give remedies, which will lessen the trouble and will make life easier. These things are done through continuous research, discoveries, and building infrastructures such as houses, buildings, bridges, highways and roads. Through these facts, the researchers are offering innovative solutions in preserving properties.
The researcher, Glen Urbino came to an idea of using resin in making concrete filler through his mother, Sally, who works in a resin manufacturer company, Polyester Philippines Incorporated. He, together with his group mates, made an experiment in making concrete filler better than any other concrete filler such as asphalt and concrete epoxy. They aimed to make less expensive and shorter curing time concrete filler than concrete epoxy. They also intended to create concrete filler, which is more durable than asphalt and concrete epoxy. The study would be a big help to our government particularly in the budget allotted for repairing of road cracks and damaged building concrete surfaces. It would speed up the repairing of cracks on surfaces of concrete buildings that is caused by natural calamities like earthquake. The researcher, Glen Urbino came to an idea of using resin in making concrete filler through his mother, Sally, who works in a resin manufacturer company, Polyester Philippines Incorporated. He, together with his group mates, made an experiment in making concrete filler better than any other concrete filler such as asphalt and concrete epoxy. They aimed to make less expensive and shorter curing time concrete filler than concrete epoxy. They also intended to create concrete filler, which is more durable than asphalt and concrete epoxy. The study would be a big help to our government particularly in the budget allotted for repairing of road cracks and damaged building concrete surfaces. It would speed up the repairing of cracks on surfaces of concrete buildings that is caused by natural calamities like earthquake.
Group Activity Create your own Background of the Study using the tips that you’ve learned. Then let your group members read and critic your work. That will serve as your third quiz in research.
Significance of the Study
Definition It is the sub – section of Chapter One that tells the importance of your study or research…
Contents It tells the importance of the It tells the importance of the problem being studied; problem being studied; it should indicate the potential it should indicate the potential contribution of the research to contribution of the research to new knowledge, to you as an new knowledge, to you as an individual, to your community individual, to your community and to your country. and to your country.
It usually answers the ff. questions: What is the meaning or significance of your research? Who will benefit in doing this research ? What are the contribution of your research in terms of new information and advancement of knowledge ?
Example Since Polyester Resin Filler is successfully proven, it will be a big help to our government and also to everyone especially to those who travel frequently. It would also help in renovation of buildings and repairs of damaged concrete surfaces that is caused by an earthquake. People will also have to expect for a more durable grounds in using Polyester Resin Filler. The repair cost of roads and cracks of concrete surfaces of buildings will decrease because the budget needed for the Polyester Resin Filler is cheaper than the concrete epoxy. Repairs will also be shortened because the curing time of the concrete filler is just an overnight. No travelers will then be much disturbed because of road repairs and repair of buildings’ concrete surfaces will speed up.
Group Activity Create your own Significance of the Study using the tips that you’ve learned. Then let your group members read and critic your work. That will serve as your fourth quiz in research.
Statement of the Problem
Contents This must state what you aimed to accomplish. The problem should be brief, precise, accurate, clear, specific, measurable and quantifiable statements and attainable. The objective should be stated positively and in the declarative form. If the problem is broad, it has to be broken down to smaller ones.
Objectives Objective is the aim or goal of an action. It defines the expectation of the research. Its attainment will give affirmation or non – affirmation to the hypothesis.
Types of Objectives General objectives – overall purpose of the research Specific objectives – specific outcome expected of the study
Stating the research objectives is essential for the following reasons: They give an indication of the relevant variables to be considered in the study. They guide the researcher in the choice of research design or methods. They tell the researcher what data to collect. They are helpful in planning the analysis of data.
Some criteria for specific objectives Are they adequate for the general purpose of the study? Are the specific hypothesis incorporated? Are they clearly stated? Are the variables specified? Are they expressed in measurable terms?
Criteria of Good Problems and Problem Statements : A problem should express a relation between two or more variables. The variables are measurable. The problem must be clearly stated and unambiguously preferably in question form. It demands that the problem and problem statement must imply the possibility of empirical testing.
Example STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Asphalt, when used to patch cracks and potholes, although easy to apply and has short curing time, does not last long while Concrete epoxy is tough and durable but expensive and long cure time. The researchers tried to prove if using Polyester Road filler is advantageous over the rest. The researchers aimed a lot about the study. They wanted to look for a more efficient and effective repair of concrete surfaces. They also wanted to replace the more costly concrete epoxy repair and to prove that can be used to repair roads and so other concrete surfaces. They studied Polyester Resin well by answering the following specific problems. How durable is Polyester Resin Filler in terms of Modulus of Rupture, Internal Bond and Thickness Swelling and water absorption? How much cheaper is Polyester Resin Filler than Concrete Epoxy?
HYPOTHESIS Polyester Resin filler can be an alternative to Asphalt and concrete epoxy for Concrete repair. Polyester Resin filler cannot be an alternative to Asphalt and concrete epoxy for Concrete repair. Polyester Resin Filler may have a different effect on Concrete repairs.
Scope and Limitation
Definition Delimitation refer to the scope and extent of your study, where and when the study was conducted, who the subjects were and state specifically the nature of the treatment used, their number, and the instrument used like questionnaires (descriptive research), or testing made in the experimental design.
Contents Limitation includes the time, money, personal tools, and techniques involved. It also includes the extent of your knowledge and experience.
It usually answers the ff. questions: What are the coverage of your research ? Where was the study done ? When was the study performed ? What is your research all about ? What are the materials and instrument used in conducting the research ? How much money did you used in conducting a research ? What specific time you started and finished the research ?
Example The study was investigated to see if Polyester Resin Filler could be used for road repairs. The Polyester Resin Filler was made from pre-accelerated resin, MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide), and dry sand. The experimentation, including the collection of data was conducted around Metro Manila only. They made Polyester Resin Filler only. They recorded the data such as its curing time and compared it to the facts about Asphalt and Concrete epoxy. The concrete samples of Polyester Resin Filler were tested to see if it meets the testing standard of Modulus of Rupture, Internal Bond and Thickness Swelling and Water Absorption. The testing was in the laboratory of Philippine Polyester Incorporated. The researchers limited their expenses to an amount not greater than four thousand pesos.
Group Activity Create your own Scope and Limitation using the tips that you’ve learned. Then let your group members read and critic your work. That will serve as your fifth quiz in research.
Definition of Terms
2 ways how to define a term Many terms lead to numerous interpretations. Thus, there is a need to define those terms as they are used in the study. There are 2 levels of defining a term: Conceptual or Consecutive – conceptual definition is the academic or the universal meaning attributed to a word or group of words. It is mostly abstract and more formal than the operational definition. This is usually given by dictionaries, encyclopedias, books and the like. Operational or Functional – In research, terms and concepts should translate into more tangible ones. Kerlinger gives 2 forms of operational definition:
Example RESIN - Any of numerous physically similar polymerized synthetics or chemically modified natural resins including thermoplastic materials such as polyvinyl, polystyrene, and polyethylene and thermosetting materials such as polyesters, epoxies, and silicones that are used with fillers, stabilizers, pigments, and other components to form plastics. EPOXY - a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or "hardener". Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. thermosettingepoxidepolymercatalyzingresinsepichlorohydrin bisphenol-Athermosettingepoxidepolymercatalyzingresinsepichlorohydrin bisphenol-A ASPHALT - a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi- solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits. Asphalt is composed almost entirely of bitumen. There is some disagreement amongst chemists regarding the structure of asphalt, but it is most commonly modeled as a colloid, with asphaltenes as the dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase. viscouspetroleums bitumenchemistscolloidviscouspetroleums bitumenchemistscolloid
Group Activity Create your own Definition of Terms using the tips that you’ve learned. Then let your group members read and critic your work. That will serve as your seventh quiz in research.