Presentation on theme: "KITCHEN WASTE TO COOKING GAS"— Presentation transcript:
1KITCHEN WASTE TO COOKING GAS E-Weekly-3/6Green Earth MovementAn E-Newsletter for the cause of Environment, Peace, Harmony and JusticeRemember - “you and I can decide the future”G E MKITCHEN WASTE TO COOKING GAS
2Every year, about 55 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) and38 billion liters of sewage aregenerated in the urban areas ofIndia. In addition, large quantitiesof solid and liquid wastes aregenerated by industries. Waste generation in India is expected to increase rapidly in the future. As more people migrate to urban areas and as incomes increase, consumption levels are likely to rise, as are rates of waste generation. It is estimated that the amount of waste generated in India will increase at a per capita rate of approximately % annually. This has significant impacts on the amount of land that is and will be needed for disposal, economic costs of collecting and transporting waste, and the environmental consequences of increased MSW generation levels.
3Most wastes that are generated, find their way into land and water bodies without proper treatment, causing severe water pollution. They also emit greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide, and add to air pollution. Any organic waste from urban and rural areas and industries is a resource due to its ability to get degraded, resulting in energy generation.
4The problems caused by solid and liquid wastes can be significantlymitigated through the adoption ofenvironment-friendly waste-to-energytechnologies that will allow treatmentand processing of wastes before theirdisposal. These measures would reduceThe quantity of wastes, generate asubstantial quantity of energy from them, and greatly reduce environmental pollution. India’s growing energy deficit is making the government central and state governments become keen on alternative and renewable energy sources. Waste to energy is one of these, and it is garnering increasing attention from both the central and state governments.
5VAST POTENTIAL According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), there existsA potential of about 1700 MW fromUrban waste (1500 from MSW and 225MW from sewage) and about 1300 MWfrom industrial waste. The ministry is alsoactively promoting the generation ofenergy from waste, by providingsubsidies and incentives for the projects.Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) estimates indicate that India has so far realized only about 2% of its waste-to-energy potential. A market analysis from Frost and Sullivan predicts that the Indian municipal solid waste to energy market could be growing at a compound annual growth rate of 9.7% by 2013.The following chart explains how community gains by opting for Waste To Energy project.
7Waste To Energy (WTE) Basics Organic waste deposited in a landfill decomposes over time, releasing a mixture of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Gasification controls and accelerates the natural decomposition process to create synthesis gas (syngas), which is used to generate power. Thistechnology is not new; inthe mid-1800’s manyLarge cities usedgasification to producethe gas used for streetLighting.
8Technologies for the Generation of Energy from Waste Biogas is produced when organic matter is brokendown by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen,called anaerobic digestion. This process occursNaturally in many environments with limitedoxygen, for instance in marshes, rice fieldsand in the stomach of ruminants. The gas can also be produced by fermentation of bio-gradable materials.In a gas plant the natural process is utilized by adding - or pump - organic matter into a digester, which is a completely airtight container. In the digester a raw biogas is formed plus a nutritious digestate which can be used for fertilizer, which shall not be mixed up with sludge!The gas content comprises mainly methane (55-70%) and carbon dioxide (30-45%). It may have some small amounts of ammonia, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, moisture and siloxanes.
9WTE STEP-BY-STEPAll technologies that convert waste-to-energy involve the same basic steps.1. Waste pre-processing: Waste is delivered to the facility and processed for the delivery to the gasifier.2. Conveyance: Systems will generally include some sort of conveyor to move the pre - processed waste to the gasifier.
103. Gasifier: All technologies put the waste into a chamber that isessentially an organic waste pressurecooker. While gasifiers are alldifferent in some way, using multiplechambers or processing waste atdiffering combinations of time,temperature and pressure, allessentially perform the same function– the conversion of organic wasteinto syngas. Gasification is not incineration; the oxygen content is controlled during the process to ensure that the waste is never combusted or burned.
114. Steam & Power Creation: Syngas moves from the gasifier to a boiler where the syngas iscombusted, with heatcreating steam that powersturbines to generate power.5. Treatment of Flue Gas: Any flue gas is treated soThat system emissions meetall applicable air quality systems.
12The Gas Can Be Used For Different Purposes Heating purposes, such as cooking.Run generators and make electricity.Be compressed and used incombustion engines.Waste recycling when waste matteris a feedstock.Biomethane is the generic term for gasesconsisting mainly of methane and produced from biomass. Biomethane is the name being referred to when biogashas been cleaned and upgraded to the same standard as natural gas (fossil gas).When this upgrading is done the methane content is about 98%. Different pollutants are removed and the gas becomes completely odorless.
13Indian Government Support for Waste to Energy The Indian Government has recognizedwaste to energy as a renewabletechnology and supports it throughvarious subsidies and incentives. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is actively promoting all the technology options available for energy recovery from urban and industrial wastes. MNRE is also promoting the research on waste to energy by providing financial support for R&D projects on cost sharing basis in accordance with the R&D Policy of the MNRE. In addition to that, MNRE also provides financial support for projects involving applied R&D and studies on resource assessment, technology up-gradation and performance evaluation.
14INDIA IS FAR BEHIND IN BIO-GAS TECHNOLOGY! Compared to the biogas programmeIn China, where seven millionHousehold and community biogassystems have been successfullyInstalled. India has a long way to goto realise the benefits of biogastechnology. China, through thecreation of effective institutions and by placing an emphasis on training and education, has achieved widespread dissemination of biogas technology (Ruchen, 1981, Daxiong et al, 1990), though the social organisation may particularly facilitate the spread of new, community-focused technologies.
15Most biogas plants which are currently in operation In India and elsewhere are designed for animal manure asTheir main feedstock, and are therefore used inrural areas. Whereas in cities, a majority of thepeople use LPG or kerosene for cooking. Theimmediate benefit from owning a compactbiogas system is the savings in cost as compared to the use of kerosene or LPG for cooking. The up-front cost of a biogas system is higher than for LPG, since an LPG bottle plus a two burner stove costs only INR 5,000 (spprox. USD 100) whereas the compact biogas plan plus a biogas stove costs about INR 10,000 (approx. USD 200). However, the operational cost for biogas is only about INR 2 per day if waste flour is used as feedstock, and can be zero if the plant uses only food wastes. This is much cheaper than LPG, which costs about INR 30 per day, even with the current subsidy of 50%. Biogas can easily replace 50% of the LPG used by a family. Some families who use a pressure cooker for cooking and collect food waste from their neighbours have replaced all their LPG use.
16Purchasing your own compact biogas system: Cost & Payment ARTI’s trained technicians install the biogas plantsusing locally available plastic tanks (commonly usedFor water storage) and a plumbing kit supplied by Samuchit Enviro-Tech (SET) Pvt. Ltd., a company setup by members of ARTI. SET also supplies a singleburned biogas stove made of cast iron, and a gas cock. This set, consisting of the plumbing kit and a single burner biogas stove, costs INR 2350 (M.R.P. inclusive of taxes and transport anywhere in India). The total estimated cost of the compact biogas system for a typical household (around lit capacity) is about INR 10,000, but the actual cost may vary based on local prices of plastic tanks and local labour costs. For more information, please contact us at .SEE THE NEXT SLIDE FOR THE CONTACT DETAILS OF OTHER BIO-GAS CONSULTANTS
17WASTE TO ENERGY CONSULTANTS (List not exhaustive - courtesy: Internet) 1] DELHI - Envo Projects, Mobile : , web:2] NEW DELHI - ASPES SOLAR ,# 532, NEW DELHI, CONTACT –3] MUMBAI - BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE, Tel : /559389, Fax : ,4] PUNE – APPROPRIATE RURAL TECHNOLOGY INDIA, -5] THIRUVANANTHAPURAM - BIOTECH CORPORATE OFFICE, Phone : , , , Fax : , – Website :6] KOCHI, is - yahoo .com, Mobile7] COCHIN - Synod Bioscience (P) Ltd, Ph: , Mob: ,8] KANYAKUMARI - Vivekananda Kendra, phone: and cell ; - 9] HYDERABABD - Renewable Energy and Environmental Service Enterprise(REESE), Mobile:10] CHENNAI - EAI - Energy Alternatives India, Tel ,11] SALEM - Arjun Energy Corporation, Ph: /51/ ,12] BANGALURU - Scalene Greenergy Corporation Ltd, Tel: +91 (0) , Fax: +91 (0) , ,
18Other GEM PowerPoint Presentations are: Zero Garbage Solar Energy This PowerPoint Presentation is prepared by GEM (Green Earth Movement) Team.Other GEM PowerPoint Presentations are:Zero GarbageSolar EnergyJunk FoodTwenty Tips To Save NaturePlastic – a boon or baneGreen Passion.Think before your drinkThese PPP CDs may be downloaded from our website: – refer GEM sectionOr contact :