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Below standard nutrition Lack of pre/postnatal check-ups.

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Presentation on theme: "Below standard nutrition Lack of pre/postnatal check-ups."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Below standard nutrition Lack of pre/postnatal check-ups

3 Infections Hypertension Hemorrhage during and after delivery

4 Pre-pregnant nutritional status Weight gain during pregnancy FETAL GROWTH

5  Very big baby  Increase cesarean section  Pre-eclampsia  Diabetes during pregnancy  Late fetal death ( 3 - 4X )  Early neonatal death ( 2X )

6 Small babiesPreterm deliveries

7 1. Respiratory Conditions 2. Pneumonias 3. Congenital Anomalies 4. Diarrheal Diseases 5. Birth Injury/ Difficult Labor 6. Septicemia 7. Measles 8. Meningitis 9. Other diseases of the Respiratory System 10. Avitaminoses & other nutritional deficiency

8 Women who have: - Too many pregnancies - Previous low birth weight babies - Short intervals between births

9 RDA in Pregnancy% RDA 19982002 Energy Protein Calcium Iron Folic Acid 2200 Kcal/ day 60 gm/ day 900 mg / day 41 mg / day 350 ug/ day 72.5 86.2 40.9 25.0 (?) 80 > 90 29.5 33.7

10 CigarettesAlcohol Diabetes Birth defects low birthweight low folate, Vit C, and carotenoids Stillbirth birth defects low birthweight Lowers plasma levels of Vit. C

11 Macronutrients  Energy  Protein  Carbohydrates  Fats Micronutrients Dietary Fiber

12 PROTEIN 15% FAT 25% CARBOHYDRATE 60%

13 Micronutrients  Vitamins  Fat-soluble: A D E K  Water-soluble: B, C, Folate, Niacin  Minerals

14  Organic food substances found only in living things  Cannot be manufactured nor synthesized by the body  Must be supplied in the diet or in dietary supplements

15  Regulate metabolism  Convert fat and carbohydrates into energy  Assist in forming tissues and bones

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17  Vital to the overall mental and physical well- being  Act as catalysts for many biological reactions in the body  Constituents of bones, teeth, soft tissues, muscles, blood and nerve cells

18 MineralsMaternalFetal Iron  Anemia  Easy fatigability  Fainting spells  Breathlessness  Anemia Calcium  Osteoporosis  Fetal utilization of maternal bone calcium Poor mineralization of fetal skeleton and teeth Iodine  Abortion Stillbirth, Goiter, Congenital defects Cretinism Hypothyroidism Impaired brain devt

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20 Breastfeeding MOMS have a higher daily requirement for almost all nutrients, particularly: Proteins Iron Folic Acid Calcium Iodine

21 Non Pregnant1 st 6 mos2 nd 6 mos Energy (kcal) Protein (gram) Vitamin: A (ugRE) D (ug) E (mg alphaTE) K (thiamin) Thiamin (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Pyridoxine (mg) C (mg) Folate (ug) 1900 52 450 5 8 65 1.0 18 70 150 +500 +16 +325 +5 +4 65 +0.4 +5 2.1 +35 +100 +500 +12 +275 +5 +3 65 +0.4 +5 2.1 +30 +100

22 Non-Pregnant1 st 6 mos2 nd 6 mos Minerals: Calcium (mg) Phosphorous (mg) Iron (mg) Magnesium (mg) Zinc (mg) Iodine (ug) Selenium (ug) 500 26 280 9 100 55 +400 +23 +75 +10 +50 +20 +400 +23 +60 10 +50 +20

23 The risk of some pregnancy outcomes such as NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS can be reduced by intake of high levels of nutrients BEFORE conception and during the earliest weeks of pregnancy.

24 At least 3 months preconception intake of 0.4 mg/ day folic acid until the 12 th week of gestation is strongly recommended.

25 The simplest way to achieve proper nutrient intake for pregnant women is to follow the recommendations in the FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID

26 In our local setting, it would seem prudent to consider the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, particularly iron and folic acid, for the great majority of women who are not meeting their needs through diets alone.

27 SUMMARY and RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY and RECOMMENDATIONS Education and individual commitment to dietary behavior change of each reproductive age woman and her partner is essential in ensuring a good pregnancy outcome.

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