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Understanding Research. RESEARCH PROCESS Different from field/discipline to another, Different from field/discipline to another, No “on size fits all”,

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Research. RESEARCH PROCESS Different from field/discipline to another, Different from field/discipline to another, No “on size fits all”,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Research

2 RESEARCH PROCESS Different from field/discipline to another, Different from field/discipline to another, No “on size fits all”, No “on size fits all”, Research in practice does not follow this pattern precisely, Research in practice does not follow this pattern precisely, Classic pattern: Classic pattern:

3 1- Choose a topic and search the literature Topic: - Related to your degree, - discipline, - coursework, - job, - interests, - general experience.

4 2- Review the literature Why Conduct a Literature Review? Avoid “reinventing the wheel” Avoid “reinventing the wheel” Learn from others in/outside your area Learn from others in/outside your area Know the ‘leading edge’ Know the ‘leading edge’ Help define your objectives & hypotheses Help define your objectives & hypotheses Source for research idea, research approach Source for research idea, research approach Justify significance Justify significance Put your work in context within the field Put your work in context within the field Link in discussion section of thesis Link in discussion section of thesis

5 3- Defining the research problem Students experience difficulties, Students experience difficulties, Narrow down the general interest in a research topic in order to focus on a particular research problem, Narrow down the general interest in a research topic in order to focus on a particular research problem, RP leads to the research questions, RP leads to the research questions, Focus your ideas, Focus your ideas, Decide the scope of your research (one perspective, group of stakeholders, sector, geographical area, period of time...) Decide the scope of your research (one perspective, group of stakeholders, sector, geographical area, period of time...)

6 Sources of research problems - Gap in the literature, - Suggestions for future research, - Graduation project, - Consultancy research,

7 4- The research design Determine: Determine: Your paradigm (positivism, interpretivism) Your paradigm (positivism, interpretivism) Your methodology Your methodology

8 Research methodologies Positivism methodologies Positivism methodologies Experiment Experiment Survey Survey Cross-sectional studies Cross-sectional studies Longitudinal studies Longitudinal studies methodologies Interpretivism methodologies Participant Observation Participant Observation Ethnography Ethnography Case study Case study Grounded theory Grounded theory Action research Action research Feminism Feminism

9 4- Collect the research data, Qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Experiment Experiment Survey Survey Secondary Data Analysis Secondary Data Analysis Content Analysis Content Analysis Historical Comparative Methods (Archival Analysis ) Historical Comparative Methods (Archival Analysis ) Participant Observation Participant Observation In-depth Interview In-depth Interview Focus Group Discussion Focus Group Discussion

10 5- Analysing and interpreting research data Methods will depend on your research paradigm, qual vs quan data. Methods will depend on your research paradigm, qual vs quan data.

11 6- Writing the dissertation or thesis Problems... Do not leave it until the very last minute. Problems... Do not leave it until the very last minute. Start writing up your research in draft as soon as you start early stages of the project Start writing up your research in draft as soon as you start early stages of the project

12 Structure of the thesis 1- Introduction (10 %) 2- Review the literature (30 %) 3- Methodology (20 %) 4- Findings (30 %) 5- Conclusions (10 %) References References Appendices Appendices

13 Characteristics of good research CriteriaPoor projectGood project Research problemUnclear and unfocusedSharply focused Related to academic debate Literature reviewA list of items Relevance unclear Little or no evaluation Research questions missing Critical evaluation of relevant, up-to-date literature Linked to focused, feasible questions MethodologyUnclear research design No justification of choice Not linked to the literature Cohesive design Excellent review of research design options Linked to the literature Analysis and discussion Unclear findings No link with the literature Clear findings Analytical manner of discussion Generate new knowledge Linked to the literature ConclusionsNot linked to research questions Implications and limitations of results not addressed Linked to research questions Attention given to implications and limitations ReferencingPlagiarismAll sources cited in the text and bibliographic details listed at the end CommunicationDifficult to follow Grammar and spelling mistakes Clear follow of ideas Appropriate grammar and spelling

14 Questions?


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