Presentation on theme: "AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era"— Presentation transcript:
1AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era Major ThemesExploration and Interaction with Native-AmericansSpanish, English and French settlements – similarities and differencesEnglish Colonies – similarities and differencesEnglish colonies – democratic elements
2New World Beginnings Nomadic Asians Bering Land Bridge Connected Eurasia w/North America-present-day Bering Sea, between Siberia and Alaska.Bridge exposed during Ice Age (~35,000 yrs ago) Asian hunters followed migratory herds of game -first known humans to arrive in America
3Causes of European Exploration Improvements in technology, religious conflict (Catholics in Spain, Prot. Revolution in Europe), expanding trade, and rise of nation- states
4Crusades- Exploration grew out of fierce competition Crusaders started trading when they acquired a taste for Asian & African goods like silk, medicine, spices, and perfumeTechnology – compass, sturdier vessels, printing pressPortuguese and Spanish went looking for a route to AsiaRenaissance - Nurtured ambitious spirit of optimism & adventure around the 14th century
5American IndiansCentral and South America – Maya, Aztec, Inca – trade, large cities, advanced technologyMost natives in North America – semi-permanent – hunting and farming - MAIZESome nomadic – Plains – hunt buffaloLarger – Pueblo in SW – multi-storied, irrigation, uprisingIroquois in NY – “democratic” Confederacy
6Spanish and Columbus 1492 – purpose of voyage? Interactions with NativesLegacy? - Columbian ExchangeHero or Villain?The lack of unity between tribes due to various cultural/ political and language differences caused fighting between groups and left them susceptible to European invaders.
7Spanish Explorations and conquest 1. Conquistadors – Central and South America, Southwest and West Coast of North America (Texas, California)2. 3 Gs – what are they?Missions, encomienda system, mestizos, DISEASE3. Explorers –Balboa (Panama/ Pacific), Ponce De Leon (Fl. St. Augustine), Magellan (tip of S. America), de Soto (Mississippi), Cortez (Aztec), Pizarro (Inca)– Treaty of Tordesillas
8The Conquest of MexicoCortez and the fall of the Aztec Empire – What happened?1519 and the story ofQuetzalcoatlThe fate of MontezumaLa Noche Triste, 1521Guns, Germs, and SteelA “New” Mexico – cultural diffusion, relations with natives, mestizos
9The Spread of Spanish America St. Augustine, Florida – fortress built to protect the sea lanes to the Caribbean, oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the future USRoman Catholic missions – California and SWPope’s Rebellion – Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic Church in province and killed priests and settlers, rebuilt religious chamber on ruins of Spanish plaza – just like? Why did they do this? Justified?
10French ClaimsFur trade, “good” relations with Native peopleSettled in Canadian regionExplorers – Verrazano (NY), Cartier (St. Lawrence), Champlain (Quebec – first French settlement)
11Spanish and French Settlements Long term influences?Spanish – settled central and South America, conquistadors enslaved Native population and attempted to erase their culture, sometimes married Native people, exported gold to Spain, spread Catholicism and disease, new class system emergedFrench – settled Canadian region, fur trade
12Dutch Claims Henry Hudson sought the Northwest Passage Sailed “Hudson” RiverDutch claimed New Amsterdam (later NY) – private joint-stock company (Dutch West India Company) took control of region for ECONOMIC GAIN!
13English Claims Reasons for migration 1. Profits (#1)2. Religious Freedom3. Political reasons4. Enclosure movement/ unemploymentElizabeth I - promoted exploration, sent Sir Walter Raleigh to explore the “New World” =Roanoke Island - (1587) – NC – first colony - disappeared?Tree – CROATOAN??
14Early English Settlements (1607) - Jamestown, Virginia– First permanent English Settlement – land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay, easy to defend but swampy, about 100 MEN (40 died on voyage)Virginia Company (Joint-Stock Company)-Joint-stock companies enabled a large number of investors to pool their money and finance trips to America – sought goldCharter - Guaranteed to colonists the same rights as Englishmen - this provision was incorporated into future colonists’ documents
15Colonial Era – Jamestown, Virginia Early problems- disease, salt poisoning, starving time (1609 – 1610), cannibalismJohn Smith – imposed martial law – “He who will not work shall not eat”Settlement aided by the Powhatan ConfederacyJohn Rolfe and Pocahontas – married 1614Tobacco1644 – Powhatan Confederacy destroyed by English
16Growing Political Power Virginia’s House of Burgesses—1619 First law making body- guaranteed rights to citizens, representative government, control over finances, militiaHigh death rates ensured rapid turnover of membersKing James was concerned about the law making body and tobacco, became a royal colony in (He hated tobacco)
17Southern ColoniesTobacco promoted the use of the plantation system - Need for cheap, abundant labor.Indentured Servants -5-7 years.Promised “freedom dues” [land, £]Forbidden to marry.: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!Head-right System: Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid.First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619.Their status was not clear perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants.Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c
18Origins of Slavery Dutch traders 1650 – 400 African laborers in Va 1660s – Va House of Burgesses – discrimination laws and life-long slavery1750 – ½ Va and 2/3 SCIncreased demand due to decreased migration, cheap labor, slave lawsTriangle trade – Middle Passage
19Southern Colonies - Chesapeake VirginiaBacon’s Rebellion – 1676 – royal Governor (Berkeley) did not help defend backwoods farmers from Native-Americans, Bacon and rebels burned Jamestownrevealed social class tensions within the coloniesColonial resistance to royal controlMaryland (1632)– Lord Baltimore, proprietary colony(Act of Toleration) – protected Catholics and granted religious freedom to all Christians, later repealedGeorgia (1732) – James Oglethorpe, proprietary colony, defensive buffer from Spanish Florida and haven for English debtors
20New England Plymouth, Massachusetts - 1620 Puritans – wanted to “purify” Church of EnglandSeparatists – upset with corruption in the English ChurchMayflower Compact – travelers signed and agreed to majority ruleAssisted by local Native-Americans including SquantoLess contact with Natives than in south due to plague that had wiped out Natives living in that areaKing Philip’s War (1675 – 1676) – Wampanoag Indians, ended Native resistance in New England
21New England – Massachusetts Bay Established by Congregationalists– “Great Puritan Migration” – led by John Winthrop – The “City upon a Hill”, covenant with GodMany who settled in New England – escaped religious persecution – tolerant?Roger Williams – banished, went to RIAnne Hutchinson – banished, antinomianismSalem Witch Trials (1692)
22First Great Awakening 1730s – 1740s George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards – attempted to bring back religious fervor, preached emotionalism and spirituality, response to the rationalism of the Enlightenment
23Chesapeake vs. New England immigrants often single malesCash crops, plantation economySwampy, hot, humidSpread-out farming communitiesNew England-Entire families emigrated to New England-small farms, fishing, lumber-healthier climate, lived longer, larger families-larger towns, lived closer to one another
24Culture and economyNew England – fishing, logging, ship building, rum distillersMiddle – Small farms, wheat and cornSouthern – plantation owners – rice and indigo
25Middle ColoniesNY – Dutch influence –New Netherlands, large segment of populationPA – Penn and The “Holy Experiment”, Quakers – religious freedom and civil liberties, pacifists, fair treatment of Native AmericansNJ – land offers, religious freedom and assemblyDelaware – created out of Pennsylvania
26Colonial Society in the Mid-Eighteenth Century Social Structure – 90% lived on farms1. Family –Males – unlimited power in householdfemales – divorce rare, limited legal and political rights
27The American Mind Architecture – (Georgian) Painting – West and Copley, artists were trained in Europe, portraitsLiterature – Mainly religiousExceptions - Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac and Phillis Wheatley (Former slave and poet)Bartram - botanist
28Political Institutions 1. Plymouth – Mayflower Compact, majority rule, self government, written laws2. Jamestown – House of Burgesses3. Massachusetts – all free men, members of Puritan Church4. limited nature?5. Zenger case – Freedom of press – criticized royal governor – violated English law – jury acquitted Zenger because he was telling the truth
29Quick Quiz 1. What was the first permanent English settlement? 2. What colony was founded by Oglethorpe and was considered a “buffer colony’?3. Identify two Great Awakening ministers.4. Identify the founder of Rhode Island who was banished by the Puritans.5. Which colonial court case established freedom of the press?
30Activity1. Use two events from the colonial era to describe conflicts that took place in colonial America.2. Use two events from the colonial era that exhibit the freedom American colonists had.3. Use two events from the colonial era that show the diversity that existed within the American colonies.
31Essay QuestionCompare and Contrast the culture and economy of the southern colonies with that of the New England colonies.