Presentation on theme: "AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era Major Themes Exploration and Interaction with Native- Americans Spanish, English and French settlements – similarities."— Presentation transcript:
AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era Major Themes Exploration and Interaction with Native- Americans Spanish, English and French settlements – similarities and differences English Colonies – similarities and differences English colonies – democratic elements
New World Beginnings Nomadic Asians –Bering Land Bridge Connected Eurasia w/North America-present- day Bering Sea, between Siberia and Alaska. Bridge exposed during Ice Age (~35,000 yrs ago) Asian hunters followed migratory herds of game - first known humans to arrive in America
Causes of European Exploration Improvements in technology, religious conflict (Catholics in Spain, Prot. Revolution in Europe), expanding trade, and rise of nation- states
Crusades- Exploration grew out of fierce competition Crusaders started trading when they acquired a taste for Asian & African goods like silk, medicine, spices, and perfume Technology – compass, sturdier vessels, printing press Portuguese and Spanish went looking for a route to Asia Renaissance - Nurtured ambitious spirit of optimism & adventure around the 14th century
American Indians Central and South America – Maya, Aztec, Inca – trade, large cities, advanced technology Most natives in North America – semi-permanent – hunting and farming - MAIZE Some nomadic – Plains – hunt buffalo Larger – Pueblo in SW – multi- storied, irrigation, uprising Iroquois in NY – democratic Confederacy
Spanish and Columbus 1492 – purpose of voyage? Interactions with Natives Legacy? - Columbian Exchange Hero or Villain? The lack of unity between tribes due to various cultural/ political and language differences caused fighting between groups and left them susceptible to European invaders.
Spanish Explorations and conquest 1. Conquistadors – Central and South America, Southwest and West Coast of North America (Texas, California) 2. 3 Gs – what are they? Missions, encomienda system, mestizos, DISEASE 3. Explorers –Balboa (Panama/ Pacific), Ponce De Leon (Fl. St. Augustine), Magellan (tip of S. America), de Soto (Mississippi), Cortez (Aztec), Pizarro (Inca) – Treaty of Tordesillas
The Conquest of Mexico Cortez and the fall of the Aztec Empire – What happened? 1519 and the story of Quetzalcoatl The fate of Montezuma La Noche Triste, 1521 Guns, Germs, and Steel A New Mexico – cultural diffusion, relations with natives, mestizos
The Spread of Spanish America St. Augustine, Florida – fortress built to protect the sea lanes to the Caribbean, oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the future US Roman Catholic missions – California and SW Popes Rebellion – Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic Church in province and killed priests and settlers, rebuilt religious chamber on ruins of Spanish plaza – just like? Why did they do this? Justified?
French Claims Fur trade, good relations with Native people Settled in Canadian region Explorers – Verrazano (NY), Cartier (St. Lawrence), Champlain (Quebec – first French settlement)
Spanish and French Settlements Long term influences? Spanish – settled central and South America, conquistadors enslaved Native population and attempted to erase their culture, sometimes married Native people, exported gold to Spain, spread Catholicism and disease, new class system emerged French – settled Canadian region, fur trade
Dutch Claims Henry Hudson sought the Northwest Passage Sailed Hudson River Dutch claimed New Amsterdam (later NY) – private joint-stock company (Dutch West India Company) took control of region for ECONOMIC GAIN!
English Claims Reasons for migration –1. Profits (#1) –2. Religious Freedom –3. Political reasons –4. Enclosure movement/ unemployment Elizabeth I - promoted exploration, sent Sir Walter Raleigh to explore the New World = Roanoke Island - (1587) – NC – first colony - disappeared? Tree – CROATOAN??
Early English Settlements (1607) - Jamestown, Virginia– First permanent English Settlement – land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay, easy to defend but swampy, about 100 MEN (40 died on voyage) Virginia Company (Joint-Stock Company)-Joint-stock companies enabled a large number of investors to pool their money and finance trips to America – sought gold Charter - Guaranteed to colonists the same rights as Englishmen - this provision was incorporated into future colonists documents
Colonial Era – Jamestown, Virginia Early problems- disease, salt poisoning, starving time (1609 – 1610), cannibalism John Smith – imposed martial law – He who will not work shall not eat Settlement aided by the Powhatan Confederacy John Rolfe and Pocahontas – married 1614 Tobacco 1644 – Powhatan Confederacy destroyed by English
Growing Political Power Virginias House of Burgesses1619 First law making body- guaranteed rights to citizens, representative government, control over finances, militia High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members King James was concerned about the law making body and tobacco, became a royal colony in (He hated tobacco)
Southern Colonies Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system - Need for cheap, abundant labor. Indentured Servants -5-7 years. –Promised freedom dues [land, £] –Forbidden to marry. – : only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts! Head-right System: Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid. First Africans arrived in Jamestown in –Their status was not clear perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants. –Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c
Origins of Slavery Dutch traders 1650 – 400 African laborers in Va 1660s – Va House of Burgesses – discrimination laws and life-long slavery 1750 – ½ Va and 2/3 SC Increased demand due to decreased migration, cheap labor, slave laws Triangle trade – Middle Passage
Southern Colonies - Chesapeake Virginia –Bacons Rebellion – 1676 – royal Governor (Berkeley) did not help defend backwoods farmers from Native-Americans, Bacon and rebels burned Jamestown revealed social class tensions within the colonies Colonial resistance to royal control Maryland (1632)– Lord Baltimore, proprietary colony (Act of Toleration) – protected Catholics and granted religious freedom to all Christians, later repealed Georgia (1732) – James Oglethorpe, proprietary colony, defensive buffer from Spanish Florida and haven for English debtors
New England Plymouth, Massachusetts Puritans – wanted to purify Church of England Separatists – upset with corruption in the English Church Mayflower Compact – travelers signed and agreed to majority rule Assisted by local Native-Americans including Squanto Less contact with Natives than in south due to plague that had wiped out Natives living in that area King Philips War (1675 – 1676) – Wampanoag Indians, ended Native resistance in New England
New England – Massachusetts Bay Established by Congregationalists – Great Puritan Migration – led by John Winthrop – The City upon a Hill, covenant with God Many who settled in New England – escaped religious persecution – tolerant? Roger Williams – banished, went to RI Anne Hutchinson – banished, antinomianism Salem Witch Trials (1692)
First Great Awakening 1730s – 1740s George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards – attempted to bring back religious fervor, preached emotionalism and spirituality, response to the rationalism of the Enlightenment
Chesapeake vs. New England Chesapeake –immigrants often single males –Cash crops, plantation economy –Swampy, hot, humid –Spread-out farming communities New England -Entire families emigrated to New England -small farms, fishing, lumber -healthier climate, lived longer, larger families -larger towns, lived closer to one another
Culture and economy New England – fishing, logging, ship building, rum distillers Middle – Small farms, wheat and corn Southern – plantation owners – rice and indigo
Middle Colonies NY – Dutch influence –New Netherlands, large segment of population PA – Penn and The Holy Experiment, Quakers – religious freedom and civil liberties, pacifists, fair treatment of Native Americans NJ – land offers, religious freedom and assembly Delaware – created out of Pennsylvania
Colonial Society in the Mid- Eighteenth Century Social Structure – 90% lived on farms –1. Family – –Males – unlimited power in household –females – divorce rare, limited legal and political rights
The American Mind Architecture – (Georgian) Painting – West and Copley, artists were trained in Europe, portraits Literature – Mainly religious –Exceptions - Franklins Poor Richards Almanac and Phillis Wheatley (Former slave and poet) Bartram - botanist
Political Institutions 1. Plymouth – Mayflower Compact, majority rule, self government, written laws 2. Jamestown – House of Burgesses 3. Massachusetts – all free men, members of Puritan Church 4. limited nature? 5. Zenger case – Freedom of press – criticized royal governor – violated English law – jury acquitted Zenger because he was telling the truth
Quick Quiz 1. What was the first permanent English settlement? 2. What colony was founded by Oglethorpe and was considered a buffer colony? 3. Identify two Great Awakening ministers. 4. Identify the founder of Rhode Island who was banished by the Puritans. 5. Which colonial court case established freedom of the press?
Activity 1. Use two events from the colonial era to describe conflicts that took place in colonial America. 2. Use two events from the colonial era that exhibit the freedom American colonists had. 3. Use two events from the colonial era that show the diversity that existed within the American colonies.
Essay Question Compare and Contrast the culture and economy of the southern colonies with that of the New England colonies.