Presentation on theme: "Turkey’s Accession to the European Union 1963 On the 12th September. Turkey and the EEC signed an Association Agreement. It entered into force on 1 st."— Presentation transcript:
Turkey’s Accession to the European Union 1963 On the 12th September. Turkey and the EEC signed an Association Agreement. It entered into force on 1 st December 1963. 1987 On the 4th of April, Turkey submits its application for EU membership
1997 On December 1997, at the Luxembourg European Council Meeting the EU excluded Turkey from the list of candidates for enlargement. As a result, the Turkish government froze its relations with the EU until 1999. 1996 The Customs Union between Turkey and the EU took effect on 1 January. 1999 During the European Council in Helsinki the candidature of Turkey was officially accepted
2000 EU Commission issued an Acession Partnership Document in November 2000 laying down “short term” and “long term “ reforms Turkey had to undertake 2002 European Council of Copenhagen decided that the European Council to be held in December 2004 could open acession negotiations with Turkey on the basis of a report and a positive recommendation from the European Commission on Turkish fulfillment of the Copenhagen Criteria
2004 The Brussels summit recommends Turkey’s start of accession negotiations 2005 The EU formally agreed accession talks with Turkey on 3 October in Luxembourg
The Cyprus Dispute in the Turkish Foreign Policy Cyprus should remain under the British colonial rule – In the early 1950s Cyprus should be returned to Turkey due to historical, strategic reasons during the mid-50s Partition of the island between Turkey and Greece in the second part of the 1950s Bi-communal independent Republic of Cyprus (1959-1964)
Bi-communal, bi-zonal federation (1983-1998) Confederation (1998-2003) A solution based on the Annan Plan ( a loose federation) -2004
The Annan Plan The Annan plan was a UN proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute between the Turkish and the Greek side and was to create the United Cyprus Republic. After its first submission to the parties by the UN on November 11, 2002 the Plan underwent significant revision before being presented to the referenda held on April 24, 2004. The last version of the Annan plan proposed the creation of the United Cyprus Republic covering the entire territory of the island except for the British Sovereign Base areas.
The Treaty of Guarantee would be amended to cover the new state of affairs. In addition to guaranteeing the independence, territorial integrity, security and constitutional order of the United Cyprus Republic, the treaty would also guarantee the territorial integrity, security and constitutional order of the constituent states
On November 11, 2002, Secretary General Kofi Annan proposed a Basis for Agreement on Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem (the so-called Annan Plan). It was presented not as a framework document, but as a real and comprehensive proposal in the form of a covering document, to be signed by the Cypriot leaders and accompanied by signatures from representatives of Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. A Foundation Agreement, composed of the main articles and series of detailed annexes (including a Constitution), is appended. The final, and fifth version of the Plan, was made public on March 31, 2004.
A Foundation Agreement is composed of the main articles and series of detailed annexes (including a Constitution). The final, and fifth version of the Plan, was made public on March 31, 2004.
The republic was to become a loose federation of two component states- the Greek Cypriot state and the Turkish Cypriot state ruled by a federal government apparatus.
The relationship between the federal government and the constituent states was based externally on the Swiss constitutional model, e.g., constituent states would exercise residual powers with sovereignty
The United Cyprus Republic is an independent state in the form of an indissoluble partnership, with a federal government and two equal constituent states, the Greek Cypriot State and the Turkish Cypriot State. Cyprus is a member of the United Nations and has a single international legal personality and sovereignty.
The constituent states are of equal status. The constituent states shall cooperate and co-ordinate with each other and with the federal government, including through Cooperation Agreements, as well as through Constitutional Laws approved by the federal Parliament and both constituent state legislatures. In particular, the constituent states shall participate in the formulation and implementation of policy in external relations and European Union affairs on matters within their sphere of competence, in accordance with Cooperation Agreements modeled on the Belgian example. The constituent states may have commercial and cultural relations with the outside world in conformity with the Constitution.
Internally, it was based on the Belgian constitutional model, with no hierarchy between federal and constituent states.
The federal level, based on the Swiss federal model would include the following instutions: -A collective Presidential council, made up of six voting members, allocated according to population (four greek Cypriots and two Turkish Cypriots) -A President and Vice president, chosen by the Presidential Council from among its members, one from each community, to alternate in their functions every 20 months during the council’s five-year term of office.
-A bicameral legislature -A Senate (upper house) with 48 members, divided 24:24 between the two communities - A Chamber of deputies (lower house), with 48 members, divided in proportion to the Communities’ populations (with no fewer than 12 for the smaller community) Decisions of Parliament shall require the approval of both Chambers by simple majority, including one quarter of voting Senators from each constituent state. For specified matters, a special majority of two-fifths of sitting Senators from each constituent state shall be required -A supreme court composed of equal numbers of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot judges, plus three foreign judges; to be appointed by the Presidential Council.
Decisions of Parliament shall require the approval of both Chambers by simple majority, including one quarter of voting Senators from each constituent state. For specified matters, a special majority of two-fifths of sitting Senators from each constituent state shall be required A supreme court composed of equal numbers of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot judges, plus three foreign judges; to be appointed by the Presidential Council.
Territorial adjustment Turkish-held area will be decreased from 36.5 % to 29.2 %. Geographically, the area of TCS was to be about 7.5% smaller than the area currently controlled by Turkish Cypriot authorities.
Citizenship, residency and identity 1. There is a single Cypriot citizenship. Special majority federal law shall regulate eligibility for Cypriot citizenship. 2. All Cypriot citizens shall also enjoy internal constituent state citizenship status. This status shall complement and not replace Cypriot citizenship.
Demilitarization Greek and Turkish contingents shall be permitted to be stationed under the Treaty of Alliance in the Greek Cypriot State and the Turkish Cypriot State respectively as follows: i) each contingent not to exceed 6,000 all ranks, until 2011; ii) each contingent not to exceed 3,000 all ranks thereafter until 2018 or the European Union accession of Turkey, whichever is sooner; and iii) the Greek contingent not to exceed 950 all ranks and the Turkish contingent not to exceed 650 all ranks thereafter, subject to three-yearly review with the objective of total withdrawal;
With regard to land property claims, a Property Board was mandated to deal with and find a solution to the real owners of the properties before 1974. Exchange, reinstatement, compensation, sale, long-term lease were considered as ways out to the problem.
The plan was approved by 64.9 per cent of the Turkish Cypriot electorate in the referandum held in N. Cyprus, while it was simltaneously rejected by 75.8 percent of Great Cypriot electorate.