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Introduction to Social Movements Lody Padilla CD 225- UPCSWCD.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Social Movements Lody Padilla CD 225- UPCSWCD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Social Movements Lody Padilla CD 225- UPCSWCD

2 Definition of social movement is when large groups of people try to change a specific issue. (www.webcrawler.com)www.webcrawler.com A social movement is a direct action defined structure whose intent is to draw a group or groups of people together for a political cause (http://answers.ask.com/Society/Phi losophy/what_is_.)http://answers.ask.com/Society/Phi

3 Definition of social movement Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issue...group actionindividual organization politicalsocial issue Social movements are movements that have a social basis in concern.

4 Definition of social movement social movement, loosely organized but sustained campaign in support of a social goal, typically either the implementation or the prevention of a change in society’s structure or values. Although social movements differ in size, they are all essentially collective. That is, they result from the more or less spontaneous coming together of people whose relationships are not defined by rules and procedures but who merely share a common outlook on society.society

5 Definition of social movement Collective behaviour in crowds, panics, and elementary forms (milling, etc.) are of brief duration or episodic and are guided largely by impulse. When short-lived impulses give way to long-term aims, and when sustained association takes the place of situational groupings of people, the result is a social movement. d/topic/551335/social-movement

6 Social Movements and Social Movement Organizations A distinction is drawn between social movements and social movement organizations (SMOs). A social movement organization is a formally organized component of a social movement. But an SMO may only make up a part of a particular social movement. For instance, PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) advocates for vegan lifestyles along with its other aims. But PETA is not the only group to advocate for vegan diets and lifestyles;)[1] and PETA is an SMO working within the broader social movement.PETA[1]

7 Characteristics of social movements A movement is a mixture of organization and spontaneity. There is usually one or more organizations that give identity, leadership, and coordination to the movement, but the boundaries of the movement are never coterminous with the organizations. Eg – org; martyrdom of Jose Rizal

8 Characteristics of social movements A movement is not merely a perpetuated crowd, since a crowd does not possess organizational and motivational mechanisms capable of sustaining membership through periods of inaction and waiting. Furthermore, crowd mechanisms cannot be used to achieve communication and coordination of activity over a wide area, such as a nation or continent.membershipcommunication

9 Characteristics of social movements Social movements need to be well- organized to achieve their goals. A functioning system of communication is necessary for galvanizing members. They might be newly formed or be facilitated by previously established institutions, either literal or conceptual, such as churches or schools of intellectual thought. Members are called to action. In many cases, this action is political in nature, but it need not be.

10 Elements of social movements Collective Action: Social movement undoubtedly involves collective action. However, this collective action, takes the form of a movement only when it is sustained for a long time. This collective action need not be formally organised. It could be an informal attempt also. But it should be able to create an interest and awakening in relatively large number of people.

11 Elements of social movements Oriented towards Social Change: A Social movement is generally oriented towards bringing about social change. This change could either be partial or total. Though the movement is aimed at bringing about a change in the values, norms, ideologies of the existing system, efforts are also made by some other forces to resist the changes and to maintain the status quo.

12 Elements of social movements Ideology behind the Movement: An important component of social movement that distin­guishes it from the general category of collective mobilisation is the presence of an ideology. Example. A student strike involves collective mobilisation and is oriented towards change. But in the absence of an ideology a student strike becomes an isolated event and not a movement. On the contrary, if the strike is committed to an ideology, it may last for longer period and assume the form of a movement.

13 Elements of social movements Organisational Frame Work: As Paul Wilkinson has pointed out that a social movement requires a minimum of organisational framework to achieve success or at least to maintain the tempo of the movement. To make the distinction clear between the leaders and followers, to make clear the purposes of the movement, to persuade people to take part in it or to support it, to adopt different techniques to achieve the goals — a social movement must have some amount of organisational framework.

14 Elements of social movements Broad Social Alliances Social movements have broad social alliances of people who are connected through their shared interest in blocking or affecting social change. Social movements do not have to be formally organized. Multiple alliances may work separately for common causes and still be considered a social movement.

15 Elements of social movements The Techniques and Results: A social movement may adopt its own technique or method to achieve its goal. There is no certainty regarding it. It may follow peaceful or conflicting, violent or non-violent, compulsive or persuasive, democratic or undemocratic means or methods to reach its goal.

16 Elements of social movements The same thing is true of the results. It may become successful or it may fail; it may become partial success or at least it may create a general ‘awakening’ in the public regarding an issue. The result of a movement has a close bearing on-the ideology and the organisational framework

17 Elements of social movements Counter movements It is also interesting to note that social movements can spawn counter movements. For instance, the women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in a number of counter movements that attempted to block the goals of the women's movement, many of which were reform movements within conservative religions.

18 Elements of social movements Counter movements It is also interesting to note that social movements can spawn counter movements. For instance, the women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in a number of counter movements that attempted to block the goals of the women's movement, many of which were reform movements within conservative religions.

19 Elements of social movements Counter movements It is also interesting to note that social movements can spawn counter movements. For instance, the women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in a number of counter movements that attempted to block the goals of the women's movement, many of which were reform movements within conservative religions.

20 Elements of social movements Counter movements The counter attempts are normally defensive and restorative rather than innovative and initiating change. They are normally the organised-efforts of an already established order to maintain itself.


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