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Back Where We Belong MME-34 - Group 4 HEPI MOHAMAD FAIZAL

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1 Back Where We Belong MME-34 - Group 4 HEPI MOHAMAD FAIZAL

Walter Bowes Arthur Pitney BUSINESS SOLUTION In New York, Walter Bowes's Universal Stamping Machine Company was doing brisk business with the U.S. Postal Service, providing stamp-canceling machines on a rental basis. Bowes also had some international success, selling his machines in Germany, England, and Canada. In 1917 Bowes moved his operations to Stamford, Connecticut, a location which evolved into the company headquarters for years to come. Although Bowes's machine was profitable, he worried that Pitney's similar invention would render it obsolete. 1902, Arthur Pitney patented his newly created postage-stamping machine. He then spent the next 12 years fine-tuning it and attempting to gain acceptance and financial backing for the product from the postal service. Pitney's machine offered a solution for the U.S. Post Office, which was confronted with the impracticality of the adhesive postage stamp in the face of the increasing volume of mail. In April 1920, the two men decided to pool their resources. The merger of Pitney's American Postage Meter Company and Bowes's Universal Stamping Machine Company created the Pitney-Bowes Postage Meter Company. The day after the merger officially took effect, Pitney and Bowes succeeded in pushing legislation through Congress to allow all classes of mail to be posted by meters instead of stamps, and the Pitney-Bowes postage meter was licensed for use throughout the postal system.

3 Content: Background Foreseeing Change Over Time
Keeping an ear to the ground Reframing the question Thinking in terms of solutions Pulling together Striking Balance

4 Period 3 Period 2 Period 1 “Renewed “ Focus on the Core
present “Renewed “ Focus on the Core with moderate diversification Period 2 Diversification Period 1 Organic Growth : “Building the Foundation”

5 “Building the Foundation”
1922 PB had branch offices in 12 cities and 404 postage meters in operation. In the same year, Bowes's previous international experience paid off and PB's postage meter was approved for use in England and Canada. PB experienced early growing pains, however. As the meter gained exposure in the early 1920s, demand for the machines began to outpace the company's ability to manufacture, distribute, and service them. Also, it was thought in many quarters that PB enjoyed a government-created monopoly. Thus, in its first decade of existence, PB's scope of operations was limited by government regulation--lobbied for by PB's competition--restricting PB from reaping the advantages of its technologically superior product. 1924 Arthur Pitney retired from the company after a dispute with Bowes and started a company of his own, manufacturing postage-permit machines to compete with PB's meters. Even without Pitney, the company name remained Pitney-Bowes, due to the recognition factor the name had earned throughout those first four years. After the cofounder's departure, however, uncertainty reigned at PB, and Walter Wheeler II, Bowes's stepson, was promoted from New York branch manager to general manager in Stamford in an attempt to utilize new leadership and find new direction. 1927 PB's share of the market was still uncertain because of the postal service's equivocation on postal regulations. Permit mail required counting to assess fees, while metered mail did not; but the postal service, wary of establishing a monopoly for PB, required all mail to be counted. Although PB's future hung by a thread during the early and mid-1920s, by 1927 the company had 2,849 meters in operation and branches in 20 cities. Finally, after a Congressional hearing at which Arthur Pitney testified by letter against preferential treatment for the system he invented, a bill to impose uniform regulations on permit and metered mail was killed in the Senate. The postal service was free to exercise its preference for the more efficient, reliable, and safe postage meter. From that point on, first-class mail was posted only by meter or adhesive stamp. Period 1 Organic Growth : “Building the Foundation”

6 “Building the Foundation”
Pitney-Bowes began to grow and diversify, producing machines for stamping, counting, canceling, and metering mail. PB's 1929 profit of $300,000 represented a 100 percent increase over that of the previous year. The company expanded abroad as well, establishing cross-licensing and patent-sharing agreements with similar firms in Great Britain and Germany. Throughout the 1930s, government restrictions on the metered-mail business eroded, and Pitney-Bowes's field of operations grew wider. By the end of 1933 there were 9,620 PB postage meters in service. The Great Depression meant retrenchment at Pitney-Bowes, as it did in most sectors of the economy. PB was fortunate to be in a growth industry and did not face critical financial difficulties, but its profits shrunk considerably during these years. The company was forced to cut wages by 10 percent and also suspended stockholder dividends. The union movement received a boost during the Depression, but found little support at PB, which had provided benefits to its employees for years. PB emerged from the Depression earlier and healthier than most firms, partly due to the nature of its product, and partly due to the leadership of Walter Wheeler. He became the company president in 1938. Pitney-Bowes's success in the industry and the further relaxation of postal service restrictions on metered mail stimulated competition in the production of postage meters. Many small firms sought a share of the market, as did some heavy hitters, including IBM and NCR. Nonetheless, PB consistently kept ahead of its competition. Its development of the omni-denomination meter in 1940 was a breakthrough in the industry. Not only was PB prospering, with over 27,000 meters in service in 1939, but the U.S. Postal Service had a $2 million budget surplus in fiscal 1939, largely due to the efficiency of the metered-mail system. Like most other large manufacturers, PB converted its plant to defense production during World War II. PB's wartime priorities, as established by Walter Wheeler, were maximum production of war goods, maintenance of meters in operation to handle American mail, and planning for postwar manufacture of new products. The production of postage meters was completely halted during the war. Instead, PB manufactured replacement parts for guns, aircraft, and radios, and was a four-time recipient of the Army-Navy "E" Award, given for excellence in wartime production. Period 1 Organic Growth : “Building the Foundation”

7 “Building the Foundation”
Anticipating the broadening of its product base, Pitney-Bowes Postage Meter Company shortened its name to Pitney-Bowes Inc. By the end of 1947, the number of PB postage meters in service had more than doubled to over 60,000 in less than ten years. PB expanded and modernized its plant and office space in Stamford to accommodate projected growth. Two years later, PB introduced a desktop postage meter, which brought small business customers within its reach. Further diversification continued with the acquisition of the Tickometer Company, whose namesake product counted paper items such as labels and tickets. PB simplified the Tickometer machine's design and promoted its use for many new purposes. For the most part, though, PB limited its diversification to fields related to those functions performed in mail rooms. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Wheeler worked hard to maintain good labor-management relations and progressive incentive, benefit, and profit-sharing plans. This was reflected in a high rate of productivity at PB, and in the decision of the majority of workers not to seek union representation. The wisdom of this strategy was demonstrated by PB's continual outperformance of its competition during those years. 1957 However, due to the virtual disappearance of domestic competition, PB was faced with government antitrust action. The company cooperated fully with investigators. Wheeler even went so far as to prepare a 12-volume history of Pitney-Bowes and submit it to the Department of Justice. Wheeler maintained, as he always had, that it was PB's productivity, efficiency, and personnel relations that made it difficult for other companies to compete, not anti-competitive practices. PB eventually agreed to sign a consent decree that required the company to license its patents to any manufacturer who wished to compete, at no charge. Period 1 1960 when Walter H. Wheeler retired as president and chief operating officer, PB had 281,100 postage meters in service and metered mail accounted for 43 percent of U.S. postage. PB's gross income was over $57 million. Furthermore, products other than postage meters accounted for 20 percent of the company's gross income, a result of PB's increasing diversification measures. Organic Growth : “Building the Foundation”

8 Threat of Obsolence: Snail Mail
FUTURE ?? Investor Buyer / customer Employee Threat of Obsolence: Snail Mail Big Questions?

9 1960 1967 1968 – 1969 1970 Period 2 Diversification
Entering the 1960s, diversification became an even more important facet of PB's strategy. Because PB no longer had a monopoly in the postage-meter market, diversification into new product areas was necessary for company growth. 1967 The company established a copier-product division whose first product was a tabletop office copier. Although PB was a latecomer to a market already dominated by Xerox, its copiers had two advantages: they were reasonably priced, and included excellent service packages. Service had long been a hallmark of PB's operations because the U.S. Post Office never allowed PB to sell its meters, only lease them. PB was responsible for the day-to-day operations of every meter it leased, so a large service fleet was already in place. This service team made expansion into other markets much more manageable. 1968 – 1969 The following year, PB acquired Monarch Marking Systems, which soon grew into the largest U.S. supplier of price marking, merchandise identification, and inventory control equipment and supplies. By the end of the decade, PB's sales of postage meters, while still growing, accounted for only just over 50 percent of its total sales. Pitney Bowes dropped the hyphen from its name in 1970. 1970 PB began to experience financial losses that stemmed from a joint venture with Alpex Computer Corporation to manufacture point-of-sale terminal systems. PB was forced to write off its 64 percent investment in the venture, at a loss of $42 million. More modest losses from this venture continued to mount for several years, due to disputes with the Internal Revenue Service over allowable write-offs and an $11 million lawsuit filed by Alpex. By the late 1970s, however PB was back on track. The company established leasing companies in the United States and in the United Kingdom in 1977 to support marketing efforts for its business products. This was a record year for the company, with both postage meters and price-marking systems posting record sales. Period 2 Diversification

10 1979 1980 - 1981 1982 1987 – 1989 Period 2 Diversification
PB made a major acquisition, adding the Dictaphone Corporation and its subsidiaries Data Documents and Grayarc to the company, for a $124 million price tag. The purchase made PB the worldwide leader in sales of voice-processing and dictation equipment, while still enjoying a 90 percent controlling share of the postage-meter market. PB made moves to solidify its standing as the country's leader in the mail-room and office equipment market. It first filled a gap in its copier line in 1981 by arranging a marketing agreement with the Ricoh Company of Japan to make its tabletop model available in the United States. This increased the number of copier models marketed by PB to eight. PB also received a $111 million contract from the post office to help further automate the handling of mail by developing computers to "read" envelopes and parcels. 1982 PB then entered the facsimile machine market in 1982, and soon became the leader in new placements of facsimile equipment. The company became one of the top suppliers of fax machines to large and medium-sized businesses in the United States, and began seeking new international markets by the late 1980s. 1987 – 1989 Keeping in line with company policy to compete mainly in markets in which it was guaranteed a prominent share, in 1987 about 80 percent of the company's sales were in industry segments that PB led. The Data Documents subsidiary, however, deviated from this standard, and was sold in The company also laid off 1,500 workers, underwent a costly retooling in 1989, and began to push more sophisticated mailing systems, like its Star system, which picked the most efficient carrier method for each package. In addition, PB got a boost from the U.S. Post Office, which began pushing big mailers to use bar-code envelopes. Period 2 Diversification

11 1990 1991 1993 - 1994 Period 2 Diversification
Entering the final decade of the century, PB saw its sales surpass the $3 billion mark for the first time in company history, topping off at $3.2 billion in fiscal Furthermore, the company's extensive sales force had earned PB a 45 percent share of the market for fax machines in corporate America. 1991 Following the course charted by that success, the company continued to penetrate the domestic market for business machines with the introduction of another line of copiers in This line of machines, the 9000 series, was targeted mainly at large businesses. The year 1991 also saw the introduction of computerized software programs focusing on automated freight management, address and mail list management, and medical records transcription. The 1990s ushered in the "information age," which included an increase in communications by electronic means, in the form of both facsimile and electronic mail. PB attempted to keep pace with the world's new communication needs, shifting its operations from a mechanical base to that of computerization and software solutions. In order to ease the transition, the company instituted a program of self-directed work teams on both the production floor and in the management ranks. PB also trained its management and sales teams to become proficient in the use of computers. The changes helped to integrate the ideas and actions of everyone in the company, while also technologically enabling PB to more easily expand its scope in line with technological advances. Period 2 Meanwhile, PB worked to maintain its standing as the country's leading producer of mail-room equipment. In fact, its work in that area was honored in 1993, when the company was featured in the National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C., a recognition of numerous PB innovations throughout history. The company also continued to expand worldwide, nailing down deals with three other countries in PB introduced its popular Paragon mailing system in Germany, while it also began to aid China and Mexico in the modernization and automation of their postal systems. Diversification

12 1995 1996 Period 2 Diversification
The following year, PB sold its Dictaphone subsidiary to an affiliate of Stonington Partners, a New York investment group, for $450 million. The company also divested its Monarch Marking Systems subsidiary, selling it for $127 million. More sales and service offices were opened in Europe, and product development efforts utilizing new technology continued. An important introduction in late 1995 was a computerized mail tracking and accounting system called PostPerfect. 1996 PB promoted a new chief executive in May 1996, Michael Critelli. The change in leadership came after a slump in the company's stock price, and a siphoning off of its customers to competitors. PB lost approximately 2 percent of its customers over the first nine months of 1996, and it was becoming increasingly apparent that the company would have to move fast to prevent further slides as electronic mail became more widely used. PB's customers were primarily large businesses. These big companies generated over 40 percent of all U.S. mail, and serving them had long made PB one of the most profitable business supply companies. But it was more difficult for PB to reach smaller businesses, and this is where new competitors began to see opportunity. By 1996 PB was making a concerted effort in this area, marketing smaller postage meters and cutting-edge electronic mail technology. The following year, PB sold its Dictaphone subsidiary to an affiliate of Stonington Partners, a New York investment group, for $450 million. The company also divested its Monarch Marking Systems subsidiary, selling it for $127 million. More sales and service offices were opened in Europe, and product development efforts utilizing new technology continued. An important introduction in late 1995 was a computerized mail tracking and accounting system called PostPerfect. Period 2 Diversification

13 1997 1998 Period 2 1999 Diversification
PB had developed software that converted mailing lists into addressed envelopes with postage printed on a personal computer. Other companies too, such as the California-based E-Stamp Corp., also developed such a system. Postal Service regulation made the implementation of PC-based metering slow, and technical problems abounded. Hand-addressed mail or mail bound outside the United States could not be simply metered using the software, and even the size and design of the metered mark (called the "indicium") was contentious. Yet the PC-generated indicium was capable of encoding far more information than a typical bar code, which could allow an individual letter to be tracked easily. PB, E-Stamp, and its European competitor Neopost Inc. vied in the late 1990s to come up with easy-to-use and efficient PC-based meters that could be utilized by any business large enough to have a computer. PB's outlook changed, then, from a near-monopoly company with little to worry about to a much more entrepreneurial enterprise trying to break a new market with new products. Pitney Bowes also divested some businesses and acquired others. In 1997 the company sold part of its leasing portfolio to GATX Corp. for $460 million. Because PB had always leased its office equipment, it had gradually built up a business leasing other equipment for its customers, including large items such as airplanes, railcars, and barges. It sold off this portion of its business to GATX, a Chicago-based company that specialized in leasing transport, mostly because it did not fit with the company's core business model. 1998 PB sold its subsidiary, Colonial Pacific Leasing Corp., to Capital Services, a division of General Electric. Colonial Pacific specialized in leasing equipment to small and mid-sized companies. Though the unit was profitable, PB preferred at this point to rid itself of businesses that were not closely related to mail and messaging. It also sold off a mortgage servicing company it owned, Atlantic Mortgage & Investment Corp., for roughly $490 million. Period 2 1999 PB had a record year in 1999, with revenue growing 8 percent, to $4.4 billion. The company's profits also grew sharply, topping $1 billion for the first time. Diversification

14 Focus on the Core with moderate diversification
2001 The company bought two smaller firms in 2001, paying $24 million for Alysis Technologies Inc. in March, then buying a unit of Danka Business Systems for $290 million the next month. Alysis, based in California, made software for billing over the Internet. PB acquired the international business of Danka, which provided document management services. It made other international acquisitions too, buying the French mailing company Secap and some overseas business units of Bell & Howell's International Mail and Messaging Technologies. At the end of 2001, PB spun off its fax and copier division, forming a new publicly traded company called Imagistics International Inc. By the end of 2001, PB seemed to have come through all the changes of the 1990s well, and was poised for more growth in the decades to come. Though the volume of regular mail had dropped due to the increase in faxes and electronic mail, PB had shown itself able to adapt its business. It had promising new markets in administering mail services for clients and in developing more and varied electronic mailing and bill-paying products. While about three-quarters of PB's revenue came from its traditional postage meter business by 2001, its non-mail business was growing quickly. The company expected to find more ways to serve its key markets even as technology altered the terrain. Period 3 present “Renewed “ Focus on the Core with moderate diversification

15 Foreseeing Change Over Time
perceiving the direction in which things are changing Transaction mail has been declining in recent years gauging the rate of change don’t be paranoid “mail and document management hardware, software and professional services” - growing parts of the New Pitney Bones Foreseeing Change Over Time

16 Keeping an Ear to the Ground
to ensure that the thinking is being done and that actions are taken as a result Create a role reporting directly focused on anticipating the future one ear for the immediate customer service opportunity, the other ear – for the broader strategic implications training manual/loan guidebook Document binding method making sure documents look just right get the right people arrive in a format that increases the likelihood of their being read Keeping an Ear to the Ground

17 Reframing the Questions
how much influence do we have over the outcome? research and development (3000 patents) leading encryption technology how can we reshape the context to our advantage? to engage in constant dialogue with regulators, policy makers and others who influence market forces (especially in emerging markets) a motivational / charismatic leader altering the terms of the debate and getting people to think about how the game could be changed what percentage of the mail are we participating in and how we participating in it? partnership with eBay that enables sellers to print postage and address label right from their desktop with a couple of clicks of a mouse how many pieces of mail are we participating in and how many pennies do we get per piece? 30 billion pieces of mail a year and 8.7 cents per piece on average address verification software digital confirmation of delivery where is there money to be made? U.S Postal Service offers a substantial postage discount-up to 9.2 cents per piece (“presort”) expanded financial activities in which people are willing to pay “premium” (new credit card) Reframing the Questions

18 Thinking in Terms of Solutions
realize the full potential of our strategic goals to provide solutions for customers and generate shareholder returns making those products and services work together seamlessly within their operations select from among all possible solutions the handful that can be standardized, branded and sold broadly set of standardized, highly cost effective offerings that provided different degrees of hand holding culture shift to acting entrepreneurially and customizing our service (mailroom and copy center services to scores of banks and law firms in New York City) Thinking in Terms of Solutions

19 integrated Pitney Bowes solutions (Matt Kissner)
business leaders with full accountibility would move faster, lower costs, and be more customer focused workable at the time because there was not at much overlap n the customer bases in various businesses integrated Pitney Bowes solutions (Matt Kissner) re-alignment (centralized) re-segmented there operations based on customer needs consolidated the reporting structure for those segments Pulling Together

20 unable to do some multi tasking
realistic (even we are highly paid executives) more patience strike a balance between the ambitious vision for the business and the current change capacity of the organization focused on a core business engage more actively in formulating the plan rather than rallying the troops to charge day to day communications with front line employees, customers and people who are interacting with products and services Striking A Balance

21 Equipment Software Services Business Solution


23 Arthur Pitney was born in Quincy, Illinois in 1871
Arthur Pitney was born in Quincy, Illinois in In 1890 he moved to Chicago, where he attended the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, spending days viewing the mechanical inventions on display. Later, while working as a clerk in a wallpaper store he identified a problem that was costing his firm time and money—affixing postage stamps to hundreds of envelopes was tedious and inefficient and left the company vulnerable to large losses due to stamp theft, a common crime at the time. An inventor in the classic “tinkerer-putterer” mode, he created a device to simplify business mailings. The first postage meter device consisted of a manual crank, chain action, printing die, counter and lockout device. He formed the Pitney Postal Machine Company in 1902, which became the American Postage Meter Company in In the interim, the machine’s acceptance by the public and the postal administrations dragged on slowly without resolution. A disgusted Pitney—his finances and marriage both wrecked by the project—resorted to selling insurance. But he continued to persist. In 1919, Pitney was introduced to Walter Bowes, an industrialist who had success marketing a Post Office stamp canceling machine. In April 1920, the Pitney-Bowes Postage Meter Company was formed. In September of that year, the Model M Postage Meter was approved by the U.S. Postal Service, legislation was passed by Congress and the first postage meter was put into commercial use on November 16, 1920. Pitney and Bowes set up a manufacturing presence in Stamford, Connecticut and by 1922 there were branch offices in a dozen major cities and the Pitney-Bowes postage meter was also approved for use in Canada and England. While the company was growing, neither Pitney nor Bowes enjoyed this success. The two men were constantly at odds and in 1924, Arthur Pitney resigned from the company after a dispute with Bowes. While his innovations led to the creation of an entire mail processing industry, his efforts brought him little joy. Pitney suffered a stroke in 1927 and died in 1933. Arthur Pitney

24 Walter Bowes was born in Maw Street, Bradford, England, in 1882 and later moved to the United States. He began his career as a salesman. In one of his earliest jobs at the Addressograph Company, an Iowa-based manufacturer of addressing systems, he achieved some success—but quit the company after a year so he could sail his 23-foot sloop. In 1908 he was selling check-endorsing machines, and a year later he bought the Universal Stamping Machine Company. Within a few years, his company had established relationships with the U.S. Postal Service, providing stamp-cancelling machines on a rental basis. Between 1912 and 1917 he achieved prominence in postal circles for his promotion of permit printing of mail. He expanded internationally, selling his machines to Germany, England and Canada. In 1917, he moved his operation to Stamford, Connecticut. While he was successful selling stamp-cancelling machines, Bowes felt that postage stamps would become obsolete—and that a more automated way to apply postage could present opportunities. A postal official suggested he contact Arthur Pitney, an inventor who had been working on such a device for nearly two decades. When they met in 1919, Pitney had already invested $90,000 in his invention, his patents were expiring and his company, the American Postage Meter Company had had little to show for his efforts. By 1919, the two men combined their firms and the Pitney-Bowes Postage Meter Company was born. While Pitney was the inventor, Bowes concentrated his activities in Washington, lobbying for the passage of the necessary legislation that would open the door for the postage meter. The United States Congress passed the enabling legislation in 1920, and the first piece of metered mail—a letter from Bowes to his wife—was posted on December 10, By 1922, 400 meters were in service, accounting for more than $4 million in postage. While the company was growing, neither Pitney nor Bowes enjoyed this success. The two men were constantly at odds and in 1924, Arthur Pitney resigned from the company after a dispute with Bowes. After the co-founder’s departure, uncertainty reigned at Pitney Bowes and Bowes’ stepson,Walter Wheeler II, was promoted to general manager to instill leadership and find new direction. A 1939 article in Time notes that “Walter Bowes is nervous, restless; he hates a desk and office hours, prefers to putter about his home.” An accomplished sportsman, he devoted much if his time to racing yachts and horses. In 1929, Bowes sailed his six-meter Saleema to an international championship. Walter Bowes shifted from president to Chairman of Pitney Bowes in Two years later, he retired with a 10-year consulting contract. Bowes continued to enjoy the good life until his death in 1957 at the age of 75. Walter Bowes





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