Presentation on theme: "Photosensitive Material – B & W. The word photography means “ writing or drawing with light” a phrase that conveys both the creative & the chemical nature."— Presentation transcript:
The word photography means “ writing or drawing with light” a phrase that conveys both the creative & the chemical nature of the photographic process. A camera is simply a device for bringing together a sharp image with the help of the light reflected from a scene & allowing it briefly to touch a film material so sensitive that the light leaves a trace which can be finalised into a finished picture.
Photosensitive Material – B & W To form an image on film requires a correct exposure which is a combination of aperture (Opening) & shutter speed (Time). The modern camera uses a lens, a variable size opening or aperture & has a shutter that allows light in for the required amount of time, which the photographer can control.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Characteristics of Film 1. Emulsion 2. Colour Sensitivity 3. Film Speed 4. Graininess 5. Gradation 6. Exposure Latitude
Photosensitive Material – B & W Emulsion 1. An emulsion is a light sensitive material coated on the surface of the film. 2. It is made of microscopic crystals of silver halides. These include silver bromide in large proportion, silver chloride & silver iodide in smaller proportions. 3. When the photographer opens the shutter, light from the subject begins to act on the emulsion coating on the film that contains these crystals of silver halides.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Emulsion 4. These salts of silver are extremely light sensitive & darken instantaneously when exposed to light. 5. The light triggers a chemical change in the salts so that they start to form microscopic grains of black silver. 6. An image thus formed on film is called the latent image.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Emulsion 7. Latent image is defined as an invisible image recorded on photographic emulsions as a result of exposure to light. 8. The film is then treated with appropriate chemicals to convert this latent image into a visible one. This process is called developing.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Colour Sensitivity There are two types of films 1. Panchromatic 2. Orthochromatic
Photosensitive Material – B & W Colour Sensitivity Panchromatic film is a term used to describe B & W photographic emulsions sensitive to all colours of the visible spectrum & to a certain amount of ultra-violet light. This film requires to be processed in total darkness.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Colour Sensitivity Orthochromatic film is a term used to describe B & W photographic emulsions sensitive to the blue & green regions of the spectrum but insensitive to red & orange light. Hence this film can be processed in red or orange safe light.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Film Speed The degree of sensitivity of a film to light is known as film speed. It is expressed numerically for the purpose of exposure calculations.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Film Speed A film that is less sensitive to light & require more light to expose is called slow film or low speed film. A film that is more sensitive to light & which can be exposed in low light is called fast film or high speed film.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Film Speed Different units given by different photographic companies in which film speed is measured :- DIN – DEUTSCHE INDUSTRIE NORM ASA – AMERICAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION ISO – INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION
Photosensitive Material – B & W Film Speed DX – Coded Cassettes DX coded films when loaded in the camera with DX coded facility (sensors), the film speed I automatically set on the camera. DX – coded film cassettes have a chequer board pattern of squares which the camera sensors read to automatically set the film speed on the camera.
Exposure Table with different film speeds Sr. No.100 ASA200 ASA400 ASA 1f/8 1/125f/11 1/125f/16 1/125 2f/11 1/60f/16 1/60f/22 1/60 3f/16 1/30f/22 1/30f/32 1/30 4f/5.6 1/250f/8 1/250f/11 1/250
Photosensitive Material – B & W Graininess 1. Granular texture appearing to some degree in all processed photographic materials is called grain. 2.It is because of this granular texture which appears in the negative image, cannot be magnified beyond a certain limit. 3. In B & W photographs, the grains are minute particles of black metallic silver that constitutes the images.
Graininess 4. The faster the film, the coarser the texture of the grain. 5. The slower the film, the finer the texture of the grain. 6. Slower films are used to make big or life size enlargements.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Graininess Guidelines to achieve fine grain negative image :- 1. Use slow speed film. 2. Do not over expose. 3. Do not over develop. 4. Use fine grain developer.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Gradation 1. Gradation is described as the range of contrast or tonal variation in a photographic image. 2. An image that has many different intermediate tones between the darkest & the lightest part is described as having a soft gradation.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Gradation 3. An image that has very few variations between the light & the dark parts is said to have a hard gradation. 4. Gradation depends on the speed of the film. Slow films produce hard gradations & fast films produce soft gradation.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Gradation 5. A film that gives the image in various tones of grey resembling the light & shade of the subject is called a normal contrast film. This is a general purpose film. 6. A film that records images in total black & white, without any middle tone, is called a high contrast film. Such a film is used for graphics & line work.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Exposure Latitude 1. The degree by which the exposure can be varied & still produce an acceptable result. 2. In other words, it is the tolerance of a film emulsion to record satisfactorily & give acceptable prints even if the exposure is not exactly correct.
Photosensitive Material – B & W Exposure Latitude 3. B & W films have more latitude than colour films. 4. Faster films tend to have a greater latitude than slower films.