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The Jazz Age Society in the 1920s Mass Media in the Jazz Age Cultural Conflicts.

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1 The Jazz Age Society in the 1920s Mass Media in the Jazz Age Cultural Conflicts

2 The Jazz Age The 1920s were a time of rapid social change in which many people – particularly women – adopted new lifestyles and attitudes. The 1920s were a time of rapid social change in which many people – particularly women – adopted new lifestyles and attitudes.

3 Setting the Stage 1880s: Industrialization and immigration. 1880s: Industrialization and immigration. WWI accelerated urbanization and what happened to men in the war made the young question traditional values. WWI accelerated urbanization and what happened to men in the war made the young question traditional values.

4 The Flapper Breezy, slangy, and informal in manner; slim and boyish in form; covered in silk and fur that clung to her as close as onion skin; with vivid red cheeks and lips, plucked eyebrows and close- fitting helmet of hair; gay, plucky and confident. Breezy, slangy, and informal in manner; slim and boyish in form; covered in silk and fur that clung to her as close as onion skin; with vivid red cheeks and lips, plucked eyebrows and close- fitting helmet of hair; gay, plucky and confident.

5 The Flapper Wore shorter dresses than their mothers. (9- inch hemline for mom) Wore shorter dresses than their mothers. (9- inch hemline for mom) Short hair and hats to show off short hair Short hair and hats to show off short hair Bobbed hair Bobbed hair Wore make up Wore make up Drank and smoked in public Drank and smoked in public

6 The Flapper Not many women were full flappers. Not many women were full flappers. But changes were happening. But changes were happening. Parents didn t like it! Parents didn t like it!

7 Women Working and Voting More women chose flapper hair and clothes because they were simpler for the working girl. More women chose flapper hair and clothes because they were simpler for the working girl. Convenience Convenience

8 Women working in the 1920s 15% of women were professionals 15% of women were professionals 20% had clerical jobs 20% had clerical jobs By 1930 29% of the workforce was women. By 1930 29% of the workforce was women.

9 Women working in the 1920s BUT BUT Business was prejudiced against women. Business was prejudiced against women. Seldom trained women for jobs beyond entry level Seldom trained women for jobs beyond entry level Did not pay same wage as men. Did not pay same wage as men. Married or pregnant often meant you were fired. Married or pregnant often meant you were fired.

10 Women and the Vote 1920 – women were allowed to vote. 1920 – women were allowed to vote. 1920 only 35% of the women eligible to vote – did vote. 1920 only 35% of the women eligible to vote – did vote. By 1928 145 women in state legislatures. By 1928 145 women in state legislatures. Jeanette Rankin – first woman congresswoman. Jeanette Rankin – first woman congresswoman. From Montana From Montana

11 TRIVIA: In Nebraska the first woman in the legislature was NELL KRAUSE (1946) In Nebraska the first woman in the legislature was NELL KRAUSE (1946) First woman mayor was Mrs. Arabelle Hanna of Superior (1956 – 1964) First woman mayor was Mrs. Arabelle Hanna of Superior (1956 – 1964)

12 Americans on the Move Demographics: Demographics: Statistics that describe a population. Statistics that describe a population. Race Race Income Income

13 Americans on the move 1920: First time in American history that there were more people living in cities than on farms. 1920: First time in American history that there were more people living in cities than on farms.

14 Americans on the Move 1920s: Farming was not profitable. 1920s: Farming was not profitable. 6 million farmers or their children left the farms for the cities. 6 million farmers or their children left the farms for the cities.

15 People coming to the cities Realization that education was important. Realization that education was important. 1920: 2.2 million had high school diplomas 1920: 2.2 million had high school diplomas 1930:4.4 million 1930:4.4 million Rural education often ended at 8 th grade for farm children. Rural education often ended at 8 th grade for farm children.

16 Rural v. Urban Rural Americans didn t like the flappers and thought the cities were dangerous places. Rural Americans didn t like the flappers and thought the cities were dangerous places. Wanted to preserve their traditional life. Wanted to preserve their traditional life.

17 African Americans in the North Jim Crow laws in the South limited life for African Americans. Jim Crow laws in the South limited life for African Americans. Lack of education Lack of education Lack of housing Lack of housing Lack of jobs Lack of jobs Lynching Lynching

18 African Americans Move North 1865: 93% of African Americans lived in the South. 1865: 93% of African Americans lived in the South. 1930: 80% 1930: 80% BUT BUT Jobs weren t much better in the North Jobs weren t much better in the North Racial hatred in North Racial hatred in North Women often worked as low-paid domestics. Women often worked as low-paid domestics.

19 Other Migrations 1920s: Laws against immigrants from: 1920s: Laws against immigrants from: China China Japan Japan Eastern Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc) Eastern Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc) Southern Europe (Italy and Greece) Southern Europe (Italy and Greece)

20 Other Migrations Immigrants from Mexico to fill low pay jobs. Immigrants from Mexico to fill low pay jobs. Most worked farms in California and ranches in Texas. Most worked farms in California and ranches in Texas. migrants to cities developed BARRIOS – Spanish speaking neighborhoods. migrants to cities developed BARRIOS – Spanish speaking neighborhoods. LA: Mexican barrio LA: Mexican barrio NYC: Puerto Rican barrio NYC: Puerto Rican barrio

21 Growth of Suburbs Electric trolley cars and buses got people from jobs in the city to suburbs quickly and cheaply. Electric trolley cars and buses got people from jobs in the city to suburbs quickly and cheaply.

22 TRIVIA Lincoln s bike paths are the old trolley car routes. Lincoln s bike paths are the old trolley car routes. Notice walks up to houses from the path. Notice walks up to houses from the path.

23 American Heroes Charles Lindbergh Charles Lindbergh Lucky Lindy Lucky Lindy May 20, 1927: First man to fly non-stop New York to Paris. May 20, 1927: First man to fly non-stop New York to Paris. 33 ½ hours 33 ½ hours THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS – plane THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS – plane Won $25,000 Won $25,000

24 Charles Lindbergh 1902-1974 1902-1974 Learned to fly in Lincoln, NE! Learned to fly in Lincoln, NE! Was even more respected for his modesty about his fame. Was even more respected for his modesty about his fame.

25 Charles Lindbergh Made other flights surveying and advising airlines. Made other flights surveying and advising airlines. Tragedy in his life. Tragedy in his life. Kidnapping and murder of his firstborn son. Kidnapping and murder of his firstborn son. Seen as being pro- Hitler when WWII began. Seen as being pro- Hitler when WWII began.

26 Amelia Earhart 1928 – first woman to cross the Atlantic in a plane. 1928 – first woman to cross the Atlantic in a plane. 1932 – first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. 1932 – first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. First to fly from Hawaii to California. First to fly from Hawaii to California.

27 Amelia Earhart 1937 – was on a journey to be the first to circumnavigate the world in a plane. 1937 – was on a journey to be the first to circumnavigate the world in a plane. Disappeared over the Pacific. Disappeared over the Pacific. Mystery Mystery

28 SPORTS HEROES OF THE 1920s Radio, newsreels, and more sports reporting made sports BIG business. Radio, newsreels, and more sports reporting made sports BIG business. Jack Dempsey 1921 – world heavyweight champion boxer. Jack Dempsey 1921 – world heavyweight champion boxer.

29 Sports Heroes of the 1920s Jim Thorpe Jim Thorpe Won gold medals in the Olympics in the decathlon and the pentathlon. Won gold medals in the Olympics in the decathlon and the pentathlon. Played professional baseball Played professional baseball Played professional football Played professional football First president of the NFL First president of the NFL

30 The Sultan of Swat George Herman Babe Ruth George Herman Babe Ruth Between playing for the Yanks and the Sox – 714 homeruns. Between playing for the Yanks and the Sox – 714 homeruns. Unbroken record for 40 years. Unbroken record for 40 years.

31 Women Athletes Gertrude Ederle – Olympic swimmer 1924. Gertrude Ederle – Olympic swimmer 1924. First woman to swim the 35 miles of the English Channel First woman to swim the 35 miles of the English Channel Beat the men s record by 2 hours. Beat the men s record by 2 hours.

32 Women Athletes Hazel Wightman Hazel Wightman Helen Wills Helen Wills Olympic and Wimbledon tennis stars. Olympic and Wimbledon tennis stars.

33 Amateur Athletics 1920s more people were playing sports. 1920s more people were playing sports. Better transportation Better transportation More leisure time More leisure time Golf, tennis, swimming Golf, tennis, swimming

34 Can you answer? How did the flapper symbolize change for women in the 1920s? How did the flapper symbolize change for women in the 1920s? What conditions brought about the demographic shifts of the 1920s? What conditions brought about the demographic shifts of the 1920s? How did a barrio develop in Los Angeles in the 1920s? How did a barrio develop in Los Angeles in the 1920s?

35 Mass Media and the Jazz Age The founding of Hollywood The founding of Hollywood Drew film makers to the area in 1900. Drew film makers to the area in 1900. Variety of landscapes (mountains, desert, ocean) Variety of landscapes (mountains, desert, ocean) Warm climate Warm climate Lighting was better Lighting was better Large work force from LA. Large work force from LA.

36 Mass Media in the Jazz Age UNTIL 1920s the US had been a collection of regional cultures. UNTIL 1920s the US had been a collection of regional cultures. Accents differed Accents differed Customs differed Customs differed Entertainment differed Entertainment differed

37 Mass Media and the Jazz Age Films, national newspapers and radio created the national culture of the country. Films, national newspapers and radio created the national culture of the country. Do you hear as many accents anymore? Do you hear as many accents anymore?

38 Movies 1910 – 5,000 theaters in the country. 1910 – 5,000 theaters in the country. 1930 – 22,500 theaters 1930 – 22,500 theaters 1929 – 125 million Americans. 1929 – 125 million Americans. 80 million movie tickets were sold every week. 80 million movie tickets were sold every week.

39 Movies Until 1927 movies were silent. Until 1927 movies were silent. The first sound film THE JAZZ SINGER – 1927 The first sound film THE JAZZ SINGER – 1927 Al Jolson Al Jolson Going to the talkies was a popular pastime. Going to the talkies was a popular pastime.

40 Stars of the 1920s Greta Garbo Greta Garbo Swedish star Swedish star I want to be alone. I want to be alone.

41 Stars of the 1920s Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin The Tramp movies The Tramp movies

42 Stars of the 1920s Clara Bow – the first It girl Clara Bow – the first It girl

43 Stars of the 1920s Lillian Gish Lillian Gish Delicate heroine Delicate heroine

44 Stars of the 1920s Harold Lloyd Harold Lloyd Physical comedian Physical comedian

45 Newspapers and Magazines Golden Age of newspapers. Golden Age of newspapers. EVERY town had a newspaper. EVERY town had a newspaper. The rise of newspaper chains. The rise of newspaper chains. Some owners had monopolies on the news in their states. Some owners had monopolies on the news in their states.

46 Newspapers Tabloids – more on entertainment, fashion, sports and sensational stories. Tabloids – more on entertainment, fashion, sports and sensational stories. The New York DAILY MIRROR The New York DAILY MIRROR 90% entertainment, 10% information – and the information without boring you. 90% entertainment, 10% information – and the information without boring you.

47 Newspapers More Americans began to share the same information, read the same events, and encounter the same ideas and fashions. More Americans began to share the same information, read the same events, and encounter the same ideas and fashions. Created a common culture. Created a common culture.

48 Radio 1920 Westinghouse Electric engineer Frank Conrad put a transmitter in his garage in Pittsburgh. Read news, played music. 1920 Westinghouse Electric engineer Frank Conrad put a transmitter in his garage in Pittsburgh. Read news, played music. KDKA – the FIRST American radio station. KDKA – the FIRST American radio station.

49 Radio By 1922 500 radio stations across the country. By 1922 500 radio stations across the country. National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) offered radio stations programming. National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) offered radio stations programming.

50 The Jazz Age The radio audience and the African American migration to the cities made jazz popular. The radio audience and the African American migration to the cities made jazz popular. Improvisation of music Improvisation of music Syncopation – offbeat rhythm. Syncopation – offbeat rhythm.

51 The Jazz Age Young people were NUTS about jazz. Young people were NUTS about jazz. 1929 – 60% of radio air time was playing jazz. 1929 – 60% of radio air time was playing jazz.

52 Heroes of Jazz Louis Armstrong (1901 – 1974) Louis Armstrong (1901 – 1974) Satchmo and The Gift Satchmo and The Gift New Orleans to Chicago to the world. New Orleans to Chicago to the world. Trumpet and singing scat Trumpet and singing scat

53 Jazz Heroes Duke Ellington Duke Ellington 17 years old – played jazz in clubs in Washington DC at night and painted signs in the day. 17 years old – played jazz in clubs in Washington DC at night and painted signs in the day. Wrote thousands of songs and had his own band. Wrote thousands of songs and had his own band.

54 Jazz Clubs and Dance Halls To hear the real jazz – NYC and the neighborhood of Harlem. To hear the real jazz – NYC and the neighborhood of Harlem. 500 jazz clubs 500 jazz clubs Cotton Club the most famous Cotton Club the most famous BUT BUT Most white Americans did not want to hear jazz. Most white Americans did not want to hear jazz.

55 Jazz Clubs Artie Shaw – First to use black musicians for white audiences. Artie Shaw – First to use black musicians for white audiences. Benny Goodman – First to take jazz to white America. Benny Goodman – First to take jazz to white America. SWING SWING First racial mixed band. First racial mixed band.

56 Jazz Influences on Art Artists were showing the rougher side of life. Artists were showing the rougher side of life. Edward Hopper Edward Hopper

57 Art Georgia O Keefe turned to natural objects – flowers, bones, landscapes. Georgia O Keefe turned to natural objects – flowers, bones, landscapes.

58 Literature in the 1920s Upton Sinclair Upton Sinclair Attacked American society. Attacked American society. THE JUNGLE, ELMER GANTRY, MAIN STREET THE JUNGLE, ELMER GANTRY, MAIN STREET Eugene O Neill Eugene O Neill Dark tragedies of everyday American life. Dark tragedies of everyday American life. A LONG DAY S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT A LONG DAY S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT

59 Literature in the 1920s: The Lost Generation Many writers, artists, and musicians went to Europe and most ended up in Paris Many writers, artists, and musicians went to Europe and most ended up in Paris Cheap living Cheap living Racial tolerance Racial tolerance Intellectual tolerance Intellectual tolerance

60 The Lost Generation F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald Wife Zelda Wife Zelda THE GREAT GATSBY THE GREAT GATSBY THE SUN ALSO RISES THE SUN ALSO RISES Showed the people of the jazz age – including their self- centered and shallow ways. Showed the people of the jazz age – including their self- centered and shallow ways.

61 The Lost Generation Edna St. Vincent Millay Edna St. Vincent Millay My candle burns at both ends; It will not last the night; But ah, my foes, and oh, my friends – It gives a lovely light. My candle burns at both ends; It will not last the night; But ah, my foes, and oh, my friends – It gives a lovely light.

62 Harlem Renaissance 1914: 50,000 African Americans in Harlem. 1914: 50,000 African Americans in Harlem. 1930: 200,000 1930: 200,000 Nora Neale Hurston Nora Neale Hurston THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD. THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD.

63 Harlem Renaissance: Langston Hughes Poet, short story writer, journalist and playwright. Poet, short story writer, journalist and playwright. Joys and difficulties of being human, American and being black. Joys and difficulties of being human, American and being black. See page 465 for a sample of his work. See page 465 for a sample of his work.

64 Flapper Slang See page 464 for the vocabulary of the flapper. (HINT, HINT) See page 464 for the vocabulary of the flapper. (HINT, HINT)

65 Questions to ponder: How did the mass media help create common cultural experiences? How did the mass media help create common cultural experiences? Why are the 1920s called the Jazz Age and how did the jazz spirit affect the arts? Why are the 1920s called the Jazz Age and how did the jazz spirit affect the arts? How did the writers of the Lost Generation respond to the popular culture? How did the writers of the Lost Generation respond to the popular culture? What subjects did the Harlem Renaissance writers explore? What subjects did the Harlem Renaissance writers explore?

66 Cultural Conflicts in the 1920s PROHIBITION PROHIBITION The 18 th Amendment to the Constitution The 18 th Amendment to the Constitution Made manufacturing of alcohol illegal. Made manufacturing of alcohol illegal. Most people chose to ignore it. Most people chose to ignore it. See page 467 See page 467

67 Goals of Prohibition Eliminate drunkenness Eliminate drunkenness Causing abuse of family Causing abuse of family Get rid of saloons Get rid of saloons Prostitution, gambling dens Prostitution, gambling dens Prevent absenteeism and on-the-job accidents stemming from drunkenness Prevent absenteeism and on-the-job accidents stemming from drunkenness

68 How Effective was Prohibition? They drank in the White House They drank in the White House 1924 – Kansas had 95% of people obeying the law not to drink. 1924 – Kansas had 95% of people obeying the law not to drink. Only 5% of New Yorkers obeyed the law. Only 5% of New Yorkers obeyed the law. Contrast between rural and urban moral values. Contrast between rural and urban moral values.

69 Bootlegging Those that would manufacture, sell and transport liquor, beer, and wine. Those that would manufacture, sell and transport liquor, beer, and wine.

70 Bootleggers Started from drinkers who hid flasks in the leg of their boots. Started from drinkers who hid flasks in the leg of their boots.

71 Bootleggers Stills to make alcohol Stills to make alcohol Corn: grain alcohol (VERY alcoholic) and some whiskey Corn: grain alcohol (VERY alcoholic) and some whiskey Potatoes: vodka Potatoes: vodka Rye Grain: gin and whiskey Rye Grain: gin and whiskey Bathtub gin Bathtub gin

72 Bootleggers Canadians were making whiskey. Canadians were making whiskey. Caribbean was making rum. Caribbean was making rum. Smugglers took ships out to sea, met speed boats who outran the Coast Guard to harbors where they transported the alcohol to warehouses. Smugglers took ships out to sea, met speed boats who outran the Coast Guard to harbors where they transported the alcohol to warehouses.

73 Speakeasies Bars that operated illegally. Bars that operated illegally. To get into a speakeasy – you needed a password or be recognized by a guard. To get into a speakeasy – you needed a password or be recognized by a guard. Sometimes hidden behind legit businesses. Sometimes hidden behind legit businesses.

74 Speakeasies Before Prohibition the whole state of Massachusetts had 1,000 saloons. Before Prohibition the whole state of Massachusetts had 1,000 saloons. AFTER Prohibition Boston alone had 4,000 speakeasies and 15,000 bootleggers. AFTER Prohibition Boston alone had 4,000 speakeasies and 15,000 bootleggers.

75 Organized Crime Early in Prohibition – there was competition between gangs to supply liquor to speakeasies. Early in Prohibition – there was competition between gangs to supply liquor to speakeasies.

76 Organized Crime Territories expanded and gang warfare erupted over turf and control of the liquor. Territories expanded and gang warfare erupted over turf and control of the liquor. Tommy Guns Tommy Guns Sawed off shotguns Sawed off shotguns Murder on the streets Murder on the streets

77 Organized Crime Expanded into other crimes Expanded into other crimes Gambling Gambling Prostitution Prostitution Murder Incorporated Murder Incorporated

78 Organized Crime Racketeering Racketeering Bribe police and other government officials to ignore what they are doing. Bribe police and other government officials to ignore what they are doing. Gangsters forced businesses to pay a fee for protection Gangsters forced businesses to pay a fee for protection If you didn t pay … If you didn t pay …

79 Organized Crime 157 bombs in 1928 Chicago! 157 bombs in 1928 Chicago!

80 Al Capone The most famous and brutal gangsters were in Chicago. The most famous and brutal gangsters were in Chicago. Racketeering was EVERYWHERE Racketeering was EVERYWHERE Chicago and his suburb of Cicero Chicago and his suburb of Cicero

81 Alfonse Scarface Capone 1899-1947 1899-1947 Born in NYC to Sicilian immigrants. Born in NYC to Sicilian immigrants. Dropped out of school at 14. Dropped out of school at 14. Nasty fighter reputation. Nasty fighter reputation. Moved to Chicago in 1919. Moved to Chicago in 1919.

82 Al Capone 200 murders are directly tied to Capone. 200 murders are directly tied to Capone. St. Valentine s Day Massacre was also his work. St. Valentine s Day Massacre was also his work. With Prohibition, he made $100,000,000. With Prohibition, he made $100,000,000.

83 Al Capone

84 For all his murders and assaults, he was eventually imprisoned for not paying taxes. For all his murders and assaults, he was eventually imprisoned for not paying taxes. Ended up at Alcatraz Prison. Ended up at Alcatraz Prison. Released early and died of syphilis Released early and died of syphilis

85 Matters of Religion Rural Values v. City Values Rural Values v. City Values The rise of fundamentalism The rise of fundamentalism Concerns about science and technology were playing in life Concerns about science and technology were playing in life

86 Fundamentalism War and widespread problems of modern society caused people to question if God existed. War and widespread problems of modern society caused people to question if God existed. Some scholars said the Bible was a work of fiction. Some scholars said the Bible was a work of fiction.

87 Fundamentalism Fundamentalism said God inspired the Bible so it cannot contain contradictions or errors. It was literal truth. Fundamentalism said God inspired the Bible so it cannot contain contradictions or errors. It was literal truth.

88 Fundamentalism Gained tremendous attention in the 1920s. Gained tremendous attention in the 1920s. Billy Sunday Billy Sunday Aimee Semple McPherson Sister Aimee Aimee Semple McPherson Sister Aimee William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan

89 Evolution and the Scopes Monkey Trial Fundamentalists in Tennessee passed a law saying that evolutionary theory could not be taught in schools. Fundamentalists in Tennessee passed a law saying that evolutionary theory could not be taught in schools. 1925, high school biology teacher, John Scopes taught his students about Charles Darwin. 1925, high school biology teacher, John Scopes taught his students about Charles Darwin. Was arrested that day. Was arrested that day.

90 The Scopes Monkey Trial Drama between two of the best lawyers in the nation Drama between two of the best lawyers in the nation Clarence Darrow Clarence Darrow William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan Mass media allowed 2 million people to listen to the trial. Mass media allowed 2 million people to listen to the trial.

91 The Scopes Monkey Trial Dramatic moment and never done since. Dramatic moment and never done since. Darrow put Bryan on the stand to testify as an expert on the Bible. Darrow put Bryan on the stand to testify as an expert on the Bible. Showed flaws in some of his logic Showed flaws in some of his logic

92 The Scopes Monkey Trial Darrow lost the case but won the point with the public. Darrow lost the case but won the point with the public. Darrow a defender of science and reason Darrow a defender of science and reason Bryan was a martyr for the cause Bryan was a martyr for the cause Died days after the trial ended. Died days after the trial ended.

93 Racial Tensions: Violence Against African Americans 1919: Red Summer 1919: Red Summer Race riots between white and black in Omaha, Tulsa, Washington DC and Chicago. Race riots between white and black in Omaha, Tulsa, Washington DC and Chicago.

94 1919 Race Riot in Omaha "Pretty little Agnes Loebeck... was assaulted... by an unidentified negro at twelve O'clock last night, while she was returning to her home in company with Millard [sic] Hoffman "Pretty little Agnes Loebeck... was assaulted... by an unidentified negro at twelve O'clock last night, while she was returning to her home in company with Millard [sic] Hoffman

95 1919 Race Riot That evening, the police took a suspect to the Loebeck home. Agnes and her boyfriend Milton Hoffman (they were later married) identified a black packinghouse worker named Will Brown as the assailant. Brown was 41 years old and suffered from acute rheumatism That evening, the police took a suspect to the Loebeck home. Agnes and her boyfriend Milton Hoffman (they were later married) identified a black packinghouse worker named Will Brown as the assailant. Brown was 41 years old and suffered from acute rheumatism

96 1919 Race Riot of Omaha

97 Racial Tensions: Omaha September 29, 1919 September 29, 1919

98 Racial Tensions Many in the North joined the Ku Klux Klan. Many in the North joined the Ku Klux Klan. Lynchings happened in the North. Lynchings happened in the North.

99 Revival of the Klan See page 472 for the description of why men should join the Klan. See page 472 for the description of why men should join the Klan. 1924 4 million members 1924 4 million members Most Kan memberships came from Indiana Most Kan memberships came from Indiana Prejudice against non- whites, non- Christian, non-Protestants, Jews, immigrants, etc. Prejudice against non- whites, non- Christian, non-Protestants, Jews, immigrants, etc. Didn t leave many people to like! Didn t leave many people to like!

100 Fighting Discrimination NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Worked to end lynching. Worked to end lynching. No national laws – but did get a number of states to comply. No national laws – but did get a number of states to comply. 1929 – 10 lynchings in the country 1929 – 10 lynchings in the country

101 Fighting Discrimination NAACP: NAACP: Worked to get better voting rights for African Americans Worked to get better voting rights for African Americans NOT much success NOT much success

102 The Garvey Movement Some African Americans frustrated by violence and discrimination dreamed of a new homeland. Some African Americans frustrated by violence and discrimination dreamed of a new homeland.

103 The Marcus Garvey Movement Banks and business investment for just African Americans. Banks and business investment for just African Americans. Urged a return to Motherland Africa to create a new country. Urged a return to Motherland Africa to create a new country. Started Black Pride from prison and after he was deported to Jamaica. Started Black Pride from prison and after he was deported to Jamaica.

104 W.E.B. Dubois Didn t think the answer was separation of the races. Didn t think the answer was separation of the races. Also didn t approve of Garvey s business practices. Also didn t approve of Garvey s business practices.


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