Presentation on theme: "7 (a) Under what circumstances is stratified random sampling procedure is considered appropriate?How would you select such samples?Explain by means of."— Presentation transcript:
7 (a) Under what circumstances is stratified random sampling procedure is considered appropriate?How would you select such samples?Explain by means of example? Stratified sampling technique is generally applied in order to obtain a representative sample, if a population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group
The population is divided into several sub- populations that are individually more homogeneous than the total population(the different sub populations are called ‘’strata) Then we select items from each stratum to constitute a sample. Since each stratum is more homogeneous than the total population, we are able to get more precise estimates for each stratum and by estimating more accurately each of the component parts, we get a better estimate of the whole.
Strata can be formed on the basis of common characteristics of the item to be put in each stratum. Stratification ensures homogeneity within each stratum(very few differences or dispersion on the variable of interest within each stratum), but heterogeneity (variability) between strata.
For selection of items for the sample from each stratum, resorted to is that of simple random sampling. Systematic sampling can be used if it is considered more appropriate in certain situations.
E.g.- if an organization contemplates budget cuts, the effect of these cuts on employee attitude can be studied with stratification by department, function, or region
(b) Explain the role of research in managerial planning and decision making. Name and briefly discuss the steps of research process? Research is the process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors. A grasp of research methods will enable managers to understand, predict, and control their environment
Managers with knowledge of research have an advantage over those without. It helps the managers to sense, spot, and deal with problems before they get out of control. Managers are responsible for the final outcome by making the right decisions at work. This is facilitated by research knowledge.
Knowledge of research heightens the sensitivity of managers to the innumerable internal and external factors of a varied nature operating in their work and organizational environment. Knowledge of research greatly enhances the decision –making skills of the manager.
Research process consist of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research. Steps involved in research process: 1. Observation 2. Preliminary data gathering 3. Problem definition 4. Theoretical framework
5. Generation of hypotheses 6. Scientific research design 7. Data collection, analysis and interpretation 8. Deduction 9. Report writing 10. Report presentation 11. Managerial decision making