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Minerals: Major and Trace. Major Minerals sodium sodium chloride chloride potassium potassium calcium calcium phosphorus phosphorus magnesium magnesium.

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Presentation on theme: "Minerals: Major and Trace. Major Minerals sodium sodium chloride chloride potassium potassium calcium calcium phosphorus phosphorus magnesium magnesium."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals: Major and Trace

2 Major Minerals sodium sodium chloride chloride potassium potassium calcium calcium phosphorus phosphorus magnesium magnesium sulfur sulfur

3 Minerals in a 60-kilogram (132-pound) Human Body TRACE MINERALS There are more than a dozen trace minerals, although only six are shown here. Amount (g) MAJOR MINERALS The major minerals are those present in amounts larger than 5 g (a teaspoon). A pound is about 454 g; thus only calcium and phosphorus appear in amounts larger than a pound.

4 Sodium fluid volume regulator, electrolyte balancer fluid volume regulator, electrolyte balancer source source – mostly in processed foods deficiency deficiency – must be replaced with water if blood sodium drops toxicity toxicity – edema and hypertension diet moderate in sodium is recommended diet moderate in sodium is recommended

5 Chloride essential nutrient essential nutrient fluid and electrolyte balance fluid and electrolyte balance abundant in foods (especially processed) abundant in foods (especially processed) – part of sodium chloride rarely lacking rarely lacking dehydration due to water deficiency dehydration due to water deficiency

6 Potassium maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance – affects homeostasis, such as a steady heartbeat found in both plant and animal cells found in both plant and animal cells – less found in processed foods deficiency deficiency – hypertension – most common electrolyte imbalance – muscle weakness toxicity toxicity – rare from food – over consumption of supplements

7 What Processing Does to Sodium and Potassium Contents of Foods Milk (whole) Unprocessed Peach pie Processed Canned, cream corn Instant pudding Oat cereal Fresh peaches Milks Chipped beef Vegetables Fresh corn Meats Roast beef Fruits Rolled oats Grains Sodium Potassium Key:

8 Calcium most abundant mineral in body most abundant mineral in body bone structure, calcium bank bone structure, calcium bank found primarily in milk and milk products found primarily in milk and milk products deficiency deficiency – limits mass & density growing years growing years age related age related – silent, no signals

9 Label Key: Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Breads and cereals Vegetables CALCIUM As in the riboflavin figure, milk and milk products (white) dominate the calcium figure. Most people need at least three selections from the milk group to meet recommendations. a Values based on products containing added calcium salts; the calcium in 1 ⁄ 2 c soybeans is about 1 ⁄ 3 as much as in 1 ⁄ 2 c tofu. b If bones are discarded, calcium declines dramatically. Food Serving size (kcalories) Milligrams AI for men 19–50 AI for men 51+ AI for women 19–50 AI for women 51+ Calcium in Selected Foods

10 Phosphorus 2 nd most abundant 2 nd most abundant energy metabolism, transport lipids, cell membranes energy metabolism, transport lipids, cell membranes foods rich in protein, supply phosphorus foods rich in protein, supply phosphorus

11 Key: Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Breads and cereals Vegetables PHOSPHORUS Protein-rich sources, such as milk (white), meats (red), and legumes (brown), provide abundant phosphorus as well. RDA for adults Food Serving size (kcalories) Milligrams Phosphorus in Selected Foods

12 Magnesium minute amount, but critical minute amount, but critical – energy metabolism, catalyst, ATP production critical to heart function critical to heart function ingestion of hard water may reduce incidence of heart disease ingestion of hard water may reduce incidence of heart disease toxicity is rare, but can be fatal toxicity is rare, but can be fatal

13 Magnesium in Selected Foods Key: Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Breads and cereals Vegetables MAGNESIUM Legumes (brown) are a rich source of magnesium. RDA for women RDA for men Food Serving size (kcalories) Milligrams

14 Sulfur sulfur is not used by the body sulfur is not used by the body – found in thiamin and several amino acids high sulfur content in high sulfur content in – skin, hair, nails

15 Trace Minerals iron iron zinc zinc iodine iodine selenium selenium copper copper manganese manganese fluoride fluoride chromium chromium molybdenum molybdenum

16 Trace Minerals small amounts found in the body small amounts found in the body small amounts needed small amounts needed deficiency can be fatal, excess can be deadly deficiency can be fatal, excess can be deadly – TM are active in all body systems content is dependent on soil and water composition and processing content is dependent on soil and water composition and processing

17 Iron essential nutrient essential nutrient mostly found in mostly found in – hemoglobin carrier of oxygen carrier of oxygen – myoglobin protein in muscles, making oxygen available protein in muscles, making oxygen available iron balance is critical iron balance is critical deficiency deficiency – fatigue and anemia –

18 Iron red meats, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes are good sources red meats, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes are good sources

19 Iron in Selected Foods Key: Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Breads and cereals Vegetables IRON Meats (red), legumes (brown), and some vegetables (green) make the greatest contributions of iron to the diet. RDA for women 51+ RDA for women 19–50 RDA for men

20 Zinc cofactor for many enzymes affecting growth and digestion cofactor for many enzymes affecting growth and digestion deficiency deficiency – growth retardation – sexual immaturity – impaired immune response protein containing foods are a good source of zinc protein containing foods are a good source of zinc

21 Zinc in Selected Foods Label Key: Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Breads and cereals Vegetables ZINC Meat, fish, and poultry (red) are concentrated sources of zinc. Milk (white) and legumes (brown) contain some zinc. RDA for women RDA for men Micrograms RAE Food Serving size (kcalories)

22 Iodine converted to iodide in GI tract converted to iodide in GI tract essential component of thyroid hormone essential component of thyroid hormone – regulates temperature, reproduction, growth, cell production deficiency deficiency – goiter: enlarged thyroid gland – cretinism during pregnancy during pregnancy irreversible mental and physical retardation irreversible mental and physical retardation

23 Iodine world’s ocean and iodized salt are best sources world’s ocean and iodized salt are best sources

24 Selenium essential antioxidant nutrient essential antioxidant nutrient deficiency associated with heart disease deficiency associated with heart disease seafood, meats, whole grains, vegetables seafood, meats, whole grains, vegetables – dependent on soil content toxicity toxicity – loss and brittleness of hair and nails

25 Copper important player in several enzyme reactions important player in several enzyme reactions deficiency is rare deficiency is rare food sources are legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, seeds food sources are legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, seeds

26 Manganese cofactor for many enzymes that metabolize carbs, lipids and amino acids cofactor for many enzymes that metabolize carbs, lipids and amino acids deficiency is rare deficiency is rare too much can affect the nervous system too much can affect the nervous system found in nuts, whole grains, leafy veggies found in nuts, whole grains, leafy veggies

27 Fluoride presence makes presence makes – bones stronger – teeth more resistant to tooth decay fluoridated water is best source fluoridated water is best source – most bottled water is lacking too much can damage teeth too much can damage teeth Key: < 49% 50% – 74% > 75% U.S. Population with Access to Fluoridated Water through Public Water Systems

28 Chromium essential nutrient involved in carb and lipid metabolism essential nutrient involved in carb and lipid metabolism – maintains glucose homeostasis deficiency deficiency – creates diabetic like symptoms sources include liver, whole grains, yeast sources include liver, whole grains, yeast

29 cofactor for many enzymes cofactor for many enzymes found in legumes, cereals, organ meat found in legumes, cereals, organ meat Molybdenum

30 Contaminant Minerals heavy metals heavy metals – lead – mercury – cadmium enter food through water, soil, air pollution enter food through water, soil, air pollution interfere with nutrients interfere with nutrients bioaccumulation bioaccumulation

31 Remember to eat foods, not nutrients


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