2Founding Documents and “Rights of Englishmen” The Magna CartaEnglish Bill of RightsRepresentative Self Government
3The Magna Carta (1215)The English King agreed that his power was not absolute and that government should be limited in what it could do.
4English Bill of Rights (1688) Limited the King’s power and reserved rights for the people including a fair and speedy trial with a jury of their peers and no “cruel and unusual” punishment.
5Representative Government Houses of Parliament - The two house system; Commons and Lords.Houses of Burgesses 1619 Virginia - was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America.Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony.New England Town Meetings - in which most or all the members of a community come together to legislate policy and budgets for local government.
6American Documents Thomas Paine’s Common Sense The Declaration of IndependenceThe United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights
7Declaration of Independence Three Main parts –Defines Human RightsList of grievancesDecision to leave England
8John Locke and Thomas Jefferson on “Unalienable Rights” Locke: people’s natural rights include “life, liberty and estate”Jefferson: “unalienable rights” of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
9Declaration of Independence and “unalienable rights” “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…..”
10Articles of Confederation What is it good for?Concluded the RevolutionSet up procedure for a territory to become a stateAddressed the slavery issueSet up means for education in federal territories
11Constitutional Convention – The Question of Representation The Connecticut (Great) Compromise –A bicameral legislature (two houses)Senate – each state gets two votesHouse – votes based on population
12Constitutional Convention – The Question of Slavery The 3/5 CompromiseEvery slave would count as 3/5 of a free person for both taxation and representation purposes.3 Free Citizens = 5 Slaves
13Seven Principles of Democracy Popular SovereigntyLimited GovernmentFederalismRepresentative GovernmentSeparation of Powers (Three branches of Government)Judicial ReviewChecks and Balances
14The Bill of Rights – Why?Not everyone liked the idea of a strong central government.Federalists – favored ratification- wrote many essays in support“The Federalist Papers”Anti-Federalists – felt the Constitution did not go far enough to protect the rights of the individual as well as the state.
15First AmendmentCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.GuaranteesNo state sponsored religionFree exercise of religious beliefsFreedom of speechFreedom of the pressFreedom of assembleFreedom to petition
16Limitations No state sponsored religion - Use of “God” on money and other state sponsored itemsFree exercise of religious beliefs- As long as the exercise does not violate the rights of othersFreedom of speech- As long as that speech doesn’t defame or cause disruptionFreedom of the press- Cannot knowingly print false informationFreedom to assemble- Has to be a peaceful assembly
172nd, 3rd, and 4th Amendments2nd Amendment – Right to bear arms to maintain a well regulated militia.3rd Amendment – No quartering of troops in people’s homes in times of peace.4th Amendment – Protection against “unreasonable searches and seizures” and any evidence obtained illegally cannot be used.
18The 5th AmendmentAssures the right not to be deprived of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law”, including protections against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and government seizure of property without just compensation.
196th, 7th and 8th Amendments6th Amendment – Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury.7th Amendment – Assures the right to a jury trial in cases involving the common law.8th Amendment – Protects against excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment
20The Founding Fathers – Children of the Enlightenment Thomas JeffersonBen FranklinGeorge WashingtonJohn AdamsAlexander HamiltonJames Madison
21Founding Fathers According to the State Benjamin Rush – doctor of the Revolution – on a mission from GodJohn Hancock – One of the wealthiest Americans; President of the 2nd Continental CongressCharles Carroll – only Roman Catholic to sign D of IJonathan Trumbull – Royal and Revolutionary governor of ConnecticutJohn Peter Muhlenburg – Lutheran minister who leaves the pulpit to fight for the RevolutionJohn Jay – negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783, 1st Supreme Court Justice; firm believer that the “notables” should control the governmentJohn Witherspoon – Minister and New Jersey signer of the Dof I.
25Problems of Expansion Native Americans – What to do with them? Indian Removal (Andrew Jackson)Growth of militaryTreaties (Broken)
26Problems of ExpansionWhat about the people of European ancestry in areas?American laws vs. European laws for propertyHow to settle the land?
27Problems of Expansion Division of Free vs Slave Who makes the decision? - State vs. FederalEconomic differences – Manufacturing vs. PlantationsDred Scott Decision – Slaves are not protected by the constitution and are not citizens of the US.Bleeding Kansas/John Brown’s Raid – Anti-Slave vs. Pro-Slave. Kansas would eventually join the Union. John Brown tried to start an armed slave revolt.
29The Civil WarSecession – 11 states secede, 4 slave states remained loyal to the federal government.Bloody War – over 650,000 Americans killed.Why important – preview on how bloody wars can be in the modern era and how war will now affect civilians.Most important the US finally living up to the Declaration of Independence.
30Turning Point BattlesBull Run – 1861 Confederate victory in the largest American and bloodiest battle up to that point.Shiloh – Union victory in 1862.Antietam – Union victory was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties on both sides.Gettysburg and Vicksburg – Union victory and turning point in the Civil War.Sherman’s March (Total War) - inflicted significant damage, particularly to industry and infrastructure as well as to civilian property throughout Georgia.
31Key Legislation1st draft in US History – Conscription of men into the armed forces.Pacific Railway Act - Promoted the construction of the transcontinental railroad in the United States through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies.Homestead Act – U.S. federal law that gave an applicant ownership at no cost of farmland called a "homestead" – typically 160 acres of undeveloped federal land west of the Mississippi River.Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act - United States statute that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges (Texas A&M).National Currency – Now backed by bank holdings of U.S. Treasury securities
32Civil Rights The Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1 1863 13th – Prohibition of Slavery (1865)14th – Citizenship, Due Process, Equal Protection (1868)15th – Right to vote not to be denied by race, color or previous servitude (1870)
33Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction Congressional ReconstructionWhat’s the best way to rebuild the South and heal the nation