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US History to 1877 A Quick Overview.

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Presentation on theme: "US History to 1877 A Quick Overview."— Presentation transcript:

1 US History to 1877 A Quick Overview

2 Founding Documents and “Rights of Englishmen”
The Magna Carta English Bill of Rights Representative Self Government

3 The Magna Carta (1215) The English King agreed that his power was not absolute and that government should be limited in what it could do.

4 English Bill of Rights (1688)
Limited the King’s power and reserved rights for the people including a fair and speedy trial with a jury of their peers and no “cruel and unusual” punishment.

5 Representative Government
Houses of Parliament - The two house system; Commons and Lords. Houses of Burgesses 1619 Virginia - was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America. Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. New England Town Meetings - in which most or all the members of a community come together to legislate policy and budgets for local government.

6 American Documents Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
The Declaration of Independence The United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights

7 Declaration of Independence
Three Main parts – Defines Human Rights List of grievances Decision to leave England

8 John Locke and Thomas Jefferson on “Unalienable Rights”
Locke: people’s natural rights include “life, liberty and estate” Jefferson: “unalienable rights” of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

9 Declaration of Independence and “unalienable rights”
“We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…..”

10 Articles of Confederation
What is it good for? Concluded the Revolution Set up procedure for a territory to become a state Addressed the slavery issue Set up means for education in federal territories

11 Constitutional Convention – The Question of Representation
The Connecticut (Great) Compromise – A bicameral legislature (two houses) Senate – each state gets two votes House – votes based on population

12 Constitutional Convention – The Question of Slavery
The 3/5 Compromise Every slave would count as 3/5 of a free person for both taxation and representation purposes. 3 Free Citizens = 5 Slaves

13 Seven Principles of Democracy
Popular Sovereignty Limited Government Federalism Representative Government Separation of Powers (Three branches of Government) Judicial Review Checks and Balances

14 The Bill of Rights – Why? Not everyone liked the idea of a strong central government. Federalists – favored ratification - wrote many essays in support “The Federalist Papers” Anti-Federalists – felt the Constitution did not go far enough to protect the rights of the individual as well as the state.

15 First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Guarantees No state sponsored religion Free exercise of religious beliefs Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Freedom of assemble Freedom to petition

16 Limitations No state sponsored religion
- Use of “God” on money and other state sponsored items Free exercise of religious beliefs - As long as the exercise does not violate the rights of others Freedom of speech - As long as that speech doesn’t defame or cause disruption Freedom of the press - Cannot knowingly print false information Freedom to assemble - Has to be a peaceful assembly

17 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Amendments 2nd Amendment – Right to bear arms to maintain a well regulated militia. 3rd Amendment – No quartering of troops in people’s homes in times of peace. 4th Amendment – Protection against “unreasonable searches and seizures” and any evidence obtained illegally cannot be used.

18 The 5th Amendment Assures the right not to be deprived of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law”, including protections against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and government seizure of property without just compensation.

19 6th, 7th and 8th Amendments 6th Amendment – Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. 7th Amendment – Assures the right to a jury trial in cases involving the common law. 8th Amendment – Protects against excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment

20 The Founding Fathers – Children of the Enlightenment
Thomas Jefferson Ben Franklin George Washington John Adams Alexander Hamilton James Madison

21 Founding Fathers According to the State
Benjamin Rush – doctor of the Revolution – on a mission from God John Hancock – One of the wealthiest Americans; President of the 2nd Continental Congress Charles Carroll – only Roman Catholic to sign D of I Jonathan Trumbull – Royal and Revolutionary governor of Connecticut John Peter Muhlenburg – Lutheran minister who leaves the pulpit to fight for the Revolution John Jay – negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783, 1st Supreme Court Justice; firm believer that the “notables” should control the government John Witherspoon – Minister and New Jersey signer of the Dof I.

22 The Country Grows

23 Louisiana Purchase 1803 Florida 1819 Texas 1845 Oregon Territory 1846 Mexican Cession 1848 Gadsden Purchase 1854


25 Problems of Expansion Native Americans – What to do with them?
Indian Removal (Andrew Jackson) Growth of military Treaties (Broken)

26 Problems of Expansion What about the people of European ancestry in areas? American laws vs. European laws for property How to settle the land?

27 Problems of Expansion Division of Free vs Slave
Who makes the decision? - State vs. Federal Economic differences – Manufacturing vs. Plantations Dred Scott Decision – Slaves are not protected by the constitution and are not citizens of the US. Bleeding Kansas/John Brown’s Raid – Anti-Slave vs. Pro-Slave. Kansas would eventually join the Union. John Brown tried to start an armed slave revolt.

28 The 1860 Election

29 The Civil War Secession – 11 states secede, 4 slave states remained loyal to the federal government. Bloody War – over 650,000 Americans killed. Why important – preview on how bloody wars can be in the modern era and how war will now affect civilians. Most important the US finally living up to the Declaration of Independence.

30 Turning Point Battles Bull Run – 1861 Confederate victory in the largest American and bloodiest battle up to that point. Shiloh – Union victory in 1862. Antietam – Union victory was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties on both sides. Gettysburg and Vicksburg – Union victory and turning point in the Civil War. Sherman’s March (Total War) - inflicted significant damage, particularly to industry and infrastructure as well as to civilian property throughout Georgia.

31 Key Legislation 1st draft in US History – Conscription of men into the armed forces. Pacific Railway Act - Promoted the construction of the transcontinental railroad in the United States through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies. Homestead Act – U.S. federal law that gave an applicant ownership at no cost of farmland called a "homestead" – typically 160 acres of undeveloped federal land west of the Mississippi River. Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act - United States statute that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges (Texas A&M). National Currency – Now backed by bank holdings of U.S. Treasury securities

32 Civil Rights The Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1 1863
13th – Prohibition of Slavery (1865) 14th – Citizenship, Due Process, Equal Protection (1868) 15th – Right to vote not to be denied by race, color or previous servitude (1870)

33 Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction What’s the best way to rebuild the South and heal the nation

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