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The British Isles and Nordic Nations

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1 The British Isles and Nordic Nations
Chapter 15 The British Isles and Nordic Nations

2 Sect. 1 - England Great Britain - Island the size of Minnesota
U.K. - 3 formerly independent nations (England, Scotland, and Wales) plus N. Ireland 80% of the people live in England

3 England - cont. (sect. 1) Landscape of England: NE to SW
Highlands, lowlands, and mid-land Highlands- on the Atlantic coast NE to SW Midlands - SE to Manchester Lowlands - fertile SE corner Relative location - London (70 miles from Europe) located on the Thames river Important port (1500s)

4 Sect. 1 cont. Industrial revolution - factories for manufacturing goods (workshop of the world) Pennine Mt. - coal fields along the edge Iron Ore - rocky material containing a valuable mineral - used to make steel and furthered the Industrial Revolution U.S. and Germany passed Britain in the 1900s and today Britain relies heavily on imports

5 The Chunnel Underground tunnel from the U.K. to France
31 miles long, 23 miles underground 20 minutes to cross the English channel Paris to London - 3 hours 7,000 workers -seven years 3 tunnels finished in 1994 $14 billion to complete

6 Section 2 - Scotland and Wales
Scotland 1/3 of the land of the U.K. but less than 10% of the population Capital - Edinburgh Cheviot hills and Tweed river - separated Scotland and England Scotland - physical geography N. Highlands C. Lowlands S. Uplands

7 Highlands Large, high plateau Moors - broad treeless plains
Bogs - cover the moors , wet spongy ground 3 types of veg. - grass, low shrubs and heather - purple flowers Loch - Lake carved from glaciers Loch ness - lock 90 miles west of Aberdeen Nessie - supposed monster that lives in Loch Ness Economic activity - fishing and sheep Tweed - type of woolen cloth

8 Lowlands and Uplands Lowlands - 75% of the population live here
Industrial region Glasgow - shipbuilding Southern Uplands - Sheep raising Clyde valley - “Silicon Glen” - narrow valley (computer technology) Oil discovered in the N. Sea far off of NE Scotland Act of Union Scotland and England united Scotland kept important trade and political rights Scotland - Presbyterian English - Church of England

9 Wales Wales has some independence but closely connected to England
Highland area in North, Lowlands in the South, and the Cambrian Mt. in the center Wales - more rain than England Welsh rep. have sat in parliament and 20% have retained their language Coal mines near Cardiff were used up in the 80’s. Rely heavily on foreign investment and some tourism

10 Two Irelands Marine West Coast
Terrain - rolling interior plains surrounded by rugged hills and low mts. West coast - sea cliffs Ireland - DUBLIN N. Ireland - Belfast Catholic Protestant (Church of England)

11 Physical Emerald Isle - green vegetation
Peat - spongy material containing waterlogged mosses and plants -decays and forms a brownish matter , used for a resource - 1/4 of electricity Covers 1/6 of Ireland

12 Culture Celtic tribes - first to settle in Ireland (300 B.C.)
Gaelic - Celtic language Norman invaders from France conquered Europe Took over England and ruled the Celtic people King Henry II of England tried to take over Ireland Protestants vs. Catholic Church of England started by Henry VIII U.K. annexed Ireland so France wouldn’t get it

13 Sect. 3 continued 1921 - Ireland was divided
Republic of Ireland was formed potato famine hit Ireland and many immigrated to the U.S. Shannon Airport - refueling center Ireland uses the Euro

14 Comparing Ireland and Northern Ireland
REPUBLIC OF IRELAND 91 % catholic Want to see a united Ireland Poor full independence from U.K. Connections to the IRA (terrorist group) What is the IRA - terrorists that want to see Britain out of Ireland completely -catholic members N. IRELAND Protestant majority Wealthy U.K. controlled IRA members have infiltrated the Gov. Sinn Fein - political group with links to the IRA Catholics in the North - (want to see Ireland together) Protestants in the North (loyal to Britain)

15 Shared Added to Britain in 1798 Marine West coast climate Emerald Isle
Bowl shaped landscape/ good for protection against invaders Cattle ranching Less impact on agriculture Use peat as a resource

16 Section 4 - Nordic nations
Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark Norden “Northlands” - Europeans call their land this Danish (Denmark ) - “Flatlanders” Impact of land from glaciers 1. Created many lakes and rivers 2. Took top soil from the Scandinavian Peninsula and deposited into parts of Denmark 3. Carved valleys along the coast 4. Fjords - flooded glacial valleys

17 Sect. 4 cont. Impact of the location to the North latitudes - long winters / short summers Land of the Midnight Sun Winter - 3 hours of sun Summer - 20 hours of sun White nights - long twilight hours Many celebrations are planned around these hours

18 Sect. 4 - cultural bonds 1397 - all nations were united
Sweden withdrew Sweden and Finland were united until the 1800s Religion - majority are protestant Democracies - mixed economies (socialism and free enterprise) Denmark and Sweden are the most socialized - state run day-care, health care, and elderly care

19 Iceland Land of fire and ice - volcanoes and glaciers
Geothermal energy is huge One of the highest literacy rates in the world

20 Other Finland - plywood deforestation has become a large problem so the Gov. has taken control. large Asian population Denmark - constitutional monarchy Cooperative farms, controls Greenland Norway - 3 % arable land Oil and natural gas in the North Sea Hydroelectricity Sweden - constitutional monarchy Socialist - hospitals, education

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