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“A Change is Gonna’ Come,” Sam Cooke, 1963

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1 “A Change is Gonna’ Come,” Sam Cooke, 1963
I was born by the river in a little tent Oh and just like the river I've been running ever since It's been a long, a long time coming But I know a change gonna come, oh yes it will It's been too hard living but I'm afraid to die Cause I don't know what's up there beyond the sky I go to the movie and I go downtown Somebody keep telling me don't hang around Then I go to my brother And I say brother help me please But he winds up knocking me Back down on my knees Ohhhhhhhhh..... There been times that I thought I couldn't last for long But now I think I'm able to carry on

2 Learning Targets Evaluate the need for a Civil Rights Movement
Describe the non-violent actions of the Civil Rights Movement Summarize the accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement

Read your table’s assigned law. Summarize the law in ONE sentence on your Whiteboard! Groups will listen to each others, choose the best one and share it with the class.

4 White Board Moment #2! ;) After looking at the primary sources, what was the issue? How does this conflict with the ideals of our nation?

5 African American Civil Rights: Non-Violent Movement


7 1880s: Jim Crow Laws Response to Civil War Amendments
“separate but equal” is legal (segregation ok)

8 1880s: Jim Crow Laws SEGREGATION EXAMPLES swimming pools parks trains
drinking fountains movie theatres Even segregated checkers in Mississippi

9 WWI & WWII Segregated military (ended in ’48)

10 Photographs used in the
1950s: Conditions in the South Separate schools “Separate but Equal”? Vs. Photographs used in the Brown Vs. Board of Education case White School African American School

11 1950s: Conditions in the South
Unequal treatment

12 1950s: Conditions in the South
Voting Restrictions (Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests) Mississippi – 1890 $1.50 pay for each year you can vote 40 yrs. old =$28.50 Result = 98% of AA unable to vote

13 1950s: Conditions in the South
Violence: Lynchings, KKK

14 White Board Moment!! Summarize in 5 words or less why there was a need for a civil rights movement. If you were an African American in the South, which condition in the South, would you have fought against first? Why? Be able to defend your choice!

15 Actions & Obstacles

16 1954: Brown Vs. Board of Education
Ruled that separate schools are NOT equal Supreme Court ruled for Integration with “prompt and reasonable start” & “with all deliberate speed.”

17 1954: Brown Vs. Board of Education
Many Southern States refused (i.e Little Rock) "I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever." Governor of Alabama George Wallace, Inaugural address, Jan. 14, 1963

18 1956: Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa parks refused to give up her seat

19 1956: Montgomery Bus Boycott
NAACP and MLK Jr. organized (through churches) Meeting place for car pools Martin Luther King Jr.

20 1956: Montgomery Bus Boycott

21 1957: Little Rock tested gov’ts support of Brown
Eisenhower sent fed. troops in support

22 1960: Sit-Ins AA students refused to leave“whites only” Woolworth’s counter non-violent methods spread within 2 weeks : sleep-ins, play-ins, watch-ins, read-ins & swim-ins 6 mths. Later: Woolworths integrated! Original “sit-in” in Greensboro

23 Whiteboard Moment!!! Read the rules written by students for the sit-ins. Which rule would have been the most difficult to follow? Why? Civil Disobedience: choosing to not follow an unjust law or policy Ciivl disobedience + direct action + peace= AA civil rights mov’t

24 1961: Freedom Rides Led by CORE (Congress for Racial Equality)
Tested Supreme Court decision Morgan v. Virginia, 1946 Again, college students took leadership!

25 1961: Freedom Rides Violence resulted in fed. protection

26 1963: Birmingham children recruited to “fill the jails”

27 1963: Birmingham Nat’l attention got JFK to support Civil Rights bill
"The events in Birmingham... have so increased the cries for equality that no city or state or legislative body can prudently choose to ignore them." —President John F. Kennedy, June 1963

28 1963: March on Washington Demonstration to support Civil Rights Bill
MLK: “I have a Dream” “ I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” --Martin Luther King Jr. 250,000 come!

29 1964: Voting Rights Drive “Freedom Summer” organized by students
registered AA to Vote 3 murdered 3 shot 80 beaten 1,000 arrested

30 White Board Moment, REALLY AGAIN!!!
In one word, describe the civil rights movement. In one word, describe the reaction by some white southerners to the civil rights movement.

31 Accomplishments

32 1964: Civil Rights Act Outlawed discrimination in hiring
Ended segregation in public places LBJ signing the act – passed after 83 days of filibuster

33 1964: 24th Amendment Banned poll taxes
1966: all poll taxes banned, not just in federal elections

34 1965: Voting Rights Act Ended literacy tests
Fed. examiners register voters

35 White Board Moment, FINALE!!!
What do you think was the most important accomplishment of the Civil Rights Movement? Why? Be able to defend your choice!

36 REFLECTION After reading the primary sources, answer the following in your notebook: Summarize the method of civil disobedience. What was the purpose of using civil disobedience in protest? How effective do you think civil disobedience was in the Civil Rights Movement?

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