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An Overview of Nutrition Terminology  nutrition –the science of foods and the substances they contain  food –derived from plant or animal sources 

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Nutrition Terminology  nutrition –the science of foods and the substances they contain  food –derived from plant or animal sources "— Presentation transcript:

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2 An Overview of Nutrition

3 Terminology  nutrition –the science of foods and the substances they contain  food –derived from plant or animal sources  provide energy and nutrients used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair  diet –food that one consumes  quality of ones diet affect the risk of chronic diseases

4 Food Choices  personal preference – taste  habit – PB and honey  ethnic heritage or tradition –eat what you grew up with  social interactions –eating with friends and family

5 Food Choices  availability, convenience, economy –quick, easy, cheap??  positive and negative associations –happy vs. gross  emotional comfort –boredom, depression, anxiety  values –religious beliefs, environmental concerns, political views, moral issues

6 Food Choices  body weight and image  nutrition and health benefits –functional foods  provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions –whole foods, fortified foods

7 The Nutrients  energy: the capacity to do work  nutrient: chemical substance obtained from food and used in the body to –provide energy –support growth –body maintenance –body repair

8 The Nutrients  composition of foods –six classes of nutrients  water  carbohydrates  lipids  proteins  vitamins  minerals

9 Nutrients  nonnutrients –fibers –phytochemicals –pigments –additives –alcohols –others

10 The Nutrients  chemical composition of nutrients –inorganic nutrients  minerals  water –organic nutrients  carbohydrates  lipids  proteins  vitamins

11 The Nutrients

12  essential nutrients –nutrients that foods must supply

13 Energy Yielding Nutrients  nutrients that break down to yield energy for the body to use –3 organic nutrients  carbohydrates  fat  protein

14 Measuring Energy  measured in kCalories (kilocalorie) –in popular literature it is abbreviated as calories –thus a 50 calorie carrot is actually 50 kCalories

15 Energy from Food  amount of energy gained is dependent on the quantity of carbs, fats or protein the food contains –carbohydrate = 4kcal/g –fat = 9kcal/g –protein = 4 kcal/g  energy density is the measure of energy a food provides relative to he amount of food –fat has a higher energy density than either protein or carbohydrates

16 Energy Density

17 Energy in the Body  body uses energy yielding nutrients  energy from food supports every activity the body does  energy not used is stored –usually as body fat  not enough energy results in < energy stores and weight loss

18 Energy Yielding Nutrients  in addition to providing energy they provide –materials for building tissue –regulate many activities

19 Non Energy Nutrients  water, vitamins and minerals do not yield energy  vitamins –aid in the release of energy –13 essential vitamins –only can function if intact

20 Non Energy Nutrients  minerals –found in bone, teeth, and some body fluids –16 essential minerals –they are indestructible, but can be bound  interfere with body’s absorption –can be lost during food refining processes

21 Non Energy Nutrients  water –absolutely essential for life –most all body activities involve water

22 The Science of Nutrition  study of nutrients and how the body handles them  nutritional research –follows the scientific method

23 Nutritional Research  important considerations –controls –sample size  placebo effects –blind experiments –double-blind experiments

24 Dietary Reference Intakes  the “alphabet soup” of nutrition –DRI –EAR –RDA –AI –UL

25 DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes  standards defining the amount of energy, nutrient, and physical activity for health  recommendations apply to healthy people  EAR, RDDA, AI and UI are all different nutrient values that make up the DRI

26 EAR  estimated average requirements –used to establish RDA

27 RDA  recommended dietary allowances –nutrient recommendation for everyone  similar age and gender –set at upper end of range

28 AI  adequate intakes –insufficient evidence is available to determine an EAR to establish a RDA –based on observation or estimates

29 UL  tolerable upper intake levels –maximum daily intake of a nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effects Danger of toxicity Marginal Safety Danger of deficiency Marginal Tolerable Upper Intake Level RDA or AI Estimated Average Requirement

30 Energy Recommendations  EER –average, daily dietary energy (kcalories) for maintenance –is not generous –balance is important

31 AMDR  Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges –composition of diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients  45-65% from carbohydrates  20-35% from fat  10-35% from protein

32 Using Nutrient Recommendations  nutrient recommendations are often misunderstood and/or controversial  facts to help clarify

33 Nutrition Assessment  used to determine overnutrition or undernutrition  undernutrtion –deficiency of energy  thinness, losing muscle tissue, prone to infection –deficiency of nutrient  hair loss, depression, night blindness, skin rashes, bleeding gums

34 Nutrition Assessment  overnutrition –too much energy  weight gain –overdose of a nutrient  hot flashes, yellowing skin, rapid heart rate

35 Malnutrition  deficiency or excess of energy and/or nutrients over an extended period of time  symptoms are easy to miss –can be detected with proper assessment tools

36 Nutrition Assessment  historical data  anthropometric data –height, weight  physical exam  lab tests –blood, urine

37 National Nutrition Surveys  information gathered from surveys set public policy on –nutrition education –food assistance –food supply regulations –research priorities

38 National Health Goals  Healthy People 2010 –goals are reevaluated every 10 years and adjusted –nutrition is a part of the plan

39 Diet and Health  diet is important in maintaining a healthy body  risk factors –behavior or condition that has a strong association with a disease  obesity and heart disease

40 Risk Factors  tobacco  obesity  alcohol  firearms  sexual behavior  illicit drugs  physical activity  risk factors tend to cluster

41 Nutrition Information and Misinformation  not everything on the Internet is true!!  not everything on the news is accurately reported!!

42  finding credible information –government health agencies –volunteer health agencies –reputable consumer groups

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