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An Overview of Nutrition

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1 An Overview of Nutrition

2 Terminology nutrition
the science of foods and the substances they contain food derived from plant or animal sources provide energy and nutrients used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair diet food that one consumes quality of ones diet affect the risk of chronic diseases

3 Food Choices personal preference taste habit PB and honey
ethnic heritage or tradition eat what you grew up with social interactions eating with friends and family

4 Food Choices availability, convenience, economy quick, easy, cheap??
positive and negative associations happy vs. gross emotional comfort boredom, depression, anxiety values religious beliefs, environmental concerns, political views, moral issues

5 Food Choices body weight and image nutrition and health benefits
functional foods provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions whole foods, fortified foods

6 The Nutrients energy: the capacity to do work
nutrient: chemical substance obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy support growth body maintenance body repair

7 The Nutrients composition of foods six classes of nutrients water
carbohydrates lipids proteins vitamins minerals

8 Nutrients nonnutrients fibers phytochemicals pigments additives
alcohols others

9 The Nutrients chemical composition of nutrients inorganic nutrients
minerals water organic nutrients carbohydrates lipids proteins vitamins

10 The Nutrients

11 The Nutrients essential nutrients nutrients that foods must supply

12 Energy Yielding Nutrients
nutrients that break down to yield energy for the body to use 3 organic nutrients carbohydrates fat protein

13 Measuring Energy measured in kCalories (kilocalorie)
in popular literature it is abbreviated as calories thus a 50 calorie carrot is actually 50 kCalories

14 Energy from Food amount of energy gained is dependent on the quantity of carbs, fats or protein the food contains carbohydrate = 4kcal/g fat = 9kcal/g protein = 4 kcal/g energy density is the measure of energy a food provides relative to he amount of food fat has a higher energy density than either protein or carbohydrates

15 Energy Density

16 Energy in the Body body uses energy yielding nutrients
energy from food supports every activity the body does energy not used is stored usually as body fat not enough energy results in < energy stores and weight loss

17 Energy Yielding Nutrients
in addition to providing energy they provide materials for building tissue regulate many activities

18 Non Energy Nutrients water, vitamins and minerals do not yield energy
aid in the release of energy 13 essential vitamins only can function if intact

19 Non Energy Nutrients minerals
found in bone, teeth, and some body fluids 16 essential minerals they are indestructible, but can be bound interfere with body’s absorption can be lost during food refining processes

20 Non Energy Nutrients water absolutely essential for life
most all body activities involve water

21 The Science of Nutrition
study of nutrients and how the body handles them nutritional research follows the scientific method

22 Nutritional Research important considerations controls sample size
placebo effects blind experiments double-blind experiments

23 Dietary Reference Intakes
the “alphabet soup” of nutrition DRI EAR RDA AI UL

24 DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes
standards defining the amount of energy, nutrient, and physical activity for health recommendations apply to healthy people EAR, RDDA, AI and UI are all different nutrient values that make up the DRI

25 EAR estimated average requirements used to establish RDA

26 RDA recommended dietary allowances
nutrient recommendation for everyone similar age and gender set at upper end of range

27 AI adequate intakes insufficient evidence is available to determine an EAR to establish a RDA based on observation or estimates

28 UL tolerable upper intake levels
Danger of toxicity Marginal Tolerable Upper Intake Level Safety tolerable upper intake levels maximum daily intake of a nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effects RDA or AI Estimated Average Requirement Marginal Danger of deficiency

29 Energy Recommendations
EER average, daily dietary energy (kcalories) for maintenance is not generous balance is important

30 AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
composition of diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients 45-65% from carbohydrates 20-35% from fat 10-35% from protein

31 Using Nutrient Recommendations
nutrient recommendations are often misunderstood and/or controversial facts to help clarify

32 Nutrition Assessment used to determine overnutrition or undernutrition
undernutrtion deficiency of energy thinness, losing muscle tissue, prone to infection deficiency of nutrient hair loss, depression, night blindness, skin rashes, bleeding gums

33 Nutrition Assessment overnutrition too much energy weight gain
overdose of a nutrient hot flashes, yellowing skin, rapid heart rate

34 Malnutrition deficiency or excess of energy and/or nutrients over an extended period of time symptoms are easy to miss can be detected with proper assessment tools

35 Nutrition Assessment historical data anthropometric data
height, weight physical exam lab tests blood, urine

36 National Nutrition Surveys
information gathered from surveys set public policy on nutrition education food assistance food supply regulations research priorities

37 National Health Goals Healthy People 2010
goals are reevaluated every 10 years and adjusted nutrition is a part of the plan

38 Diet and Health diet is important in maintaining a healthy body
risk factors behavior or condition that has a strong association with a disease obesity and heart disease

39 Risk Factors tobacco obesity alcohol firearms sexual behavior
illicit drugs physical activity risk factors tend to cluster

40 Nutrition Information and Misinformation
not everything on the Internet is true!! not everything on the news is accurately reported!!

41 finding credible information
government health agencies volunteer health agencies reputable consumer groups


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