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Bellringer 1. What are the pumping chambers of the heart called? 2. Why does blood get pumped to lungs? 3. What is the major organ of the excretory system?

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Presentation on theme: "Bellringer 1. What are the pumping chambers of the heart called? 2. Why does blood get pumped to lungs? 3. What is the major organ of the excretory system?"— Presentation transcript:

1 bellringer 1. What are the pumping chambers of the heart called? 2. Why does blood get pumped to lungs? 3. What is the major organ of the excretory system? Why? 4. What system does the adrenal gland belong to?

2 Ch 46 Circulatory and Respiratory System 46.1 Circulatory SystemCirculatory System I.The Heart A. cardiovascular system – blood, heart and blood vessels B. lymphatic system – lymph, lymph nodes and lymph vessels

3 Circulatory

4 II. Heart – 4 chambersHeart A. septum – (wall) divides heart into left side (O 2 rich)and right side (O 2 poor) B. atrium 1. upper chamber 2. two 3. receive blood

5 C. ventricle 1. lower chamber 2. two 3. pump blood D. valves 1. flaps of tissue that open in only one direction 2. 4 valves –

6 E. Circulation in the heart – pg 934Circulation 1. deoxgenated blood into right atrium 2. to right ventricle 3. to pulmonary arteries 4. to lungs  to get oxygen 5. oxygen rich blood to left atrium 6. to left ventricle 7. to aorta 8. to all parts of body

7 circulation

8 F. Control of Heartbeat 1. muscle cells contract in waves 2. sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker)pacemaker a. in right atrium b. controls contraction of entire heart 3. atrioventricular (AV) node a. in septum between atria b. control contraction of ventricles – from SA

9 Nodes

10 4. pulse – series of pressure waves within an artery caused by contractions of left ventricle  average 70-90 beats per min


12 III. Blood Vessels arteries  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins A. closed system – blood always contained in a vessel or the heart B. Arteries and Blood Pressure 1. arteries – carry blood away from heart (aah) 2. blood pressure – force the blood exerts against the inside walls of blood vessel

13 a. 120/80 mm Hg – ex: b. top number = systolic – when ventricle contracts c. lower number = diastolic – when ventricle is relaxing 3. hypertension – high blood pressure (leading cause of death in most countries)

14 C. Capillaries and Veins 1. arterioles – small arteries 2. capillaries a. network of tiny vessels b. very thin walls – for diffusion 3. venules – small veins 4. veins – carry blood to heart

15 IV. Patterns of Circulation A. Pulmonary Circulation  blood flow to and from lungs B. Systematic circulation  blood flow to rest of body 1. coronary circulation – heartcoronary circulation 2. hepatic circ – liver 3. renal circ - kidneys

16 Bellringer 5/16 1. Where does deoxygenated blood come from when it goes to heart? What chamber of heart does it go to? 2. What vessel brings blood back to heart? 3. What part of blood carries oxygen? 4. What vessel is the oxygen diffused into the blood?

17 V. Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System A. lymph – excess fluid B. lymph nodes 1. traps foreign things 2. store lymphocytes – white blood cells (defense)

18 46.2 BloodBlood I.Composition of Blood A. Plasma – liquid part 1. mostly water 2. metabolites, nutrients, wastes, salts, proteins, etc 3. very important in transporting many things in body to cells

19 B. Red Blood Cells (RBC) (erythrocytes) 1. transport oxygentransport oxygen 2. formed in red bone marrow 3. contain hemoglobin a. binds to oxygen (and CO 2 ) b. gives red color 4. RBC lack nuclei

20 C. White Blood Cells - leukocytes 1. defend body against disease 2. types of white blood cells a. phagocyte – engulf invading microorganisms b. one produces antibodies – proteins that help destroy invaders

21 D. Platelets 1. help blood to clot 2. only part of cell and have no nucleus 3. hemophilia – disease when blood does not clot (missing a protein)

22 II. Blood Types A. determined by antigens (proteins in blood) – A and B B. blood types A, B, AB, O C. Rh factor – another protein (+/-) D. Universal donor? E. Universal receiver ?

23 Bellringer 5/17 1. What is the largest artery in human body? 2. What chamber of heart pumps blood to the lungs? 3. What vessels allows diffusion of gases and nutrients? 4. What component of blood carries oxygen?

24 46. 3 Respiratory SystemRespiratory I.Respiration A. external resp – exchange of gases between atmosphere and blood B. internal resp – exchange of gases between blood and cells II. Lungs (p 947)Lungs A. external resp B. why would left lung be smaller than right side?left lung

25 C. Path of AirPath of Air 1. mouth or nose 2. nasal cavity - lined with cilia to filter 3. pharynx – back of mouth - epiglottis – cartilage flap covering trachea when you swallow food 4. trachea* (windpipe) - larynx – voicebox

26 5. Bronchi – branch to each lung 6. Bronchioles – smaller tubes 7. Alveoli a. tiny air sacs b. gas is exchanged here

27 III. Gas Exchange and Transport A. between alveoli in lungs and blood in capillaries B. Read p 948-9 - diffusion C. Transport of O 2 - in RBC in hemoglobin (on iron)

28 IV. Mechanism of Breathing (p 949) A. Inspiration – taking air into lungs 1. diaphragm contracts (moves down) 2. lungs expand in size (more space) B. Expiration – releasing air from lungs 1. diaphragm relaxes (moves up)diaphragm 2. lungs decrease in size C. rate of breathing controlled by brain

29 Breathing

30 Videos Circulatory system - overview Beating heart = 15 sec Circulation Pacemaker Circulatory sys – ties with resp Heart anatomy – details about valves Lymphatic system 2Fvideosearch%3Fq%3Dlymphatic%2520system%26rls%3Dcom%2Emicrosoft%3Aen%2Dus%2 6oe%3DUTF%2D8%26startIndex%3D%26st&feature=player_embedded Blood components (15 min +) good detail Blood – shorter overview

31 Lung surgery Oxygen transport – nice combo of circu and resp and importance of hemoglobin Respiratory sys Diaphragm Bill Nye – part 1 heart and circ – basic overview Bill Nye – part 2 heart and blood Bill Nye – part 3 – more silly Bill Nye – part 1 of Resp sys Respiration – good overview – gas exchange Respiration – shows air flow from nares – to alveoli - good Diaphragm Lungs breathing – live

32 Lungs expanding – person in lab blowing into lungs Mechanics of breathing Trachea and epiglottis (4 min) Overview of respiration

33 Bellringer 5/21 A person with type B blood can received type ______ blood. a. AB b. AB or B c. O or B d. A 2. The pulmonary circulation loop carries blood to the a. kidneys b. intestines c. heart d. lungs 3. The structure that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea a. pharynx b. larynx c. alveolus d. epiglottis 4. Oxygenated blood is returned to the ________ side of heart to be pumped to the ______. a. left, body b. left, lungs c. right, body d. right, lungs

34 5. Carries oxygen in blood. A.White blood cells b. platelets c. hemoglobin d. capillaries 6. Air passage way that has cartilage rings in it for support: a. Trachea b. alveoli c. mouth d. arterioles 7. A man goes out for a run, Identify the main reason the runners heart rate increased. a. The runner’s cells need to increased cell devision b. The athlete’s blood pressure needs to increase c. His cells need more O2 and get rid of more CO2 d. The runner needs more blood

35 8. In the lungs, is carbon dioxide more concentrated in the alveoli or in the blood. Explain.

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