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Brain Anatomy Dura Mater Superficial Fuses brain to skull Arachnoid Reduces friction Filled with CSF; shock absorber Pia Mater Very Vascular; needs a.

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Anatomy Dura Mater Superficial Fuses brain to skull Arachnoid Reduces friction Filled with CSF; shock absorber Pia Mater Very Vascular; needs a."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Brain Anatomy

3 Dura Mater Superficial Fuses brain to skull Arachnoid Reduces friction Filled with CSF; shock absorber Pia Mater Very Vascular; needs a lot of oxygen due to high metabolic rate of neurons

4 1.Cerebrum 2.Diencephalon 3.Midbrain 4.Pons 5.Medulla Oblongata 6.Cerebellum

5 Gyri: elevated ridges Sulci: furrows Precentral gyrus – Motor Strip Postcentral gyrus – Sensory Strip Central Sulcus – separates frontal from parietal lobe

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7 Bridge between Right and Left Hemispheres Enables Right and Left sides to communicate with each other Problems “Split Brain” Syndrome

8 Functions: Cognition and Memory Prefrontal Area: involved with intellect, complex learning abilities and personality; plays a role in mood; feelings of frustration and anxiety are formed here “Gatekeeper” Judgment, critical thinking and reasoning skills Problems Relationships between events, memory loss, behavior disorders, Inappropriate social and/or sexual behavior Prefrontal lobotomy – 1950s

9 Function: Motor Strip: Control voluntary motor function Premotor Cortex: skill area; controls learned motor skills Broca’s area Left hemisphere Directs the muscles of tongue, throat and lips when speaking Becomes active as we plan to speak Syntax and grammar rules are remembered

10 Yes the bick. I would say tha the vick daysis nosis or chipickers. Represents problems with Broca’s area!! Only found in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe Problems will affect our ability to pronounce words, form sentences, speaking becomes a problem Try This!!

11 Located in parietal, temporal and occipital lobes

12 Primary Somatosensory Cortex Spatial Discrimination – ability to identify the body region being stimulated Area is identified by receiving information from skin sensory receptors and proprioceptors in skeletal muscles. Try This!! Problems Inability to locate and recognize body parts; disorientation Can’t discriminate between different sensory stimuli

13 Located posterior to Primary Somatosensory Cortex Major function to analyze different sensory stimuli (temp, pressure Evaluate what the body is feeling Try this!! Different senses are distributed through all lobes

14 Auditory Areas – sound waves are interpreted Gustatory cortex – perception of taste Olfactory Cortex – interprets chemical odors Language Wernicke’s area – called the speech area Language comprehension Understanding jokes Reading unfamiliar sounds Problems Hearing problems Aphasia – inability to speak

15 Visual Areas Receives stimuli from eyes Interprets information from past experiences Problems Loss of vision or “seeing stars” Can’t recognize the object you see

16 Posterior Association Area Large region including parietal, temporal and occipital lobes Plays a role in recognizing faces, patterns, and identifying surroundings Also includes Wernicke’s area

17 Connects to cerebrum Includes: Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic system Pineal gland (epithalamus) Pituitary gland

18 Contains relay and processing centers Relay Station; involved in memory process Sorts out information, edits Gateway to cerebrum Greek for “Inner room”

19 Controls Body Homeostasis Autonomic Nervous System Influences BP HR (force and rate) Digestive tract motility Emotions Pleasure, fear, rage Sex Drive Body temperature regulation Food intake; hunger Thirst (water balance) No blood-brain barrier Circadian rhythms Control of Endocrine (secrete ADH, oxytocin)

20 Hypothalamus and Pineal Gland Problems with hypothalamus Problems –Hormonal Imbalances –Hypothermia –Diabetes –Obesity –Sleep Disturbances –Dehydration Pineal Gland Part of epithalamus Secretes hormone melatonin –Helps regulate Sleep-Wake Cycle

21 Hypothalamus is heart of Limbic System: Emotional Brain Contains Amygdala Recognizes angry or fearful facial expressions Contains Hippocampus Involved with learning, long- term memory and storage Problems H.M. Case Study STM to LTM Had difficulty remembering anything after his surgery Was able to learn new motor skills, despite not being able to remember learning them “Ring”

22 Pituitary Gland -> Link between NS and Endocrine system Produces GH and TSH Posterior part of gland is a hormone storage area

23 Primitive Brain Pathway between lower brain and spinal cord and lower brain and higher brain functions

24 Contains 2 pairs of sensory nuclei (Colliculi); Auditory and Visual Reflex Centers I.e. rxns to flashlight or loud noises Motor nuclei for 2 cranial nerves (III, IV) involved in eye movements III Oculomotor – eye movement IV Trochlear – rotates eye up and down Cerebral Peduncles – descending bundles of motor nerve fibers – connect to cerebellum RAS center begins here; Filters out repetitive sensory stimuli. (99% of all stimuli is ignored)

25 Corpus Quadrigemini Superior Colliculi Visual Reflex Centers Follow movement with eye Associated with Cranial nerve III Inferior Colliculi Auditory Reflex Startle Reflex Midbrain

26 Bridge: Connects cerebellum to brain stem; cerebrum and S. cord Relay Center Cranial Nerves (V-VIII) are attached here Respiratory Center – Involuntary Control of pace and depth of breathing Problems Hyperventilation Bridge

27 Connects Brain to S. cord; relays info to Thalamus Contains major centers for Autonomic Regulation such as HR, Bp, respiration and digestive activities Cardiac Center – adjusts force and rate of heart beat Vasomotor Center – regulates BP Respiratory Center – controls rate and depth of breathing with N. Fdbk loop in pons. Controls other pleasant body Activities: vomit, hiccupps, cough, sneeze, swallow, and gag Again no blood-brain barrier!

28 Coordination; fine tunes voluntary and involuntary movement (Sports) Receives stimuli from proprioceptors – evaluate body position Maintains balance and posture Imbalances Ataxia; Lack of coordination Tremors Alcohol – affects motor skills; reaction time Easily passes through blood-brain barrier


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