N N N N O CH 2 OHH PO O HO O NH H H O Deoxyribose Guanine Phosphate 1 of 4 possible Nucleotides (one of 4 possible nitrogen bases)
Steps of Replication of DNA B.enzymes break hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases A.molecule untwists C.other enzymes bond new nucleotides to the split strand of the DNA (enzyme: DNA polymerase) D.Result is 2 separate identical molecules of DNA E.new molecules of DNA retwist
A G T T A C G A C A T G C G G A T T A A C C G C G A C T A A A T C T C A A TG C T G T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T T T A G
T C A A TG C T G T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T T T A G T C A A TG C T G T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T T T A G A G T T A C G A C A T G C G G A T T A A C C G C G A C T A A A T C
Making Proteins from DNA Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Proteins are long molecules made up of amino acids molecules. Remember: a polymer is a long chain molecule made up of many smaller molecules “Protein Synthesis”
The whole point of DNA is to be a template for making proteins.
1 st Base in the Codon 2 nd Base in the Codon3 rd Base in the codon UCAG UPhenylalanineSerineTyrosineCysteineU PhenylalanineSerineTyrosineCysteineC LeucineSerineStop A LeucineSerineStopTryptophanG CLeucineProlineHistadineArginineU LeucineProlineHistadineArginineC LeucineProlineGlutamineArginineA LeucineProlineGlutamineArginineG AIsoleucineThreonineAsparagineSerineU IsoleucineThreonineAsparagineSerineC IsoleucineThreonineLysineArginineA Methionine (start)ThreonineLysineArginineG GValineAlanineAspartateGlycineU ValineAlanineAspartateGlycineC ValineAlanineGlutamateGlycineA ValineAlanineGlutamateGlycineG
Transcription of DNA to RNA (Think of transcription like re-writing a language into another form. It is the same language.)
Ribonucleic Acid Single stranded Has uracil in place of thymine Three types of RNA
Messenger RNA mRNA Transfer RNA tRNA Ribosomal RNA rRNA
1.Enzyme unzips DNA molecule at the start codon and stopping at the first stop codon. Steps of Transcription A G T T A C G A C A T G C G G A T T A A C C G C G A C T A A A T T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T TT C A A TG C T G T A
DNA polymerase cuts bonds between nitrogen bases
A G T T A C G A C A T G C G G A T T A A C C G C G A C T A A A T T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T T T C A A TG C T G T A 2.Free RNA nucleotides in Nucleoplasm form complementary base pairs on DNA strand forming an mRNA (messenger RNA) strand A U G C G G AU U A U C C G C G U C U A A
A G T T A C G A C A T G C G G A T T A A C C G C G A C T A A A T T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T TT C A A TG C T G T A A U G C G G AU U A U C C G C G U C U A A 3.mRNA strand breaks away from DNA by enzyme action
T A A G T T A C G A C A T G C G G A T T A A C C G C G A C T A A A T T A C G C C T A A T T G G C G C T G A T T T C A A TG C T G 4.DNA re-zips as mRNA breaks off.
B.RNA Processing 1.Not all nucleotides in DNA code for making proteins. 2.Some regions of a DNA molecule do not code for anything. 3.These regions are called introns (intervening regions). 4.Regions that do contain information for coding for proteins are called exons.
5.When mRNA in transcribed from DNA, both introns and exons are copied. a.The introns must be removed from the mRNA before it can function as a protein b.Enzymes in nucleoplasm cut out the introns and paste mRNA back together. 6.mRNA then leaves the nucleus
From RNA to protein translation: changing mRNA code into a protein: a sequence of amino acids
Think of translation as re-writing a message into another language. The message is the same, but the language is different.
1.Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) a.about 75 nucleotides long b.twisted so that only three nucleotides are available for bonding c.one tRNA for one amino acid
Transfer Ribonucleic Acid tRNA Amino Acid Anticodon
PhenylalanineSerineTyrosineCysteine LeucineProlineHistadineTryptophan IsoleucineThreonineGlutamineArginine MethionineAlanineAsparagineGlycine ValineLysine Aspartate Glutamate 20 Amino Acids Scientists have found a few more amino acids, like pyrrolysine and selenocysteine, that help to build proteins.
1 st Base in the Codon 2 nd Base in the Codon3 rd Base in the codon UCAG UPheSerTryCysU PheSerTryCysC LeuSerStop A LeuSerStopTrpG CLeuProHisArgU LeuProHisArgC LeuProGlnArgA LeuProGlnArgG AIleThrAsnSerU IleThrAsnSerC IleThrLysArgA Met (start)ThrLysArgG GValAlaAspGlyU ValAlaAspGlyC ValAlaGluGlyA ValAlaGluGlyG
2.start codon on mRNA strand attaches to ribosome
3.tRNA molecules, each carrying an amino acid, approach ribosome 4.tRNA molecules with complementary anticodon pairs with mRNA codon. 5.tRNA remains until next tRNA arrives
Control of Gene Expression Gene A segment of a chromosome that controls (codes for) the production of a certain protein.
Protein: Gene Expression: large, complex polymer of amino acids which provides structure for tissues and helps carry out cell metabolism. the production of the protein that the gene is coded for, which then allows for the operation of that protein.
Genetic ChangesMutation: any mistake in DNA or RNA sequence of nucleotides
Mutation: Results of Mutation: Failure to produce protein Production of wrong protein Over production of protein whether right or wrong
Chromosomal mutations 1.parts broken off or lost during mitosis or meiosis 2.re-joining wrong 3.join backward 4.effects: incorrect distribution of genes to gametes during meiosis a.deletions b.insertions c.inversions
Causes of Mutations mutagen: any agent that can cause a change in the DNA A.radiation 1.X-rays 2.gamma rays 3.ultraviolet rays B.chemicals 1.dioxin 2.asbestos 3.benzene 4.formaldehyde 5.alcohol C.high temperatures