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Diversity of Prokaryotes Kathy Huschle Northland Community and Technical College.

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1 Diversity of Prokaryotes Kathy Huschle Northland Community and Technical College

2 Metabolic Diversity the use of different compounds to obtain energy required for the organism, allow for occupation in diverse habitats, creating diversity among microorganisms ocean hot springs mud

3 Review of Terms chemotroph –transfer energy from one compound to another through the process of oxidation-reduction reactions phototroph –uses light as its energy source chemoorganotrophs –obtain energy from organic sources chemolithotrophs –obtain energy from inorganic sources aerobic –respiration in the presence of oxygen anaerobic –respiration in the absence of oxygen

4 Metabolic Diversity anaerobic chemotrophs –habitat includes any that is lacking in oxygen mud or tightly packed soil some aquatic environments where high levels of nutrients exist (generally polluted lakes) –increase in nutrients allows for rapid multiplication of oxygen consuming microbes, thus precluding oxygen available for other organisms, such as fish

5 Metabolic Diversity the human (and other animals) gut is about 99% anaerobic microorganisms –this environment is created by the presence of aerobic organisms which quickly deplete the available oxygen

6 Metabolic Diversity anaerobic chemolithotrophs –most are members of the Archaea domain –methanogens generate energy by oxidizing hydrogen byproduct of this process generates methane gas Methanococcus jannischii

7 Metabolic Diversity anaerobic chemoorganotrophs –oxidize organic compounds like glucose to obtain energy –sulfur/sulfate-reducing bacteria use sulfur as energy source by product is smelly hydrogen sulfide gas generally live in rich organic mud Desulfovibrio variabrilis

8 Metabolic Diversity anaerobic chemoorganotrophs –obtain energy using fermentation –byproducts of gases and acids are very easily distinguished and can be used for identification –2 significant bacteria clostridiums lactic acid bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila

9 Metabolic Diversity Clostridium –gram positive rods capable of forming endospores –commonly found in the soil Clostridiums of concern –C. tetani –C. botulinum –C. perfringens C. perfringens C. tetani C. botulinum

10 Clostridium tetani causative agent for tetanus (lockjaw) –spores can be acquired from any type of skin trauma with an infected device –spores than germinate in an anaerobic environment forming active C. tetani cells

11 Clostridium tetani at the tissue level –an exotoxin is released from the C. tetani cells causing nervous system irregularities resulting in uncontrollable muscle contractions immunization is available to prevent tetanus

12 Clostridium botulinum causative agent for botulism –most potent toxin in existence 1 gm of C. botulinum can kill 225 million people –disease results from ingesting toxin contaminated food does not result in any noticeable changes in food taste or appearance organisms generally arise from processing food, most commonly home processiong cell spore

13 Clostridium botulinum damaged cans should be destroyed –the organism may enter through holes in the cans bulging cans should be destroyed since they may indicate the production of gas

14 Clostridium botulinum No more discounted canned goods at the grocery store! Even a can with a small dent has the possibility of being contaminated with C. botulinum.

15 Clostridium perfringens as C. perfringens grow they ferment carbohydrates producing a gas byproduct infections of C. perfringens can also lead to systemic infections causing severe diarrhea C. perfringens can also cause food poisoning C. perfringens on sheep blood agar

16 Clostridium perfringens causative agent for gas gangrene exotoxin causes necrosis of the tissue –damaged tissue enhances the further growth of more microorganisms –C. perfringens cannot grow in healthy tissue

17 Metabolic Diversity Lactic Acid bacteria –Gram + –produce lactic acid as the end product of fermentation –significant genus include StreptococcusLactobacillus Streptococcus Lactobacillus

18 Streptococcus cocci, that generally are found in chains produce exotoxins that destroy –phagocytic cells –host connective tissue –fibrin: a substance that is essential for the formation of blood clots S. pneumoniae in sputumS. pyrogenes S. mutans

19 Streptococcus S. pyogenes –causative agent for strep throat, impetigo and scarlet fever

20 Streptococcus S. pneumoniae –causativie agent for pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media S. pneumoniae in lung tissue S. pneumoniae on blood agar

21 Streptococcus S. mutans –causative agent for dental caries (tooth decay) –bacteria lives only on the teeth, cannot colonize the mouth without teeth Tooth decay S. mutans Colonies of S. mutans on MSB agar

22 Lactobacillus Gram +, rod shaped, single or loosely associated chains ferment glucose into lactose a common application is in the dairy industry where there are involved in the production of fermented milk products such as cheese and yogurt Lactobacillus on Rogosa agar

23 Lactobacillus Lactobacillus are also found in the normal flora of the vagina –they create an acid environment as a result of fermentation –that acidic environment inhibits the growth of many bacterial species and assists the vagina in preventing infection Lactobacillus infection

24 Metabolic Diversity anoxygenic phototrophs –believed to be among the first organisms inhabiting our planet –photosynthetic process produces carbohydrates but does not generate O 2 The purple sulfur bacterium is Chromatium, the green sulfur bacterium is Chlorobium.

25 Metabolic Diversity anoxygenic phototrophs –found in aquatic habitats: bogs, upper layers of mud purple bacteria green bacteria Purple non-sulfur bacteria Purple sulfur bacteria Green sulfur bacteria

26 Anoxygenic Phototrophs: purple bacteria purple sulfur bacteria –Gram – bacteria –appear red, orange or purple in color due to pigments for light harvesting –photosynthetic microorganisms, generally found in sulfur rich habitats Purple sulfur bacteria in a microbial mat in Yellowstone Filter on agar

27 Anoxygenic Phototrophs: purple bacteria purple sulfur bacteria –generally use hydrogen sulfate as energy source –capable of moving up and down in a water column to their preferred water level Purple sulfur bacteria surrounding diatoms

28 Anoxygenic Phototrophs: purple bacteria purple non-sulfur bacteria –use organic material to acquire energy –extremely versatile organisms, capable of adapting metabolism similar to purple sulfur bacteria can grow aerobically in the absence of light Colonies on agarFamily Rhodospirillaceae

29 Anoxygenic Phototrophs: green bacteria green bacteria are Gram – –usually green or brown in color –pigments are found in chlorosomes green sulfur bacteria green non-sulfur bacteria Green non-sulfur bacteria Chloroflexus

30 Metabolic Diversity oxgenic phototrophs –cyanobacteria- earliest known oxygen producer –believed that the chloroplasts found in plants and algae originated from cyanobacteria 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 chemical formula for photosynthesis cyanobacteria

31 Oxgenic Phototrophs cyanobacteria –occupies the role of a primary producer in an ecosystem –diverse genus that can be found in many different environments freshwater marine habitat soil rock surface Cyanobacteria in hot spring at Yellowstone National Park

32 Metabolic Diversity aerobic chemolithotrophs –obtain energy by oxidizing substances like sulfur, ammonia, nitrate and hydrogen gas Thiobacillus

33 Metabolic Diversity aerobic chemoorganotrophs –obtain energy by oxidizing organic compounds –this group contains many medically significant species of bacteria obligate aerobes include genus –Micrococcus –Mycobacterium –Pseudomonas Micrococcus Mycobacterium Pseudomonas

34 Aerobic Chemoorganotrophs faculative anaerobes include genus –Corynebacterium –Enterobacteriaceae Corynebacterium Enterobacteriaceae

35 Micrococcus Gram + cocci habitat includes soil, dust, inanimate objects, and skin are airborne bacteria and can easily contaminate lab media Micrococcus lusteus colony

36 Mycobacterium Gram +, though they stain poorly with a Gram stain –require an acid fast staining procedure due to a waxy lipid in the cell wall of Mycobacterium are found throughout nature are the causative agent for tuberculosis and leprosy Tuberculosis tuber Mycobacterium

37 Mycobacterium M. tuberculosis –causative agent of tuberculosis M. tuberculosis Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the world from a single infectious disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects 1.7 billion people/year which is equal to 33% of the entire world population. the bacterium is responsible for over 3 million deaths/year. Colonies on agar

38 Mycobacterium M. leprae –causative agent for leprosy In the US, M. leprae is the cause of about 6,000 new cases each year. Most cases are seen in the southern states. In total, there are about 5 to 10 million cases worldwide, but mostly in tropical and sub- tropical areas such as Central Africa and Southeastern Asia

39 Pseudomonas Gram – rods widespread, generally found in soil and water most are harmless medically significant species is –Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa

40 opportunistic pathogen –generally infects those who are in a weakened state such as illness, surgical patients, old people –fairly resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobial medications abscess caused by P. aeruginosa infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa

41 Facultative Anaerobes Corynebacterium –Gram + rods –commonly found in soil and plant surfaces –C. diptheriae is the causative agent for diptheria C. diptheriae C. diptheriae on chocolate agar C. diptheriae

42 successfully controlled by immunization diphtheria cases in the US Pharnygeal infection, causative agent: C. diptheriae

43 Enterobacteriaceae Gram - rods often called enterics or enterobacteria –“gut” organisms significant genus include –Enterobacter –Klebsiella –Escheria –Shigella –Salmonella –Yersinia Yersinia Klebsiella Shigella Escheria Salmonella Enterobacter

44 Enterobacter widely distributed in humans, animals, water, sewage and soil can cause urinary tract infections and hospital- acquired infections Enterobacter cloacae growing on XLD Agar

45 Klebsiella commonly found in soil or water can cause a serious form of pneumonia in humans Pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae infection Characteristic bulging lung tissue Klebsiella pneumoniae growing on XLD Agar

46 Escheria one of the most common inhabitants of the human intestinal tract –food digestion: produces vitamin K from undigested material its presence in water or food is an indication of fecal contamination generally is harmless but: –can cause urinary tract infections –strain E. coli 0157:H7 can cause serious food poisoning E. coli

47 Escheria Hemorrhagic infection caused by Escheria Click icon to view E. coli infection Click on each of the three parts

48 Shigella found only in humans can cause life-threatening dysentary 2 nd only to Escheria in causing “travelers diarrhea” Shigella

49 Salmonella almost all members of this genus are pathogenic bacterial food poisoning –transmission through uncooked meat and eggs widespread presence in poultry products up to 65% of poultry products contain the pathogen

50 Salmonella Click on icon to view animation. Click on the parts to continue.

51 Yersinia causative agent of plaque –The Black Plaque of Europe killed more than 25% of the world population in the 13 th century –rats and squirrels carry the pathogen and it is transmitted by fleas and respiratory droplets from infected animals Characteristic enlarged lymph nodes Y. enterocolitica on nutrient agar

52 Ecophysiology Not only do prokaryotes show diversity in obtaining their metabolic needs, a tremendous amount of diversity is displayed in the range of habitats prokaryotes are found in: terrestrialaquatic animals: skin and mucous membranes intracellular parasites extreme environments

53 Ecophysiology terrestrial environments –exist in a resting stage enables the bacteria to survive environmental extremes –Bacillus –Clostridium – previously discussed –Streptomyces BacillusClostridium Streptomyces

54 Bacillus Gram + rods, that produce endospores widespread in nature, particularly in the soil some are found in the natural flora in the human intestine most are harmless saprophytes (obtains nutrients from dead organic matter) 2 species that are medically significant –B. anthracis –B. cereus B. anthracis B. cereus

55 B. anthracis causative agent of anthrax –transmitted to humans direct contact inhalation of endospores eating undercooked meat from diseased animal –this organism is often mentioned as a possible agent of biological warfare Epidermal infection FA stain of the capsule of Bacillus anthracis.(CDC)

56 B. cereus toxin-mediated food poisoning found in many kinds of food –particularly prevalent in high starch content food toxins cause vomiting and diarrhea B. cereus B. cereus on blood agar

57 Streptomyces over 500 species of Gram + bacteria most commonly isolated from soil Streptomyces produces most of our commercial antibiotics Scabs caused by Streptomyces infection colonies

58 Myxobacteria Gram – rods important role as degraders of organic substances have a very defining “fruiting body” structure

59 Terrestrial Ecophysiology bacteria associated with plants –Agrobacterium –Rhizobium Rhizobium Agrobacterium

60 Agrobacterium Gram – rod cause plant tumors –enter the plant through a wound Agrobacterium uses a plasmid to transfer genetic information to the plants DNA –lots of scientific interest for the purposes of enhancing the study of genetic engineering A. tumefaciens on overlay agar plant tumor caused by Agrobcterium infection

61 Rhizobium Gram – rod agriculturally important bacteria specifically infect the roots of legumes (peas, beans) –the presence of the bacteria forms nodules on the roots –results in “fixing” nitrogen making the nitrogen in the air available for the use by plants Affects of Rhizobium infection blocking amino acid production

62 Aquatic Environments because of the lack of a steady supply of nutrients, aquatic prokaryotes have developed mechanisms to ensure their survival –sheathed –prosthecate –predators –symbiotic relationships –unusual movement –storage granules

63 Aquatic Environment sheathed –chains of bacteria enclosed in a tube or sheath provides protection allows for attachment to a solid object which places the organism in a favorable location

64 Aquatic Environment prosthecate –a projection which is an extension of the cytoplasm and cell wall provide increased surface area for absorption of nutrients also used for attachment prosthecate

65 Aquatic Environment predators –prokaryotes that obtain their nutrients from other organisms some prey and eat other organisms

66 Aquatic Environment some live on the organism, in a symbiotic relationship –one in which both sides benefit luminescent bacteria Bacteria get to live and feed off the fish, the fish gets the “light” which it uses to confuse its predators and prey.

67 Spirochetes unusual movement –spirochetes ability to move through thick liquids such as mud Borrelia hermsii

68 Aquatic Environment magnetotactic bacteria –contain a string of magnetic crystals which aligns them with the Earth’s magnetic field –this magnetism allows the bacteria to move up and down in the water or sediments

69 Animals as Habitat humans and animals provide a nutrient rich, warm, moist, O 2 rich environment, and in some cases anaerobic regions –organisms inhabit skin mucous membrane intracellular regions

70 Skin Bacteria most common is the genus Staphylococcus habitat is dry and salty: most microorganisms find this environment too harsh for survival common species found on the skin include –S. epidermidis –S. aureus S. epidermidisS. aureus

71 S. Epidermidis opportunistic –will take advantage of weakness in the immune system –individuals susceptible to infections include IV druggies newbornselderly people with artificial appliances S. epidermidis biofilm on a catheter

72 S. aureus causative agent for –soft tissue infections –toxic shock syndrome –pneumonia –meningitis –boils –food poisoning Skin infections Pneumatocele caused by S. aureus infection lung tissue infection

73 S. aureus –secretes leukocidin which is a toxin that destroys white blood cells leads to puss and acne S. aureus on Mannitol Salt agar

74 Mucous Membranes mucous membranes are found in the respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, digestive tract –in addition to others discussed, the following are significant HelicobacterHaemophilusNeisseriaMycoplasma Treponema and Borrelia HelicobacterTreponema Borrelia Neisseria Mycoplasma Haemophilus

75 Helicobacter causative agent for peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis is able to maintain it’s habitat in the acidic stomach by producing urease –urease is an enzyme that breaks down acid, creating an acid free environment immediately surrounding the organism H. pylori infection Colonies on agarUrease test

76 H. pylori Click on the icon to view a movie on Helicobacter pylori

77 Neisseria 2 medically significant organisms –N. gonrrhoeae –N. meningitidis N. gonrrhoeae cells N. meningitidis

78 N. gonorrhoeae causative agent for the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea transmitted through intimate contact of mucous membrane can be carried without sign or symptom female symptoms –vaginal discharge –abdominal pain –abnormal non-menstrual bleeding

79 N. gonorrhoeae male symptoms –urethral discharge of puss gonorrhea is a treatable disease –sensitive to ultravioletradiationdryingantibiotics

80 N. meningitidis 2nd leading cause of meningitis –causes inflammation of membranes covering central nervous system –headache, fever, vomiting –death can quickly follow –can have carrier status N. meningitidis

81 Mycoplasma cell wall is absent in these organisms because of the lack of a cell wall, they can pass through most anything one of the smallest forms of life in existence is a causative agent of a form of pneumonia Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in swine joint Mycoplasma colonies

82 Borrelia and Treponema spirochettes that usually inhabit body fluid and mucous membranes Treponema –causative agent of syphilis –difficult to study because it cannot be grown in a culture syphilis symptoms

83 Borrelia and Treponema Borrelia –transmitted by insects –Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lymes disease Characteristic bullseye rash deer tick tick mouth parts

84 Haemophilus blood loving microorganisms common flora in the respiratory tract causative agent for ear infections, respiratory infections, infrluenza, and menigitis Haemophilus influenzae

85 Intracellular Parasites cannot reproduce outside of the host cell important genus include –Rickettsia: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever –Coxiella: Q fever –Chlamydia: pneumonia, eye infections and a STD that mimics gonorrhea Rickettsia Coxiella Chlamydia

86 Rickettsia Rickettsia infected cells Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

87 Chlamydia

88 Bordetella B. pertussis –causative agent for whooping cough –highly contagious respiratory tract infection that is transmitted via inhalation –binds to and destroys ciliated epithelial cells of trachea and bronchi –mostly affects children < 1 year –vaccine available B. bronchhiseptica on blood agar

89 Legionella discovered and named in 1976 Legionnaire’s disease (pneumonia) –fever, chills, dry cough –severe pneumonia that is not responsive to penicillin

90 Vibrio non-invasive pathogens –you have to eat or drink the pathogen –causes serious diarrhea –thousands die annually waterborne pathogen –water that is infected with fecal contamination

91 V. cholerae epidemic proportions can be reached in the cases of flooding or heavy rains –drinking water becomes contaminated with sewage severe diarrhea: water consistency 60% of cholera deaths due to dehydration organisms are digested –release endotoxin in intestinal tract –cause epithelial cells to excrete salt –cells lose water passively flows out of cells fluid and electrolyte replacement is key V. cholerae on TCBS agar

92 Intestinal lumen NaCl H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O Bloodstream Plasma ion levels drop H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O NaCl Plasma H 2 O levels drop (dehydration) Vibrio invade the intestinal cells Vibrio release enterotoxins Enterotoxins cause intestinal cells to give up NaCl to the intestinal lumen H 2 O follows NaCl by diffusion Vibrio infection process

93 Microorganisms in Extreme Environments extreme halophiles –found in salt lakes and brine for curing fish Halobacterium Halobacterium salinariumis

94 Microorganisms in Extreme Environments extreme thermophiles –found in extremely hot environments volcanic vents hot springs –Thermococcus: can survive temperatures of 90 o C Thermococcus

95 Microorganisms in Extreme Environments extreme thermophiles –Methanothermus: can survive temperatures of 97 o C

96 Microorganisms in Extreme Environments hyperthermophiles –Pyrolobus fumarii: have been found at temperatures between 90 0 C – C

97 Microorganisms in Extreme Environments extreme acidophiles –Thermoplasma: optimal pH is 2 –Picrophilus: can survive a pH less than 1 Thermoplasma Picrophilus torridus

98 Eukaryotic Microorganisms algaeprotozoafungihelminths

99 Algae unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular –can be microscopic or macroscopic –cell walls are made of cellulose, a commercially important produce agar and carrageenan (food and pharmaceutical stabilizer)

100 Algae most live in an aquatic environment most algae are photoautotrophs –use sunlight at its energy source generally reproduce asexually primary producers in the aquatic food chain Red algae

101 Algae the only disease associated with algae is paralytic shellfish poisoning –the disease is caused not by the algae, but by toxins produced by the algae that are ingested by fish and shellfish –when these fish are ingested, so is the toxin –the toxin is not destroyed by cooking Coralline algae

102 Protozoa unicellular, eukaryotic chemoheterotrophs (energy and carbon are obtained by ingesting) found in soil, water and the normal microbiota in animals

103 Protozoa important decomposers in many ecosystems key role in the food chain Ciliated protist Flagella protist Apicomplexan protists

104 Protozoa their life cycle is often complex and can include more than one habitat – one in which may be the human cell diseases caused by protozoa include –malaria: Plasmodium –African Sleeping Sickness: Trypanosoma –toxoplasmosis: Toxoplasma gondii –vaginitis: Trichomonas vaginalis Toxoplasma gondii Plasmodium Trypanosoma Tricohomonas

105 Plasmodium: causative agent of Malaria

106 Trypanosoma: causative agent of African Sleeping Sickness

107 Toxoplasma: causative agent of toxoplasmosis

108 Trichomonas: causative agent of vaginitis

109 Fungi mycology: the study of fungi fungal infections are on the rise most fungi are decomposers, though a few are parasites of plants and animals Aspergillus GliocladiumPenicillum

110 Fungi structure –consists of filaments of cells called hyphae –a mass of hyphae is called a mycelium fungi can be unicellular or multicellular –yeast is a unicellular fungus can grow in acidic, low-moisture, aerobic environments Yeast infection

111 Fungi fungal diseases –systemic mycoses: fungal infections deep inside the body that can affect tissue and organs –subcutaneious mycoses: fungal infections beneath the skin ringworm

112 Fungi fungal diseases –cutaneous mycoses: affect keratin-containing tissues such as nails, hair, skin –superficial mycoses: localize on hair shafts and surface skin cells nail fungus

113 Multicellular Parasites arthropods –joint legged animals: ticks and insects –are called vectors if they carry diseases mosquitos: malaria, yellow fever, West Nile Virus flea: plaque tick: Lymes disease Lymes Disease

114 Multicellular Parasites helminths –parasitic flatworms and roundworms –multicellular animals –some are parasitic to humans –nematodes pinworms: Enterobiasis hookworm: Hookworm Disease ascaria: Ascariasis filaria: Elephantiatis pinworm hookworm ascaria filaria

115 Ascariasis: roundworms

116 Multicellular Parasites helminths –tapeworms

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