Presentation on theme: "U.S. Foreign Policy During the Cold War:"— Presentation transcript:
1U.S. Foreign Policy During the Cold War: 1945-1980 “Spies, Lies, Heroes and Disgrace”Clicker Ch. 48!
2For 1950-1980, SWBAT: Analyze USFP Guiding Principles Describe trends in U.S. Foreign Policy (USFP)Analyze major Cold War eventsEvaluate U.S. Foreign Policy Decisions
3Guiding Questions/Principles Should the U.S. place our ideals of “freedom” and “democracy” above our national (economic, security) interests?Should the U.S. attempt to “spread” democracy throughout the world? (If so, when, where, how, and to what effect?)What should we do when our ideals and national interests don’t coincide?How should the U.S. deal with “hostile” nations?
4What should guide USFP? Only to spread ideals (ex: democracy) Mostly to spread ideals (ex: democracy)Ideals and interests equallyMostly U.S. national interests (ex: security)Only U.S. national interests (ex: security)Clicker Ch 48!
5It’s Personal!Think of relations between countries as relationships between peopleHow easy is it to influence/change behavior?The relationship leaders have with each other has a huge impact on policyIndividual goals, values, and personalityMost leaders want to stay in powerLook strong, good to own peopleWhat’s best for them vs. best for country
6Historical Trends in USFP Isolationism (1780s to 1890s)Manifest Destiny (1820s to 1890s)Internationalism (1890s to 1910s)Return to Isolationism (pre & post WWI)Dominant Internationalism (WWII to present)Cold War ( ) then ….
7Post WWII Trends Cold War Fears and Misunderstandings Global Ideological Battle/CompetitionCapitalism & Democracy vs. CommunismEnd of ColonialismNations around world gain independenceGrowth of International Trade
81940s Timeline of Major Events 1947: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan1947: USA creates CIA1947: India gains independence1948: Israel becomes a nation1948: Communists take Czechoslovakia: Berlin Blockade and Airlift1949: Communists (Mao) take over China1949: Soviets explode atomic bomb1949: NATO forms
91950s Timeline of Major Events : Korean War1954: CIA supports coups in Iran and Guatemala1954: Soviets establish KGB1954: French lose at Dien Bien Phu (Vietnam)1955: Warsaw Pact forms1956: Suez War (Israel, UK&Fr. attack Egypt)1956: Soviets crush liberation movement inHungary1957: Soviets launch Sputnik1958: US forms NASA1958: US sends marines to Lebanon (civil war)1959: Communists (Castro) take over in Cuba1959: Khrushchev visits USA
101960s Timeline of Major Events 1960: Soviets shoot down U2 spy plane1961: Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba1961: Construction of Berlin Wall1961: Kennedy forms Peace Corps1962: Cuban Missile Crisis1962: US troop buildup in Vietnam begins1963: President Kennedy assassinated1964: Senate ratifies Nuclear Test Ban Treaty1968: Soviets crush revolt in Czechoslovakia,leads to Brezhnev Doctrine: Anti-Vietnam War Protests Peak1969: Apollo 11 lands on the moon
111970s Timeline of Major Events 1972: Nixon visits China and USSR1972: Senate ratifies SALT I1973: First Oil Crisis (OPEC)1974: Nixon resigns over Watergate1975: US pulls out of Vietnam1979: Second Oil Crisis (OPEC)1979: Soviets invade Afghanistan1979: Iranians hostage crisis at U.S. Embassy1980: Ronald Reagan Elected
12Was Fear of Communism Real? YES! (but…)Soviet spies in the WestSoviet support of communism in worldCommunism and Capitalism incompatible?At the time, very hard for either side to see middle groundThe Power of FearDomestic conditions impact foreign policy
13Politicians Use “Fear” to Get Elected 1952: Eisenhower elected by labeling Truman too passive against Soviets1960: Kennedy elected by blaming Eisenhower-Nixon for Soviets lead in missiles1968 & 1972: Nixon elected by taking strong anti-communist stance1980: Reagan elected by promising to close “window of vulnerability” with USSR
14Just because you’re paranoid, doesn’t mean people aren’t watching you. Thinking QuestionTo what extent do politicians/leaders today use fear to help get elected and stay in office?Just because you’re paranoid, doesn’t mean people aren’t watching you.
15U.S and Soviet Espionage 1940s: Steve Nelson and Clarence Hiskey gave USSR info on Manhattan ProjectNathan Silvermaster mole in US govt.Soviet agent Andrei Schevchenko pressured defense workers to give high tech secretsHundreds of Soviet agents in USSibley, Katherine. Red Spies in America. University Press of Kansas
16U.S and Soviet Espionage Alger Hiss (1950)Ethel and Julius Rosenberg convicted in 1951 for sharing atomic secrets; executed 1953U2 spy flights over USSR (began 1957)Sibley, Katherine. Red Spies in America. University Press of Kansas
17U.S. and Soviet Espionage Pop Culture Reflects Tensions“Bond. James Bond” (by Ian Fleming)First Book published 1953 (Casino Royale)First Movie Dr. No (1962)Dr. No wants to destroy a U.S. moon rocket2nd Movie From Russia with Love (1963)Bond helps a Soviet corporal defect
18How are foreign policy events/issues reflected in pop culture today? Thinking QuestionHow are foreign policy events/issues reflected in pop culture today?
19How & Where was Cold War Fought? Military TechnologyArms Race and MADIn SpaceNewly Independent CountriesAid, ideas, and warKennedy’s inaugural address 1/20/61at 1 min
20Arms Race & Space Race Technology = Power Atomic Bomb Hydrogen Bomb Fear of Missile Gap (ICBMs) vs. Reality
21Arms Race & Space Race Sputnik (1957) NASA (1958) Kennedy’s promise “…because it is hard”Land on moon by end of 1960sMoon landing in 1969at 8 minutes
22How Far Did U.S. Go to Prevent the Spread of Communism? 1940s: Truman Doctrine (1947) to “contain” Communism (Kennan’s idea)1950s: John Foster Dulles’ policy of “brinkmanship” (Allen Dulles at CIA)1960s: Dean Rusk promotes “Domino Theory”
23What Does this Lead to? World Divided: First World (U.S. and W. Europe)Second World (U.S.S.R and Satellites)Third World (poor, developing countries)U.S. willing to SUPPORT ANY GOVT. as long as NOT COMMUNISTU.S. Sponsored Military DictatorsU.S. Sponsored Coups & AssassinationsShort-term and Long-term Implications?Lessons for Today?
24Newly Independent Countries Third World: Democracy vs. ???Often US did not favor repression over democracyThese areas had no established democratic institutions (govt, media)US supported anti-communist dictators in an effort to prevent communist dictatorsCoups and assassinationsStability Trade Freedom?Black, Eric. Rethinking the Cold War. Paradigm Press. Minneapolis, MN
26Iran Both Russia and Britain have ties 1921-1941 Reza Shah dictator Some reforms but harsh ruleWWII occupied by Britain, Soviets, & USA1941 Mohammad Reza Shah in powerPromises constitutional monarchy, but…1951 Nationalize oil industry (from UK)1951 Dr. Mossaddeq becomes PMVery nationalist, but not communist
27Iran US and UK Fear communist leanings 1953 CIA sponsors coup of PM Reza Shah solidifies powerShah of Iran in power ( )Corrupt dictator, but some reformsSeen as “puppet” of USIslamic fundamentalists take power (1979-present) initially promised democracy
29Guatemala 1931-1944 led by dictator (Ubico) 1944 virtually bloodless revolutionUbico flees to live in USA1945 Juan Jose Arevalo Bermej electedRejected Marxism but claimed to be a “spiritual socialist”US cuts off military aid1952 Jacobo Arbenz Guzman electedFirst peaceful, democratic transfer of power
30Guatemala Arbenz plan to redistribute land U.S. Based United Fruit Co. 2% owned 70% of landOwner paid value based on taxes1.6 million acresU.S. Based United Fruit Co.World’s biggest banana producerBiggest landowner in GuatemalaLaunches PR campaign against communists
31Guatemala 1954 CIA trains and equips force to overthrow govt. Uses propaganda and bombs capitalU.S. picked leader takes over (Castillo Armas)
32Guatemala Almost 100% of United Fruit’s land returned Peasant farmers forcibly removed1,000s jailed or to campsCastillo Armas hero in USGuatemala Civil War50,000 “leftists” killed during 1970s1977 USA cuts military aid200,000 civilians killed
331950s Lesson from Guatemala? Latin American govts. wanting independence from US were viewed with distrust, suspected of communist leaningsCountries cannot be neutral but must pick sides (US or USSR)Often play both sides!US will intervene to protect interests
35Cuba 1940s: Democratically elected govts. 1952: Coup led by Batista, US supportsCorruption in govt.; more dictatorialJuly 1953 Castro coup failsJailed (serves 3 of 15 years)After release met Che GuevaraDec Castro reenters: Civil WarUS encouraged Batista to leave
36Cuba 1959 Fidel Castro takes power April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion US recognized, but soon tried to removeCastro was nationalizing US companiesApril 1961 Bay of Pigs invasionCIA sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to invadeTotal Failure for USOct Cuban Missile Crisis
37CubaCastro is longest serving dictator in Western Hemisphere ( )Brother Raul Castro took overCastro claims 638 assassination attempts
38Vietnam French colony after WWII Wanted independence South leader Ngo Dinh DiemCorrupt, dictatorial, but not communistgeology.com/world/vietnam-map.gif
39Vietnam Defeats France at Dien Bien Phu (1954) Vietnam split at 17th parallel1963 US supports military coup of DiemIncreased instability, US troops increase
40Vietnam 1963 Kennedy considers pulling out 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident1968 Nixon elected with “secret plan” to end warBombs Cambodia illegally1970 Anti-war Protests peak1973 Most US troops pull out
41US Troops in Vietnam1961 – 2,0001963 – 16,0001964 – Gulf of Tonkin Resolution1965 – 184,0001966 – 385,0001969 – 542,0001973 – Most forces leave1975 – US evacuates embassy; remaining forces leave
42Costs of Vietnam Total deaths 58,000 300,000 wounded Cost of $150 billion570,000 draft dodgers563,000 less-than-honorable discharge1975 – Communists unite Vietnam
43Lessons of 1945-1980? Consider both Short-term and Long-term Goals National vs. Corporate interestsOur ideals and national interest can conflict – What then?Military engagement should be last resortNationalism is not Communism“Nation-building” is hard, if not impossibleDefense Sec. Gates speech (Feb. 2011)Leadership & personality matter!
44How can the US deal with “rogue” leaders/countries? Military force and/or covert operationsEconomic sanctions and tradeMore Trade = More Freedom?Moral persuasionThe Power of Social Networking!Concept of BATNA (R. Fisher & W. Ury, 1981)“Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement"Analyze the needs/values/motives of other sideWhat is likely to happen if you walk away?Are leaders doing what’s best for them or country?
45How did we do? SWBAT: Analyze USFP Guiding Principles Describe trends in U.S. Foreign Policy (USFP)Analyze major Cold War eventsEvaluate U.S. Foreign Policy Decisions