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U.S. Foreign Policy During the Cold War:

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Foreign Policy During the Cold War:"— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Foreign Policy During the Cold War: 1945-1980
“Spies, Lies, Heroes and Disgrace” Clicker Ch. 48!

2 For 1950-1980, SWBAT: Analyze USFP Guiding Principles
Describe trends in U.S. Foreign Policy (USFP) Analyze major Cold War events Evaluate U.S. Foreign Policy Decisions

3 Guiding Questions/Principles
Should the U.S. place our ideals of “freedom” and “democracy” above our national (economic, security) interests? Should the U.S. attempt to “spread” democracy throughout the world? (If so, when, where, how, and to what effect?) What should we do when our ideals and national interests don’t coincide? How should the U.S. deal with “hostile” nations?

4 What should guide USFP? Only to spread ideals (ex: democracy)
Mostly to spread ideals (ex: democracy) Ideals and interests equally Mostly U.S. national interests (ex: security) Only U.S. national interests (ex: security) Clicker Ch 48!

5 It’s Personal! Think of relations between countries as relationships between people How easy is it to influence/change behavior? The relationship leaders have with each other has a huge impact on policy Individual goals, values, and personality Most leaders want to stay in power Look strong, good to own people What’s best for them vs. best for country

6 Historical Trends in USFP
Isolationism (1780s to 1890s) Manifest Destiny (1820s to 1890s) Internationalism (1890s to 1910s) Return to Isolationism (pre & post WWI) Dominant Internationalism (WWII to present) Cold War ( ) then ….

7 Post WWII Trends Cold War Fears and Misunderstandings
Global Ideological Battle/Competition Capitalism & Democracy vs. Communism End of Colonialism Nations around world gain independence Growth of International Trade

8 1940s Timeline of Major Events
1947: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan 1947: USA creates CIA 1947: India gains independence 1948: Israel becomes a nation 1948: Communists take Czechoslovakia : Berlin Blockade and Airlift 1949: Communists (Mao) take over China 1949: Soviets explode atomic bomb 1949: NATO forms

9 1950s Timeline of Major Events
: Korean War 1954: CIA supports coups in Iran and Guatemala 1954: Soviets establish KGB 1954: French lose at Dien Bien Phu (Vietnam) 1955: Warsaw Pact forms 1956: Suez War (Israel, UK&Fr. attack Egypt) 1956: Soviets crush liberation movement in Hungary 1957: Soviets launch Sputnik 1958: US forms NASA 1958: US sends marines to Lebanon (civil war) 1959: Communists (Castro) take over in Cuba 1959: Khrushchev visits USA

10 1960s Timeline of Major Events
1960: Soviets shoot down U2 spy plane 1961: Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba 1961: Construction of Berlin Wall 1961: Kennedy forms Peace Corps 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: US troop buildup in Vietnam begins 1963: President Kennedy assassinated 1964: Senate ratifies Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1968: Soviets crush revolt in Czechoslovakia, leads to Brezhnev Doctrine : Anti-Vietnam War Protests Peak 1969: Apollo 11 lands on the moon

11 1970s Timeline of Major Events
1972: Nixon visits China and USSR 1972: Senate ratifies SALT I 1973: First Oil Crisis (OPEC) 1974: Nixon resigns over Watergate 1975: US pulls out of Vietnam 1979: Second Oil Crisis (OPEC) 1979: Soviets invade Afghanistan 1979: Iranians hostage crisis at U.S. Embassy 1980: Ronald Reagan Elected

12 Was Fear of Communism Real?
YES! (but…) Soviet spies in the West Soviet support of communism in world Communism and Capitalism incompatible? At the time, very hard for either side to see middle ground The Power of Fear Domestic conditions impact foreign policy

13 Politicians Use “Fear” to Get Elected
1952: Eisenhower elected by labeling Truman too passive against Soviets 1960: Kennedy elected by blaming Eisenhower-Nixon for Soviets lead in missiles 1968 & 1972: Nixon elected by taking strong anti-communist stance 1980: Reagan elected by promising to close “window of vulnerability” with USSR

14 Just because you’re paranoid, doesn’t mean people aren’t watching you.
Thinking Question To what extent do politicians/leaders today use fear to help get elected and stay in office? Just because you’re paranoid, doesn’t mean people aren’t watching you.

15 U.S and Soviet Espionage
1940s: Steve Nelson and Clarence Hiskey gave USSR info on Manhattan Project Nathan Silvermaster mole in US govt. Soviet agent Andrei Schevchenko pressured defense workers to give high tech secrets Hundreds of Soviet agents in US Sibley, Katherine. Red Spies in America. University Press of Kansas

16 U.S and Soviet Espionage
Alger Hiss (1950) Ethel and Julius Rosenberg convicted in 1951 for sharing atomic secrets; executed 1953 U2 spy flights over USSR (began 1957) Sibley, Katherine. Red Spies in America. University Press of Kansas

17 U.S. and Soviet Espionage
Pop Culture Reflects Tensions “Bond. James Bond” (by Ian Fleming) First Book published 1953 (Casino Royale) First Movie Dr. No (1962) Dr. No wants to destroy a U.S. moon rocket 2nd Movie From Russia with Love (1963) Bond helps a Soviet corporal defect

18 How are foreign policy events/issues reflected in pop culture today?
Thinking Question How are foreign policy events/issues reflected in pop culture today?

19 How & Where was Cold War Fought?
Military Technology Arms Race and MAD In Space Newly Independent Countries Aid, ideas, and war Kennedy’s inaugural address 1/20/61 at 1 min

20 Arms Race & Space Race Technology = Power Atomic Bomb Hydrogen Bomb
Fear of Missile Gap (ICBMs) vs. Reality

21 Arms Race & Space Race Sputnik (1957) NASA (1958)
Kennedy’s promise “…because it is hard” Land on moon by end of 1960s Moon landing in 1969 at 8 minutes

22 How Far Did U.S. Go to Prevent the Spread of Communism?
1940s: Truman Doctrine (1947) to “contain” Communism (Kennan’s idea) 1950s: John Foster Dulles’ policy of “brinkmanship” (Allen Dulles at CIA) 1960s: Dean Rusk promotes “Domino Theory”

23 What Does this Lead to? World Divided:
First World (U.S. and W. Europe) Second World (U.S.S.R and Satellites) Third World (poor, developing countries) U.S. willing to SUPPORT ANY GOVT. as long as NOT COMMUNIST U.S. Sponsored Military Dictators U.S. Sponsored Coups & Assassinations Short-term and Long-term Implications? Lessons for Today?

24 Newly Independent Countries
Third World: Democracy vs. ??? Often US did not favor repression over democracy These areas had no established democratic institutions (govt, media) US supported anti-communist dictators in an effort to prevent communist dictators Coups and assassinations Stability  Trade  Freedom? Black, Eric. Rethinking the Cold War. Paradigm Press. Minneapolis, MN

25 Iran

26 Iran Both Russia and Britain have ties 1921-1941 Reza Shah dictator
Some reforms but harsh rule WWII occupied by Britain, Soviets, & USA 1941 Mohammad Reza Shah in power Promises constitutional monarchy, but… 1951 Nationalize oil industry (from UK) 1951 Dr. Mossaddeq becomes PM Very nationalist, but not communist

27 Iran US and UK Fear communist leanings 1953 CIA sponsors coup of PM
Reza Shah solidifies power Shah of Iran in power ( ) Corrupt dictator, but some reforms Seen as “puppet” of US Islamic fundamentalists take power (1979-present) initially promised democracy

28 Guatemala

29 Guatemala 1931-1944 led by dictator (Ubico)
1944 virtually bloodless revolution Ubico flees to live in USA 1945 Juan Jose Arevalo Bermej elected Rejected Marxism but claimed to be a “spiritual socialist” US cuts off military aid 1952 Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected First peaceful, democratic transfer of power

30 Guatemala Arbenz plan to redistribute land U.S. Based United Fruit Co.
2% owned 70% of land Owner paid value based on taxes 1.6 million acres U.S. Based United Fruit Co. World’s biggest banana producer Biggest landowner in Guatemala Launches PR campaign against communists

31 Guatemala 1954 CIA trains and equips force to overthrow govt.
Uses propaganda and bombs capital U.S. picked leader takes over (Castillo Armas)

32 Guatemala Almost 100% of United Fruit’s land returned
Peasant farmers forcibly removed 1,000s jailed or to camps Castillo Armas hero in US Guatemala Civil War 50,000 “leftists” killed during 1970s 1977 USA cuts military aid 200,000 civilians killed

33 1950s Lesson from Guatemala?
Latin American govts. wanting independence from US were viewed with distrust, suspected of communist leanings Countries cannot be neutral but must pick sides (US or USSR) Often play both sides! US will intervene to protect interests

34 Cuba

35 Cuba 1940s: Democratically elected govts.
1952: Coup led by Batista, US supports Corruption in govt.; more dictatorial July 1953 Castro coup fails Jailed (serves 3 of 15 years) After release met Che Guevara Dec Castro reenters: Civil War US encouraged Batista to leave

36 Cuba 1959 Fidel Castro takes power April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion
US recognized, but soon tried to remove Castro was nationalizing US companies April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion CIA sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Total Failure for US Oct Cuban Missile Crisis

37 Cuba Castro is longest serving dictator in Western Hemisphere ( ) Brother Raul Castro took over Castro claims 638 assassination attempts

38 Vietnam French colony after WWII Wanted independence
South leader Ngo Dinh Diem Corrupt, dictatorial, but not communist

39 Vietnam Defeats France at Dien Bien Phu (1954)
Vietnam split at 17th parallel 1963 US supports military coup of Diem Increased instability, US troops increase

40 Vietnam 1963 Kennedy considers pulling out
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1968 Nixon elected with “secret plan” to end war Bombs Cambodia illegally 1970 Anti-war Protests peak 1973 Most US troops pull out

41 US Troops in Vietnam 1961 – 2,000 1963 – 16,000 1964 – Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1965 – 184,000 1966 – 385,000 1969 – 542,000 1973 – Most forces leave 1975 – US evacuates embassy; remaining forces leave

42 Costs of Vietnam Total deaths 58,000 300,000 wounded
Cost of $150 billion 570,000 draft dodgers 563,000 less-than-honorable discharge 1975 – Communists unite Vietnam

43 Lessons of 1945-1980? Consider both Short-term and Long-term Goals
National vs. Corporate interests Our ideals and national interest can conflict – What then? Military engagement should be last resort Nationalism is not Communism “Nation-building” is hard, if not impossible Defense Sec. Gates speech (Feb. 2011) Leadership & personality matter!

44 How can the US deal with “rogue” leaders/countries?
Military force and/or covert operations Economic sanctions and trade More Trade = More Freedom? Moral persuasion The Power of Social Networking! Concept of BATNA (R. Fisher & W. Ury, 1981) “Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement" Analyze the needs/values/motives of other side What is likely to happen if you walk away? Are leaders doing what’s best for them or country?

45 How did we do? SWBAT: Analyze USFP Guiding Principles
Describe trends in U.S. Foreign Policy (USFP) Analyze major Cold War events Evaluate U.S. Foreign Policy Decisions

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